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Lattice Energy LLC - Excessive reliance on renewable energy sources can threaten reliability of electricity grids - April 19 2017

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Excessive reliance on renewable energy sources can threaten reliability of electricity grids.

Week of January 24, 2017 - that was when the lights nearly went out in Germany because bad weather slashed wind & solar power. Last available reserve fossil power plant was brought online to prevent a catastrophic power blackout.

Weather issues in Germany during Dec. 2016 and Jan. 2017 have revealed very serious weaknesses in long-term Energiewende plan. For the foreseeable future, adequate baseload and dispatchable power generation capacity will be required to insure 99+ % grid availability and robust stability despite episodic weather problems.

100% renewable energy sources + enormous grid storage capacity would be too expensive and cause unreliability; are not a future solution.

Need to determine the optimal mix of wind & solar, baseload and dispatchable power generation capacity, and grid electrical storage capacity that result in lowest-possible overall system cost consistent with reliable grids having 99+% uptime and great long-term stability.

Radiation-free ultralow energy neutron reactions (LENRs) could potentially provide CO2-free future distributed alternative power generation technology vs. building many more fission and/or fossil fueled power plants.

Published in: Technology
  • Given that both wind and solar are subject to 'night-time', inclement weather, and cloudy days, the emergence of storage makes all of these articles moot, as even public utilities (transmission lines) have power surges that cause outages - storage is already being used to stabilize surges to eliminate outages. The National Renewable Energy Lab has stated that there is literally hundreds of times more solar energy hits the Earth everyday than even humans can devour, as of course that (extra) sunlight powers the entire global ecosystem via photosynthesis, while fossil fuel takes an average of 70,000,000 years to replace what is used today. That would be the major difference between 'renewables' and that now underused word: depletables. Taking 70,000,000 years to replace a resource that poisons life while being depleted is not a very good strategy moving forward, even as we now recognize the fallacy of its toxicity over the past 100 + years. . . Mr. Larsen is not alone in being mortified at the prospect of losing evermore ratepayers, but as Henry Ford said, on being asked if he had done market research on the Model A and the assembly line, said "Heavens No !! - if I did, they'd say they only want faster horses"
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Lattice Energy LLC - Excessive reliance on renewable energy sources can threaten reliability of electricity grids - April 19 2017

