WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE SEVFALE 2008
WHY WRITE IT UP?  (From:  The Craft of Research , p. 12-13.) <ul><li>What do I gain from writing up my research, other tha...
Write to Understand <ul><li>A second reason for writing is to understand. When you arrange and rearrange the results of yo...
Write to Gain Perspective <ul><li>The basic reason for writing, though, is to get your thoughts out of your head and onto ...
10 steps for a research paper   <ul><li>Choose a subject </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow the subject into a manageable topic </li...
Topic/Thesis statement <ul><li>Topic: not a complete sentence, a general statement. </li></ul><ul><li>A good thesis statem...
The outline <ul><li>An outline is a formal system used to think about and organize your paper. For example, you can use it...
<ul><li>There are two kinds of outlines: the topic outline and the sentence outline. </li></ul><ul><li>The topic outline  ...
<ul><li>Both topic and sentence outlines follow rigid formats, using Roman and Arabic numerals along with capital and smal...
<ul><li>Make the Outline </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Identify the topic . The topic of your paper is important. Try to sum up th...
Works Cited List <ul><li>Book by a single author  </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation:  </li></ul><ul><li>(Saferstein 98)  ...
<ul><li>Book by two or more authors  </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation:  </li></ul><ul><li>(Desmet, Speak, and Miller 127...
<ul><li>A work from an anthology  </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation:  </li></ul><ul><li>(Perrault 11)  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>An article in a scholarly journal  </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation:  </li></ul><ul><li>(Pelter and McQuade 1811...
<ul><li>Article in a newspape r  </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation:  </li></ul><ul><li>(Wielaard 11A)  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Electronic book  </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation:  </li></ul><ul><li>(Ember and Ember)  </li></ul><ul><li>Works...
<ul><li>An article in an online scholarly journal  </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation:  </li></ul><ul><li>(Gopinath)  </li...
<ul><li>Web site  </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation:  </li></ul><ul><li>(&quot;Early Childhood Educational Issues&quot;) ...
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Writing About Literature

