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  2. 2. The Different Emergencies Onboard Underway Shipboard Emergencies 1. Fire Fire at sea, no matter how small a fire it can become a life-threatening situation. At sea, everyone aboard ship, be they crew, scientist, or passenger, is a member of the fire department.
  3. 3. When the General Alarm sounds, everyone has a specific emergency billet assignment and each person is relied upon by all others aboard to carry out that assignment.
  4. 4. The Signal for Fire or Emergency  is a 10 second continuous ringing of the General Alarm bell and a 10 second continuous sounding of the ship's whistle.  This alarm will be followed by an appropriate announcement on the general announcing system.  When you hear the signal, immediately proceed to your fire and emergency muster station.  Firefighting and emergency equipment is distributed throughout the ship.  All hands should familiarize themselves with the locations of this equipment, as well as the Damage Control Lockers and their contents.
  5. 5. Abandon Ship  Abandoning ship in the open sea is an action of last resort.  Only when there is no reasonable chance of saving the ship will the order ever be given to abandon it.  The decision to abandon ship is made only by the CO, or in the CO's incapacity, the senior member of the chain of command.  When the order is given to abandon ship, all hands will proceed to their assigned life raft muster stations.
  6. 6. Abandon Ship  Each shall bring his/her protective survival clothing, survival suit, personal floatation device (i.e., life jacket), and other equipment assigned in his/her abandon ship billet.  Once the order to abandon ship has been given, the life raft Officers in Charge (OIC) will muster their respective parties and dispatch the assigned crew members to the life raft locations to launch their respective life rafts.
  7. 7. Abandon Ship  Once launched, the remaining personnel will have to act in concert to haul the deployed rafts alongside the main deck embarkation stations.  Orderly seamanlike actions at the embarkation stations will assure the rapid and efficient abandoning of the ship.
  8. 8. Man Overboard  Except for uncontrollable fire at sea, there is perhaps no more personally terrifying situation for a member of the ship's complement than being lost overboard.
  9. 9. Witnessed Man Overboard - Actions of the Witness Upon observing a person going overboard, the witness shall take the following actions: 1. Call out for assistance and throw a life ring buoy into the water, preferably one equipped with a strobe light. Pass the word to the Bridge by any means possible. 2. Wait about one minute and throw a second life ring buoy (at night - one equipped with a strobe light) into the water. This will create a visual range for the OOD and the lookouts, aiding the search effort.
  10. 10. Witnessed Man Overboard - Actions of the Witness 3. Keep the victim under surveillance if at all possible, but do not delay passing the word to the Bridge.
  11. 11. Unwitnessed Man Overboard  Underway, until proven otherwise, when a crew member is unaccounted for; it will be presumed that the individual has been lost overboard.  This situation then becomes a search and rescue problem of a far more complicated nature.  The ship's navigation record, as contained on the Marine Operations Abstract or Dead Reckoning Abstract, will be crucial for search planning, as will the hourly weather observations entered into the Weather Log.
  12. 12. Unwitnessed Man Overboard  Initial actions will be to notify the Marine Operations Center Director of the situation and to notify the nearest Rescue Coordination Center for assistance. Search operations will be conducted with the advice and guidance of SAR professionals.
  13. 13.  SOLAS consolidated edition 2001 does not state standard signal for General Emergency Alarm and Abandon Ship Alarm.  It depends with company’s Safety Management System instruction. Consult your manual or muster list once onboard.
  14. 14. The Most Common Adopted Signals by Ship Management Companies are the following; Fire and Emergency Continuous ringing of the General Alarm bell for 10 seconds and continuous sounding of the ship's whistle for 10 seconds Abandon Ship 7 or more short blasts on the ship's whistle and General Alarm bell followed by one prolonged blast then followed by announcement on P.A. system by the Master of the vessel. Man Overboard 3 prolonged blasts on the ship's whistle and General Alarm bell Dismissal from Drill 3 short blasts on the ship's whistle and General Alarm bell
  15. 15. Emergency Preparedness in case of accidents in ships  Whenever some incident of a serious or harmful nature happens all of a sudden, we classify it as an emergency.  One of the most important factors in dealing with an emergency situation is the presence of a solid action plan apart from a sharp mind and lack of fear.  This is a general rule which is applicable to all situations whether on board a ship in the middle of the ocean, or in a crowded city amidst a sea of people.
  16. 16. Emergency Preparedness in case of accidents in ships  It is therefore necessary to know about the emergency essentials since there are so many types of emergencies which might arise when a ship is sailing or even at port.  We have been dealing with various types of situations in separate articles, but here we will take a look at the general procedure and plans to be followed in case of emergency situation on board a ship.