  1. 1. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 1 Contact: 1-312-861-0115 Chicago, Illinois USA lewisglarsen@gmail.com Lewis Larsen President and CEO April 19, 2017 April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 1 Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing LENRs as safe source of radiation-free nuclear energy Week of January 24, 2017 - that was when the lights nearly went out in Germany because bad weather slashed wind & solar power Last available reserve fossil power plant was brought online to prevent a catastrophic power blackout
  2. 2. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 2 Credit: Getty images Ongoing climate change disrupts normal weather patterns If you believe that wind and solar can someday 100% replace sources of baseload and dispatchable power generation then think again, because they simply can’t --- ever Extended periods of cloudy skies can be correlated with low or no wind April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 2
  3. 3. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 3 ✓ Weather issues in Germany during Dec. 2016 and Jan. 2017 have revealed very serious weaknesses in long-term Energiewende plan ✓ For the foreseeable future, adequate baseload and dispatchable power generation capacity will be required to insure 99+ % grid availability and robust stability despite episodic weather problems ✓ 100% renewable energy sources + enormous grid storage capacity would be too expensive and cause unreliability; not a future solution ✓ Need to determine the optimal mix of wind & solar, baseload and dispatchable power generation capacity, and grid electrical storage capacity that results in lowest-possible overall system cost consistent with reliable grids having 99+% uptime and great long-term stability ✓ Radiation-free ultralow energy neutron reactions (LENRs) could potentially provide CO2-free future distributed alternative power generation technology vs. more fission and/or fossil fueled plants Nuclear and/or fossil power are essential for energy security Baseload and dispatchable power plants insure reliable operation of grids Excessive % of intermittent renewable energy sources can reduce grid reliability
  4. 4. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 4 Energiewende is German word for “energy transition” Shift German energy system from fossil fuels and fission to renewables All coal-fired & fission power plants will close by 2040; 60% renewables by 2050 https://www.agora-energiewende.de/en/ ✓ Ambitious program aims to shift into renewable energy sources in Germany’s electricity sector ✓ Heavy emphasis on solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power for renewable energy technologies ✓ Support for program was legislated back in 2010 ✓ After 2011 disaster with Fukushima reactors in Japan, German government eliminated fission as bridging technology in path to 80+% renewables ✓ Shut-down 9 remaining fission reactors by 2022; then phase-out all coal powered plants by 2040 ✓ Ultimate goal is 60% of electricity production via renewables by 2050 and, in parallel, reduce total greenhouse gas emissions from electricity sector by 80 - 95% relative to earlier levels back in 1990
  5. 5. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 5 March 2, 2016: Lattice published PowerPoint shown below Wind & solar variability stops 100% replacement of fossil and/or nuclear https://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-climate-change-can-reduce-wind-and-solar-power-output-also-need-dispatchable-generation-march-2-2016
  6. 6. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 6 Dec. 2016: bad weather slashed German renewable power Two large shortfalls in wind & solar generation lasted 50 and 100 hours Deficit covered by nuclear baseload and fossil-fueled dispatchable power sources Renewablesshortfall Renewablesshortfall “Such weather events can persist for several days. The first lull lasted about 100 hours, the second about 50 hours.” Two large shortfalls in renewables power generation occurred in just one month ~65 GW ~60 GW
  7. 7. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 7 “The Great Smog of 1952. Sorry, 2017” Credit: Toby Melville/Reuters Jan. 2017: days of fog and no wind caused London smog Weather events like this reduce both solar and wind power generation “A look at last week’s pollution provides some clues – other factors were involved in London’s atmospheric woes this winter. One couldn’t be more simple: the weather. ‘Meteorological conditions have been stagnant for several weeks,’ said Martyn Chipperfield, professor of atmospheric chemistry at Leeds University. ‘There has been a stable, blocking anticyclone resting over Britain and that has trapped air over the country. There has been nothing to blow the pollution away. Worse, any winds that we have had have come from the south east, from Europe where the air is already polluted. Our prevailing winds usually blow in from the Atlantic bringing in fairly fresh air. Instead, all we have had is the odd puff of already polluted air’.” The Guardian on January 29, 2017 https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jan/29/pollution-air-quality-london-environment London’s smog and fog was part of same weather system that slashed Germany’s wind & solar power generation during the week of Jan. 24, 2017 April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 7 Jan. 24 Jan. 25
  8. 8. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 8 Week of Jan. 16 - 22, 2017: Europe was becalmed for 7 days “On 16th January the wind died completely across the UK and much of Europe” http://euanmearns.com/uk-grid-january-2017-and-the-perfect-storm/ “UK grid January 2017 and The Perfect Storm” By Euan Mearns in Energy Matters on March 13, 2017 “Figure 1. UK wind generation, January 2017. On the 16 of January the wind died completely for a week.” “Despite having 25 GW of wind and solar installed (50% of UK peak demand), these provided only 4% of UK supply during the windless week commencing 16th January 2017.”