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Writing about literature

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Writing About Literature

  1. 1. WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE SEVFALE 2008
  2. 2. WHY WRITE IT UP? (From: The Craft of Research , p. 12-13.) <ul><li>What do I gain from writing up my research, other than proving I can do it? </li></ul><ul><li>Write to Remember </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers write up what they find just to remember it. A few lucky people can retain information without recording it, but most of us get lost when we think about what Smith found in light of Wong’s position, and compare both to the odd data in Brunelli, especially as they are supported by Boskowitz— But wait a minute. I’ve forgotten what Smith said! Most researchers can plan and conduct their project only with the help of writing—by listing sources, assembling research summaries, keeping lab notes, making outlines, and so on. What you don’t write down you are likely to forget or, worse, to misremember. That’s why careful researchers don’t wait until they’ve gathered all their data to start writing: they write from the beginning of their project so that they can hold as much of it in their minds as clearly as they can. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Write to Understand <ul><li>A second reason for writing is to understand. When you arrange and rearrange the results of your research in new ways, you discover new connections, contrasts, and implications. Even if you could hold in mind everything you found, you would need help to line up arguments that pull in different directions, plot out complicated relationships, sort out disagreements among experts. I want to use these claims from Wong, but her argument is undercut by Smith’s data. When I compare them, I see that Smith ignores this last part of Wong’s argument. Aha! If I introduce it with this part from Brunelli, I can focus on the part of Wong’s argument that lets me question Smith. Writing supports thinking, not just by helping you understand better what you have found, but by helping you find in it larger patterns of meaning </li></ul>
  4. 4. Write to Gain Perspective <ul><li>The basic reason for writing, though, is to get your thoughts out of your head and onto paper, where you can see them in the dearer light of print, a light that is always brighter and usually less flattering. Just about all of us, students and professionals alike, think our ideas are more coherent in the dark warmth of our minds than they turn out to be in the cold light of day. You improve your thinking when you encourage it with notes, out lines, summaries, commentary, and other forms of thinking on paper. But you can’t know what you really can think until you separate specific ideas from the swift and muddy flow of thought and fix them in an organized, coherent form. </li></ul><ul><li>In short, you should write so that you can remember more accurately, understand better, and see what you think more dearly. (And as you will discover, the better you write, the more critically you will read.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. 10 steps for a research paper <ul><li>Choose a subject </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow the subject into a manageable topic </li></ul><ul><li>Research your material </li></ul><ul><li>Take notes </li></ul><ul><li>Form a thesis </li></ul><ul><li>Make an outline </li></ul><ul><li>Add references </li></ul><ul><li>First Draft </li></ul><ul><li>Revise your paper </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the final copy </li></ul>
  6. 6. Topic/Thesis statement <ul><li>Topic: not a complete sentence, a general statement. </li></ul><ul><li>A good thesis statement should be a complete sentence that clearly conveys the point you want to make in your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Topic: A characterization of Eveline </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis: Joyce’s characterization of Eveline as a dutiful daughter enables us to discover why she makes her strange decision at the end. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The outline <ul><li>An outline is a formal system used to think about and organize your paper. For example, you can use it to see whether your ideas connect to each other, what order of ideas works best, or whether you have sufficient evidence to support each of your points. Outlines can be useful for any paper to help you see the overall picture. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>There are two kinds of outlines: the topic outline and the sentence outline. </li></ul><ul><li>The topic outline consists of short phrases. It is particularly useful when you are dealing with a number of different issues that could be arranged in a variety of ways in your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>The sentence outline is done in full sentences. It is normally used when your paper focuses on complex details. The sentence outline is especially useful for this kind of paper because sentences themselves have many of the details in them. A sentence outline also allows you to include those details in the sentences instead of having to create an outline of many short phrases that goes on page after page. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Both topic and sentence outlines follow rigid formats, using Roman and Arabic numerals along with capital and small letters of the alphabet. This helps both you and anyone who reads your outline to follow your organization easily. This is the kind of outline most commonly used for classroom papers and speeches. There is no rule for which type of outline is best. Choose the one that you think works best for your paper. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Make the Outline </li></ul><ul><li>1. Identify the topic . The topic of your paper is important. Try to sum up the point of your paper in one sentence or phrase. This will help your paper stay focused on the main point. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify the main categories. What main points will you cover? The introduction usually introduces all of your main points, then the rest of paper can be spent developing those points. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Create the first category. What is the first point you want to cover? If the paper centers around a complicated term, a definition is often a good place to start. For a paper about a particular theory, giving the general background on the theory can be a good place to begin. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Create subcategories. After you have the main point, create points under it that provide support for the main point. The number of categories that you use depends on the amount of information that you are going to cover; there is no right or wrong number to use. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Works Cited List <ul><li>Book by a single author </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(Saferstein 98) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited list examples for 1st edition and later edition: </li></ul><ul><li>Saferstein, Richard. Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Book by two or more authors </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(Desmet, Speak, and Miller 127) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited list example: </li></ul><ul><li>Desmet, Christy, Kathy Houff Speak, and Deborah Church Miller. Argument . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>A work from an anthology </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(Perrault 11) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited list example: </li></ul><ul><li>Perrault, Charles. &quot;Little Red Riding Hood.&quot; The Classic Fairy Tales: Texts, Criticism . Ed. Maria Tatar. New York: Norton, 1998. 11-13 </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>An article in a scholarly journal </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(Pelter and McQuade 1811) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited list example: </li></ul><ul><li>Pelter, Michael, and Jennifer McQuade. “Brewing Science in the Chemistry Laboratory: A ‘Mashing' Investigation of Starch and Carbohydrates.” Journal of Chemical Education 82 (2005): 1811-1812. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Article in a newspape r </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(Wielaard 11A) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited list example: </li></ul><ul><li>Wielaard, Robert. “Europe Warns Iran on Holocaust Denial.” Democrat and Chronicle 16 Dec. 2005: 11A. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Electronic book </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(Ember and Ember) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited list example: </li></ul><ul><li>Ember, Melvin and Carol Ember, eds. Countries and Their Cultures . 2001. Virtual Reference Library. Gale. MCC Libraries, Rochester, NY. 16 Dec. 2005 <http://www.galegroup.com/>. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>An article in an online scholarly journal </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(Gopinath) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited list example: </li></ul><ul><li>Gopinath, Sumanth. “Ringtones, or the Auditory Logic of Globalization.” First Monday: Peer Reviewed Journal on the Internet 10.12 (2005). 19 Dec. 2005 <http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue 10_12/gopinath/index.html>. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Web site </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(&quot;Early Childhood Educational Issues&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited list example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Early Childhood Educational Issues.” National Association for the Education of the Young Children . 22 May 2006<http://www.naeyc.org/ece/>. </li></ul>

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