  17. 17. Other Alarms could include:  Engineer alarm for unmanned machinery spaces.  CO2 release alarm.  FIRE detector alarms.  Cargo tank level alarms.  Refrigerated store alarm etc
  18. 18. Types of Emergencies -collision -stranding -foundering -adverse reactions of dangerous goods or hazardous bulk materials -shifting of cargo -engine room explosion or fire -hull failure
  19. 19. As soon as possible, after joining the ship, personnel must acquire knowledge of; -the meaning of emergency signals -Instructions of muster list and their duties -the location and use of life-saving equipment -escape routes and equipments -emergencies involving the sinking of ship -the means provided for survival on ship and survival craft
  20. 20. Abandoning ship – Complications -some of the survival crafts not capable of being launched -absence of lighting -absence of personnel assigned to certain duties
  21. 21. EVACUATION Abandoning ship-last resort Survival craft stations - When the general alarm signal is sounded, you meet at your emergency station and act according to your instructions. - Keep calm and avoid panic. - Check your lifejackets - Follow instruction
  22. 22. The location of evacuation equipment Each crewmember has the responsibility to know the location and operation of the evacuation equipment onboard the ship. All equipment is marked on the lifesaving plan. Know how to apply evacuation equipment Assigned crew is to bring extra supplies to the lifeboat such as blankets and controlled medication. Order to abandon ship The Captain has the authority to give the order ABANDONSHIP. He will direct each phase of the emergency, and will deploy the crew as each group successive completes its initial duties.
  23. 23. Means of Survival It is essential for survival the ff after the ship has been abandoned. -a means of keeping afloat -a means of keeping warm -drinking water and food -a means of communicating with ships or rescue services
  24. 24. Survival Craft and Rescue Boat
  25. 25. GENERAL The following requirements apply to all lifeboats: Construction shall be of sufficient strength to enable the lifeboat to be lowered safely into the water when loaded to full capacity with people and equipment. A fully equipped lifeboat (including motor) should not sink, even when it takes in water. Hulls and rigid covers should be fire-retardant or non- combustible. The engine should be covered with a fire and water resistant case. Main thwarts and wing seats shall be fixed mounted.
  26. 26. A safety line should be mounted outside and around the gunwale. In addition to two grip lines from gunwale to gunwale, the lifeboat must be equipped with two skates in order to be able to slide downwards the hull when launched with a list and to prevent from damage. For open type lifeboat it should also have two bilge keels with handgrips one on each side of the boat . Lifeboats are externally marked with the ship’s name, its registry port, and the number capacity of persons it is allowed to accommodate. Also, on the outside, and on the rail the lifeboats are marked with reflective tape.
  27. 27. LAUNCHING PROCEDURE The lifeboat should always be housed in the stowed position with the lashing firmly secured in place. By releasing the release hook the lifeboat is free from the lashing and the davit arm. The operator can now commence the lowering procedure by operating the brake arm. The brake arm is released from the “on position” by either the operator lifting the arm or by operating the handle on the davit, which through a pulley system raises the brake arm. With the brake released on the winch the davit arm will move by gravity. The boat when lowered will swing into the boarding position. The lifeboat is now free to descend to the sea. The lifeboat preparation team lower away at a steady speed, ready to comply instantly to any signal from the boat commander. When the boat hits the water, open the brake completely and keep it open until blocks are free.
  28. 28. To abandon a ship equipped with totally enclosed lifeboats stowed on gravity davits: -Ensure harbour pins are out. -Coxswain to open entry door and enter lifeboat. -Embark passengers and crew, second in command last. -The gripes are normally automatically released when the boat is lowered. However if they are not of the automatic release type, the second in command will release them prior to boarding the lifeboat. -Second-in-command to ensure that everyone who should be on board, seated and with safety belt secured. -Coxswain to start engine, water spray and air support systems .(water spray will start when the boat is waterborne). -Second in command secures the entry door and ensures all vents are closed. - -Secures his own seat belt and reports to the coxswain “all secure”. -On receiving the report ‘all secure”, the coxswain will pull the lowering control wire to release the gripes and lower the boat. -As soon as the boat reaches the water, the coxswain will pull the hook release handle and a crew member will slip the painter. -As hooks And painters are released, the coxswain will open wide the throttle and proceed at speed away from the ship’s side to a safe distance.
  29. 29. To abandon the ship equipped with On-load / Off-load mechanism and self launch lifeboats -Check that the davit safety pins are out. -Plug in bottom plugs. -Let go gripes -Lower to embarkation deck -Embark all crew and ensure that water tight doors and portholes are properly closed. -Let go tricing pendants -Ensure that it is all clear below. -Coaxwain will pull the cable to release the break gear. -Start lifeboat motor engine. -Unhook falls by an On-load / Off-load release mechanism. -Spring off and let-go painter. -Proceed under power away as quickly as possible from the sinking ship.
  30. 30. Thank you and God Bless “Inspiring Message” Some people dream of success, others stay awake to achieve it By: jDp phil.
  31. 31. Group 3 Cdt. Paramio Cdt. Mayang Cdt. Lanada Cdt. Fernando Cdt.Deiparine