  9. 9. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 9 Jan. 2017: dispatchable power saved the day for the U.K. “UK can no longer afford to see more of its large thermal stations close” http://euanmearns.com/uk-grid-january-2017-and-the-perfect-storm/ “UK grid January 2017 and The Perfect Storm” By Euan Mearns in Energy Matters on March 13, 2017 “Concern about the integrity of the UK grid is borne out of the closure of 17.7 GW of coal fired power between 2004 and 2016 and its replacement with 14.4 GW of wind and 10.7 GW of solar. But the UK still has about 49 GW of dispatchable capacity left – nuclear, ccgt, coal, biomass, and hydro – that was enough to see us comfortably through January 2017.” “One lesson from this is that the UK carried very large surplus generating capacity before the closures began and there was no doubt a cost associated with that. Since the closures, spare capacity is now thin and we got through January with comfort only because all CCGT and coal stations were operational which is not always the case … It seems to be clear that the UK can no longer afford to see more of its large thermal stations close.”
  10. 10. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 10 Jan. 24, 2017: German grid struggled with demand & stability Same type of weather problems for renewables occurred again in January Rheinische Post: last reserve power plant was brought online to avert a blackout Power Generation and Demand, Germany January 15 - 31, 2017 ~ 70 GW shortfall on January 24 Renewablesshortfall January 24 http://www.rp-online.de/wirtschaft/unternehmen/deutsches-stromnetz-schrammt-am-blackout-vorbei-aid-1.6636489 Original main title of news story: “Deutsches Stromnetz schrammt am Blackout vorbei” Composite translation of text: “German electricity network barely avoids a blackout” Note: when this screenshot was taken, online app was malfunctioning in that calendar dates shown on lower x-axis do not display properly
  11. 11. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 11 Period of little sun & wind was from mid-Jan to mid-Feb ~ 50 GW shortfall of renewables vs. total demand lasted about a month Cost of battery storage to cover > 50 GW shortfall for 1 month would be very high Power Generation and Demand, Germany January 2 - February 25, 2017 ~ 50 GW shortfall Renewables shortfall 100% renewable energy sources + enormous grid storage capacity would be far too expensive and cause unreliability; not really a viable future solution January 24
  12. 12. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 12 Feb. 10, 2017: Lattice published PowerPoint shown below Weather events in Dec. 2016 revealed serious weakness in Energiewende http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-adequate-reasonably-priced-dispatchable-power-generation-critical-to-national-energy-security-feb-10-2017
  13. 13. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 13 Feb. 27, 2017: RP story revealed existence of near-blackout Rheinische Post news: “… renewables could not even offer five percent” Lights nearly went out in Germany when bad weather slashed solar & wind power http://www.rp-online.de/wirtschaft/unternehmen/deutsches-stromnetz-schrammt-am-blackout-vorbei-aid-1.6636489 “Too little wind and sun - German electricity network barely avoids a blackout” By C. Longin and M. Plück in Rheinische Post on February 27, 2017 According to Michael Vassiliadis, head of IG Bergbauchemie Energie, the situation on 24 January was critical: on that day, energy companies and network operators could only have been able to maintain the electricity supply with great difficulty, the trade unionist told journalists at an event in Haltern am See. Despite the problems, the Germans demanded more than 80 gigawatts of power, as on other days. "The renewables could not even offer five percent," said Vassiliadis. Note: Michael Vassiliadis is Chairman of Industriegewerkschaft Bergbau, Chemie, Energie - IG BCE (large German trade union HQ in Hannover) Translation of original German to English by Google; text below is directly quoted from news article
  14. 14. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 14 Feb. 27, 2017: RP story revealed existence of near-blackout No blackout occurred because FNA “took the last reserve power plant” http://www.rp-online.de/wirtschaft/unternehmen/deutsches-stromnetz-schrammt-am-blackout-vorbei-aid-1.6636489 “Too little wind and sun - German electricity network barely avoids a blackout” By C. Longin and M. Plück in Rheinische Post on February 27, 2017 Also, importing electricity was not an option. At that time, France had enormous difficulties in meeting the needs of the cold wave itself. Because many French heat with electricity. As early as the middle of January, the government had launched an anti-cold plan in Paris and used crises in the affected prefectures. A blackout escaped the French only because the inspection of several fission reactors was postponed. France had enough to do with herself. According to Vassiliadis, the fact that a blackout did not take place there was only because the German energy suppliers "also took the last reserve power plant". "Coal, gas and nuclear power kept the country almost in the first place under the electric current." On request, the Federal Network Agency [FNA] did not comment on the network overload. Translation of original German to English by Google; text below is directly quoted from news article
  15. 15. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 15 “DEEP DECARBONIZATION OF THE ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR INSIGHTS FROM RECENT LITERATURE” JESSE D. JENKINS AND SAMUEL THERNSTROM MARCH 2017 March 2017: Jenkins & Thernstrom published review paper “Low-Carbon dispatchable baseload resources are indispensable” http://innovationreform.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/EIRP-Deep-Decarb-Lit-Review-Jenkins-Thernstrom-March-2017.pdf Quoting from their conclusions; this is a significant must-read paper: “There is strong agreement in the recent literature that deep decarbonization --- reaching zero or near-zero CO2 emissions --- is best achieved by harnessing a diverse portfolio of low-Carbon resources.” “In particular, low-Carbon dispatchable baseload resources such as nuclear, biomass, hydropower, or CCS, are an indispensable part of any least-cost pathway to deep decarbonization. Recent literature indicates that removing this dispatchable base from the generation portfolio, relying instead on variable renewable energy resources such as wind and solar, would significantly increase the cost and technical challenge of decarbonizing power systems.” “In addition, reaching zero emissions requires a significantly different capacity mix than achieving comparatively more modest goals.”
