Skeletal System Lecture

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Skeletal System Lecture

  1. 1. PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Chapter 8 Joints of the Skeletal System <ul><li>Articulations </li></ul><ul><li>Functional junctions between bones </li></ul><ul><li>Bind parts of skeletal system together </li></ul><ul><li>Make bone growth possible </li></ul><ul><li>Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction </li></ul>
  3. 3. Classification of Joints <ul><li>Fibrous Joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dense connective tissues connect bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between bones in close contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous Joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synovial Joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow free movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>synarthrotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>immovable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>amphiarthrotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slightly movable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>diarthrotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>freely movable </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Fibrous Joints <ul><li>3 Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syndesmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gomphosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syndesmosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a sheet or bundle of fibrous tissue connects bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amphiarthrotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lies between tibia and fibula </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Fibrous Joints <ul><li>Suture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between flat bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synarthrotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thin layer of connective tissue connects bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gomphosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cone-shaped bony process in a socket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tooth in jawbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synarthrotic </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cartilaginous Joints <ul><li>2 Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchondrosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synchondrosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>epiphyseal plate (temporary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between manubrium and first rib </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synarthrotic </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cartilaginous Joints <ul><li>Symphysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pad of fibrocartilage between bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pubis symphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amphiarthrotic </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Synovial Joints <ul><li>diarthrotic </li></ul><ul><li>joint cavity </li></ul><ul><li>synovial fluid </li></ul><ul><li>joint capsule </li></ul><ul><li>synovial membrane </li></ul><ul><li>bursae </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Synovial Joints <ul><li>Ball-and-Socket Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shoulder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condyloid Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between metacarpals and phalanges </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Synovial Joints <ul><li>Gliding Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between carpals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between tarsals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hinge Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elbow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between phalanges </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Synovial Joints <ul><li>Pivot Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between proximal ends of radius and ulna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saddle Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between carpal and metacarpal of thumb </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Joint Movements <ul><li>abduction/adduction </li></ul><ul><li>dorsiflexion/plantarflexion </li></ul><ul><li>flexion/extension/hyperextension </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Joint Movements <ul><li>rotation/circumduction </li></ul><ul><li>supination/pronation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Joint Movements <ul><li>eversion/inversion </li></ul><ul><li>protraction/retraction </li></ul><ul><li>elevation/depression </li></ul>
  15. 15. Shoulder Joint <ul><li>ball-and-socket </li></ul><ul><li>head of humerus </li></ul><ul><li>glenoid cavity of scapula </li></ul><ul><li>loose joint capsule </li></ul><ul><li>bursae </li></ul><ul><li>ligaments prevent displacement </li></ul><ul><li>very wide range of movement </li></ul>
  16. 16. Shoulder Joint
  17. 17. Elbow Joint <ul><li>hinge joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trochlea of humerus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trochlear notch of ulna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>gliding joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capitulum of humerus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>head of radius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>flexion and extension </li></ul><ul><li>many reinforcing ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>stable joint </li></ul>
  18. 18. Elbow Joint
  19. 19. Hip Joint <ul><li>ball-and-socket joint </li></ul><ul><li>head of femur </li></ul><ul><li>acetabulum of coxa </li></ul><ul><li>heavy joint capsule </li></ul><ul><li>many reinforcing ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>less freedom of movement than shoulder joint </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hip Joint
  21. 21. Knee Joint <ul><li>largest joint </li></ul><ul><li>most complex </li></ul><ul><li>medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur </li></ul><ul><li>medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia </li></ul><ul><li>femur articulates anteriorly with patella </li></ul><ul><li>modified hinge joint </li></ul><ul><li>flexion/extension/little rotation </li></ul><ul><li>strengthened by many ligaments and tendons </li></ul><ul><li>menisci separate femur and tibia </li></ul><ul><li>bursae </li></ul>
  22. 22. Knee Joint
  23. 23. Life-Span Changes <ul><li>Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous joints first to change; can strengthen over a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in symphysis joints of vertebral column diminish flexibility and decrease height </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial joints lose elasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Disuse hampers the blood supply </li></ul><ul><li>Activity and exercise can keep joints functional longer </li></ul>
  24. 24. Clinical Application Joint Disorders <ul><li>Sprains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>damage to cartilage, ligaments, or tendons associated with joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forceful twisting of joint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bursitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inflammation of a bursa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overuse of a joint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inflamed, swollen, painful joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid Arthritis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gout </li></ul></ul></ul>

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