Muscular System Overview

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Muscular System Overview

  1. 1. Anatomy & Physiology I Unit 8: Muscular System Review
  2. 2. Did you know that ? - more than 50% of body weight is muscle !
  3. 3. Three types of muscle Skeletal Cardiac Smooth
  4. 4. Classification of muscle Skeletal Cardiac Smooth Note: Control, Location and Structure Voluntary Involuntary Limbs Heart Viscera Striated Non-striated
  5. 5. Skeletal muscle <ul><li>Large muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain posture </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Move jointed bones </li></ul><ul><li>Found in antagonistic pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Joined to bones by tendons </li></ul>
  6. 6. Structure of skeletal muscle <ul><li>Each cell (fibre) is long and cylindrical </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle fibres are multi-nucleated </li></ul><ul><li>Typically 50-60mm in diameter, and up to 10cm long </li></ul><ul><li>The contractile elements of skeletal muscle cells are myofibrils </li></ul>
  7. 7. Skeletal muscle - Summary <ul><li>Voluntary movement of skeletal parts </li></ul><ul><li>Spans joints and attached to skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-nucleated, striated, cylindrical fibres </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cardiac muscle <ul><li>Main muscle of heart </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping mass of heart </li></ul><ul><li>Critical in humans </li></ul><ul><li>Heart muscle cells behave as one unit </li></ul><ul><li>Heart always contracts to it’s full extent </li></ul>
  9. 9. Structure of cardiac muscle <ul><li>Cardiac muscle cells (fibres) are short, branched and interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are striated & multi-nucleated </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent cardiac cells joined via electrical synapses (gap junctions) </li></ul><ul><li>These gap junctions appear as dark lines when viewed under LM, and are called intercalated discs </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cardiac muscle - Summary <ul><li>Found in the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary rhythmic contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Branched, striated fibre with single nucleus and intercalated discs </li></ul>
  11. 11. Smooth muscle <ul><li>Lines walls of viscera </li></ul><ul><li>Found in longitudinal or circular arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate contraction of circular & longitudinal muscle in the intestine leads to peristalsis </li></ul>
  12. 12. Structure of smooth muscle <ul><li>Spindle shaped uni-nucleated cells </li></ul><ul><li>Striations not observed </li></ul><ul><li>Actin and myosin filaments are present </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio of thin-to-thick filaments is 16:1 (in striated muscle this is 2:1) </li></ul><ul><li>Myosin filaments are attached to dense bodies at the end of each cell </li></ul>
  13. 13. Smooth muscle - Summary <ul><li>Found in walls of hollow internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary movement of internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Elongated, spindle shaped fibre with single nucleus </li></ul>
  14. 14. Muscle Control Skeletal Skeletal Cardiac Smooth Type of muscle Nervous control Type of control Example Controlled by CNS Voluntary Lifting a glass Regulated by ANS Involuntary Heart beating Controlled by ANS Involuntary Peristalsis

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