  16. 16. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 16 “ A BRAVE NEW WORLD: DEEP DECARBONIZATION OF ELECTRICITY GRIDS” SPECIAL EDITION: ANNUAL ENERGY PAPER October 19, 2015 Oct. 2015: J.P. Morgan shows “balanced” Energiewende plan Alter plan to: “nuclear to meet 35% of demand [by reopening] idle plants” https://www.jpmorgan.com/jpmpdf/1320691236591.pdf Quoting text and chart directly from page #9 of J.P. Morgan paper: “Is there a cheaper way to do it? A balanced system, with nuclear power” “Nuclear Power. We analyze a balanced system as well: Germany maintains the wind, solar, hydro and biomass it now has; relies on nuclear to meet 35% of demand by turning back on some of its idle plants; and uses a 50/50 natural gas/coal mix for the remainder. Balanced results are shown in the last row, along with no-storage and storage scenarios for Energiewende, and the current system … The balanced system we analyzed achieves cost and CO2 reductions at a much lower cost per metric ton than Energiewende … but only if EIA nuclear cost projections are accurate.”
  17. 17. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 17 Baseload and dispatchable generation will always be needed Nuclear power could be key component in long-term future of energy ✓ Given the inherent variability in power output of renewable CO2-free energy sources, adequate amounts of baseload and dispatchable power generation capacity are an unavoidable necessity and key asset for maintaining modern high-availability electricity grids that provide customers with 99+ % uptime. This key requirement would continue to exist even if --- sometime in the near future --- distributed wind and/or solar renewables became substantially less expensive sources than baseload nuclear fission or dispatchable fossil-fueled power plants ✓ From a societal risk management perspective, maintaining adequate baseload and dispatchable generation capacity would be a cost-effective investment that could also help prevent an unimaginable economic catastrophe in unlikely event of a rare “Black Swan” volcanic dust eruption that could sharply reduce both sunlight and wind speeds on Earth’s surface for months or even several years ✓ Having adequate baseload and dispatchable generation capacity is thus an invaluable asset in maintaining 99+% reliable electricity grids and national energy security. It would also be prudent to reduce future CO2 emissions from power generation. This will eventually happen anyway because at current rates of consumption, BP estimates that fossil fuels will be exhausted in < 114 years ✓ Nuclear plants can provide baseload and dispatchable power and do not emit CO2. Like it or not, major expansion of nuclear power generation is probably inevitable and could be important component in long-term future of power grids
  18. 18. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 18 Reliable electric grids require baseload & dispatchable power Need some % of grid power generation not subject to vagaries of Nature Grids with 100% renewables not reliable - even with grid-scale flow batteries ✓ Wind and solar power generation technologies, while decreasing greatly in cost, are inherently intermittent sources of thermal and/or electrical power. Local wind speeds and intensity of sunlight can vary quite dramatically intra-day or from week to week. Importantly, presently ongoing climate change, whatever its cause may be, is making future weather patterns vastly more variable than before, not less ✓ Many naively believe that massive deployment of giant grid-scale flow batteries could bridge supply-demand gap when weather reduces electricity produced by renewable energy sources. Well, that strategy might work for a few hours or a day, but certainly not for days, weeks, or even months. Installing enough grid storage capacity to insure electricity demand could be fully supplied for long time periods with little curtailment would be incredibly expensive and grossly uneconomic vs. less costly alternative grids that also utilize some % of nuclear and/or fossil power ✓ What would be desirable is new type of energy-dense, green power generation technology that is CO2-free, dispatchable, very scalable from kilowatts to megawatt -scale baseload systems, and utilizes manufacturing technologies that can exploit the experience curve effect to further reduce price of electricity for consumers ✓ LENR technology being developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Toyota, Nissan, and Lattice Energy could provide new alternative in future power generation mix
  19. 19. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 19 Body politics in Germany and Japan reject fission power What if there was ‘green’ type of nuclear power vastly safer than fission? April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 19 Revolutionary ultralow energy neutron reactions (LENRs) Radiation-free LENRs transmute stable elements to other stable elements
  20. 20. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 20 Image credit: co-author Domenico Pacifici From: “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing” J. Feng et al., Nano Letters pp. 602 - 609 (2012) Laura 13 Revolutionary ultralow energy neutron reactions (LENRs) Radiation-free LENRs transmute stable elements to other stable elements Fission and fusion Safe green LENRsEvolution of nuclear technology April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 20
