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City Planning Realities by Prof. Dr. Avner de-Shalit


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City Planning Realities by Prof. Dr. Avner de-Shalit

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City Planning Realities by Prof. Dr. Avner de-Shalit

  1. 1. Future. City. Life! City Planning Realities by Prof. Dr. Avner de-Shalit, 8th October 2013
  2. 2. Prof. Dr. Avner de-Shalit Professor for Democracy and Human Rights Department of Political Science Hebrew University of Jerusalem What do you have to think about when you have to break down a political vision into concrete city planning? 2
  3. 3. So you have a vision… but what next? Avner de-Shalit The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  4. 4. Artists, architects, and planners It’s a Love-Hate Story 4
  5. 5. Let’s begin with a good example 5
  6. 6. Zoom in... The individual on top of the state 6
  7. 7. The tourist guide pointed to a man who had returned from the market Sitting to rest for a moment and said “Do you see this man who return from the market sitting there? Just to the right of him you see an important building.” The Messiah will arrive when tourist guides say: “Do you see this building? Right next to it sits a man who returned from the market.” Yehuda Amichai 7
  8. 8. So having the above motto in mind, how do you break down a vision into a plan? Two schools of thought: If people matter then let it be spontaneous; don’t impose and don’t plan If people matter then we should care for them*: so plan (but who plans? Bottom up vs. top down) * Including for the least advantages and the vulnerable 8
  9. 9. disadvantages 9 !   Frustration and despair Anyway, in very rare cases do authorities give up planning !   Pollution pockets in New Jersey
  10. 10. Suppose it is not spontaneous – so what should you take into account? !   Democracy → the people !   Democracy → city authorities !   Democracy → bureaucrats Persuade... Campaign… 10
  11. 11. Oh dear, Is there any other way? !   Can we do it differently? !   Can we ignore the need to persuade and to campaign? !   We don’t have time; we were told to prepare the vision – can we skip this? 11
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  13. 13. So let’s start with the people To gain the People’s support, you need to think of coalitions: !  Who else have similar visions? !  Who might support you initially? !  And who will join only because others will join earlier? But how to approach them? 13
  14. 14. The People’s language of politics is the language of metaphors and images Prof. George Lakoff (UC Berkeley) 14
  15. 15. Metaphors and why they come about? 15
  16. 16. !   Political metaphors: Tax relief, Red line !   Images: the state as a family: the two model: !   authoritative father nurturing mother !   Democrats enthusiastic because of Obama’s “Yes, we can” 16
  17. 17. City authorities? !   Regardless of any other (policy) goal they have, politicians’ goal is to be re-elected. !   So they’ll do what most people want them to do. !   Hence it’s back to persuading the people !   OK, though in general true, this isn’t so easy; we have to think how to translate the vision into practice in terms of…. 17
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  19. 19. Think how your vision not only costs but also opens up opportunities… !   Tourists? !   Students coming to the city? !   More commercial and industrial activities will bring more income which will bring more tax? 19
  20. 20. So what about bureaucrats? A word of praise for bureaucrats which also explains why so many people hate bureaucracy 20
  21. 21. Vision people vs. bureaucrats? Where did they study? Who shaped their minds? Art schools, design schools, self educated Universities, polytechnics, Engineering, geography, economics 21
  22. 22. Vision people vs. bureaucrats? What characterizes their profession ethics? 22 !   beauty !   aesthetics !   the good (not always reachable) !   Paid by the public – have to take into account the public’s interest (who knows?); !   Might be afraid of their bosses (mayors, general directors) of the comptroller
  23. 23. Vision people vs. bureaucrats? Mode of thinking 23 !   Motivated by problem solving attitude !   Down on earth !   Obliged to regulations -> no shortcuts !   Motivated by grand visions; excitements !   Think in the abstract !   Not bothered by obstacles ready to take shortcuts
  24. 24. Vision people vs. bureaucrats? !   Individualistic !   Heroic 24 ! Within organizations ! Prosaic Sociology of work
  25. 25. What is the effect of the above !   Language gaps !   Misunderstanding (concept and conceptions) !   Intolerance !   Angry moments 25
  26. 26. Last but not least 26 Love your vision but love people even more