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Respiration Lecture

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Respiration Lecture

  1. 1. What is Respiration ? <ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the respiratory system? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is respiration? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the structural features? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are their functions? </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Respiration is: <ul><li>IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE BODY TAKES IN AND USES O 2 AND REMOVES CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIRES- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation by the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inspiration and expiration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas exchange across alveolar membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>diffusion, Fick’s law </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport of gases by blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>haemoglobin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uptake of O 2 and release of CO 2 by tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 7. Other Functions of the Respiratory System <ul><li>BEHAVIORAL -talking, laughing, singing, reading </li></ul><ul><li>DEFENSE - humidification, particle expulsion (coughing, sneezing), particle trapping (clots), immunoglobulins from tonsils and adenoids, a-1 antitrypsin, lysozyme, interferon, complement system </li></ul><ul><li>SECRETIONS - mucus (goblet cells, mucus glands) </li></ul>
  4. 8. Other Functions: cont <ul><li>METABOLIC - forms angiotensin II, prostacyclin, bradykinin, serotonin and histamine </li></ul><ul><li>ACID - BASE BALANCE- changes in ventilation ;e.g., acute acidosis of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>MISCELLANAEOUS - lose heat and water, liquid reservoir for blood,force generation for lifting, vomiting, defaecation and childbirth </li></ul>
  5. 9. Which of the following are not a function of the Respiratory System: 1. Speech 2. Gas exchange 3. Metabolism 4. Structural support for the heart 5. Acid-base balance QUIZ Question
  6. 12. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  7. 13. Jeffery Movie
  8. 14. Fishman A, Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, 3 rd ed. 1998, McGraw-Hill, p. 23.
  9. 20. Conducting Airways <ul><li>Includes: trachea --> terminal bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea --> right and left mainstem bronchi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right mainstem vulnerable to foreign particles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mainstem bronchi -->lobar bronchi. </li></ul><ul><li>Dichotomous branching: ~16 generations of airways </li></ul><ul><li>Convective Flow </li></ul>
  10. 22. Bronchoscopy
  11. 29. Airway Branching Murray, et al. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine 3 rd ed. Saunders 2000, p.56.
  12. 30. A = Terminal + Lobule Bronchiole 3-5 ACINI Functional Respiratory Bronchiole Alveolar Duct Alveolar Sac Alveolus
  13. 35. <ul><li>Quiz Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following is not a function </li></ul><ul><li> of the conducting airways? </li></ul><ul><li>Humidifying the inspirated air </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusting the air to body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>3. Exchange of CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>4. Section of mucus </li></ul>
  14. 37. Transitional & Respiratory Zones. <ul><li>Final generations of airway </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory Bronchioles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar Ducts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffusive air movement as opposed to Convective air movement </li></ul><ul><li>Interface between inspired air and blood </li></ul>
  15. 44. Alveoli 1 and 8 million alveolar ducts 300 million alveoli (diameter 70-300  m) Total alveolar surface area ~ 70 m 2 Alveolar membrane thickness < 1  m.
  16. 46. Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 24.
  17. 47. NORMAL
  18. 48. EMPHYSEMA
  19. 50. Quiz Question: Arrange the following in order so that oxygen can get to the blood - respiratory bronchioles - trachea - alveolus - glottis - alveolar ducts - nose
  20. 51. Quiz Question: Arrange the following in order so that oxygen can get to the blood 1) nose 2) glottis 3) trachea 4) respiratory bronchioles 5) alveolar ducts 6) alveolus
  21. 52. Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 29.
  22. 54. Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 30.
  23. 58. Blood Vessels of the Lung <ul><li>Pulmonary Artery: </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxygenated (venous) cardiac output. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extremely dense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>underground parking garage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Veins: </li></ul><ul><li> Oxygenated (arterial) cardiac output. </li></ul>
  24. 60. Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 28.
  25. 61. Bronchiole Alveoli Pulm. artery Pulm. vein
  26. 64. Alveolar-Capillary Membrane Murray, et al. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine 3 rd ed. Saunders 2000, p.16.

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