  21. 21. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 21 Entangled particles - Credit: Getty Images LENRs are only energy technology on foreseeable horizon that could potentially enable future deep decarbonization of both electric power generation and transportation sectors at reasonable total economic $ cost Future deep decarbonization of both the electric power generation and transportation sectors Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Toyota, and Nissan Motors now conducting R&D programs and developing LENRs to someday replace the internal combustion engine April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 21
  22. 22. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 22 Comparison of LENRs to fission and fusion Fission, fusion, and LENRs all involve controlled release of nuclear binding energy (heat) for power generation: no CO2 emissions; scale of energy release is MeVs (nuclear regime) > 1,000,000x energy density of chemical energy power sources Heavy-element fission: involves shattering heavy nuclei to release stored nuclear binding energy; requires massive shielding and containment structures to handle radiation; major radioactive waste clean-up issues and costs; limited sources of fuel: today, almost entirely Uranium; Thorium-based fuel cycles now under development; heavy element U-235 (fissile isotope fuel) + neutrons  complex array of lower-mass fission products (some are very long-lived radioisotopes) + energetic gamma radiation + energetic neutron radiation + heat Fusion of light nuclei: involves smashing light nuclei together to release stored nuclear binding energy; present multi-billion $ development efforts (e.g., ITER, NIF, other Tokamaks) focusing mainly on D+T fusion reaction; requires massive shielding/containment structures to handle 14 MeV neutron radiation; minor radioactive waste clean-up $ costs vs. fission Two key sources of fuel: Deuterium and Tritium (both are heavy isotopes of Hydrogen) Most likely to be developed commercial fusion reaction involves the following: D + T  He-4 (helium) + neutron + heat (total energy yield 17.6 MeV; ~14.1 MeV in neutron) distinguishing feature is neutron production via electroweak reaction; neutron capture on fuel + gamma conversion to IR + decays [β- , α] releases nuclear binding energy; early-stage technology; no emission of energetic neutron or gamma radiation and no long-lived radioactive waste products; LENR systems would not require massive, expensive radiation shielding or containment structures  much lower $$$ cost; many possible fuels --- any element/isotope that can capture LENR neutrons; involves neutron-catalyzed transmutation of fuels into heavier stable elements; process creates heat Ultralow energy neutron reactions (LENRs): Fusion of light nuclei: Heavy element fission:
  23. 23. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 23 Key conclusion of theoretical paper published in Pramana Journal is peer-reviewed publication of Indian Academy of Sciences “A primer for electro-weak induced low energy nuclear reactions” “The analysis presented in this paper leads us to conclude that realistic possibilities exist for designing LENR devices capable of producing ‘green energy’, that is, production of excess heat at low cost without lethal nuclear waste, dangerous γ-rays or unwanted neutrons. The necessary tools and the essential theoretical know- how to manufacture such devices appear to be well within the reach of the technology available now. Vigorous efforts must now be made to develop such devices whose functionality requires all three interactions of the Standard Model acting in concert.”
  24. 24. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 24 Publications about the Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs Index provides comprehensive guide to available online information “Ultra low momentum neutron catalyzed nuclear reactions on metallic hydride surfaces” A. Widom and L. Larsen (author’s copy) European Physical Journal C - Particles and Fields 46 pp. 107 - 112 (2006) http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/widom-and-larsen-ulm-neutron- catalyzed-lenrs-on-metallic-hydride-surfacesepjc-march-2006 “A primer for electro-weak induced low energy nuclear reactions” Y. Srivastava, A. Widom, and L. Larsen (author’s copy) Pramana - Journal of Physics 75 pp. 617 - 637 (2010) http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/srivastava-widom-and-larsenprimer-for- electroweak-induced-low-energy-nuclear-reactionspramana-oct-2010 “Theoretical Standard Model rates of proton to neutron conversions near metallic hydride surfaces” A. Widom and L. Larsen Cornell physics preprint arXiv:nucl-th/0608059v2 12 pages (2007) http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0608059v2.pdf “Index to key concepts and documents” all hyperlinks in document are live v. #21 updated and revised through Sept. 7, 2015 L. Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC, May 28, 2013 [133 slides] download is enabled http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-hyperlinked-index-to- documents-re-widomlarsen-theory-and-lenrs-september-7-2015
  25. 25. April 19, 2017 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2017 All rights reserved 25 Recent books about LENRs and the Widom-Larsen theory Three volumes in series titled “Explorations in Nuclear Research” Provides overview of entire field at level of Scientific American article “Fusion Fiasco” (Volume 2) Steven B. Krivit Pacific Oaks Press, San Rafael, CA, November 11, 2016 (531 pages) Paperback US$16.00; hardcover US$48.00; Kindle US$3.99 “Lost History” (Volume 3) Steven B. Krivit Pacific Oaks Press, San Rafael, CA, November 11, 2016 (380 pages) Paperback US$16.00; hardcover US$48.00; Kindle US$3.99 PowerPoint synopsis of book with additional commentary: https://www.amazon.com/dp/0996886419 https://www.amazon.com/dp/0996886451 “Hacking the Atom” (Volume 1) Steven B. Krivit Pacific Oaks Press, San Rafael, CA, September 11, 2016 (484 pages) Paperback US$16.00; hardcover US$48.00; Kindle US$3.99 https://www.amazon.com/dp/0976054523 http://tinyurl.com/z6fsbn2

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