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Letizia Jaccheri Keynote for #ITICSE2022 Gender Issues in Computer Science Research, Education, Society

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Letizia Jaccheri Keynote for #ITICSE2022 Gender Issues in Computer Science Research, Education, Society

  1. 1. The Distinguished Speakers Program is made possible by For additional information, please visit http://dsp.acm.org/
  2. 2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9 p3-x1w3SE
  3. 3. 1960 1990 2000
  4. 4. 4 Art & Technology research & education & innovation 40000 students Experts in Team 2010 1 billion users
  5. 5. 10000 employees
  6. 6. Phd now 6, 3.f, 3.m Total 56, 23.f, 33.m
  7. 7. art, gender, children • BALANSE IDUN From PhD to Professor NFR 2019 – 2022, Letizia Jaccheri 1 ME @IDUN_phdtoprof • COST Action CA19122 Eugain 2020 – 2024 European Network for Gender Balance in Informatics, Action Chair Letizia Jaccheri 1 ME 100+ participants @eugain19122 • MSCA ITN e-LADDA Language learning in the age of digitalisation (2019 - 2024) Professor Mila Vulcanova, 3,8 ME @ITNeLADDA • Horizon CrAFt – Creating Actionable Futures (2022-2025) Professor Annemie Wyckmans, 2 ME @CrAFt_NEB Projects
  8. 8. Opening Keynote CHI 2022 • Dr. Kishonna Gray University of Kentucky • The Intersectional Gaming Project: Reimagining Futures Through Gaming
  9. 9. Closing Keynote CHI 2022 • Dr. Payal Arora Erasmus University Rotterdam • FemWork: Critical Pivot towards Design for Inclusive Labor Futures Female technologies, venture capital funding, digital story telling
  10. 10. Gender & Computer Science int i = 10; if (i < 15) System.out.println("10 is less than 15"); Gender and sex Kjønn Non-binary #metoo 2017 Same-sex marriage The Netherlands 2001 Intersectionality – triply LGBT+ rights 性別
  11. 11. https://eige.europa.eu/gender-equality-index/2021 In addition, the European Commission report Women active in the ICT sector concludes that including more women in the digital economy could create an annual GDP boost in the EU of EUR 9 billion.
  12. 12. https://resourcewatch.org/data/explore/Gender-Gap-Index-2
  13. 13. Education
  14. 14. Europe Bachelor, Master, PhD • At the Bachelor level 80% or more of the students enrolling or graduating in Informatics Bachelor programs are male. • At the Master level 80% of the Master graduates in Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland are male • At the Ph.D. level, except for Bulgaria, Romania, Estonia, Turkey, all other countries have less than 25% of women graduating from Informatics Ph.D. programs
  15. 15. Scarcity of role models Engineering and Technology: on average, in the whole of Europe, women take less than 15% of the full professor positions Figures show that in 2016, an overwhelming majority (83.3%) of ICT specialists employed in the EU were men. Skills and talent gap: 53% of European employers say they face difficulties in finding the right people with the right qualifications.
  16. 16. Projects • It's not enough what I did in the past - there is also the future. Rita Levi Montalcini Nobel Prize Medicine 1986
  17. 17. Girl project ADA 2004 2019 7% 36% Average %-share 5-year integrated Master • Computer Sciences • Communication Technologies • Cybernetics and Robotics • Electronics System design and innovation www.ntnu.edu/girls
  18. 18. Industry cooperation
  19. 19. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Number of Professors at the Department of Computer Science of NTNU male female
  20. 20. IDUN – from PhD to Professor 1 Mio. Euro 2019 – 2022 Background: 581 employees in scientific positions – 22% female 125 professors – 13,8% female Challenge: • Too few women at master level • Dropout from phd to professor Idun Reiten, the first female professor at the Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) https://www.ntnu.edu/idun
  21. 21. IDUN Scientific Mentor program 9 International professors as IDUN mentors Nirmalie Wiratunga (IDI team) http://www.rgu.ac.uk/dms taff/wiratunga-nirmalie/ Martha Larson (IDI team) https://www.ru.nl/english/ people/larson-m/ Darja Smite (IDI team) https://darjasmite.net/ Jana Jagerska (IES team) https://en.uit.no/ansatte/person?p _document_id=407454 Gro Klaboe (IEL team) https://no.linkedin.com/in/gro- kl%C3%A6boe-7b87741a Toktam Mahmoodi (IIK team) https://www.kcl.ac.uk/people/tok tam-mahmoodi Anne Håkansson (ITK team) https://en.uit.no/ansatte/person?p _document_id=584195 Sibylle Schroll (IMF team) University of Cologne https://sites.google.com/site/sibylleschr oll/ Laura Giarre (IIR Ålesund – IDI Gjøvik team) https://giarre.wordpress.com/
  22. 22. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 2017 2018 2019 2020 Number of Professors at the IE STEM Faculty NTNU Male Female 16% 14%
  23. 23. EUGAIN Cost Action 19122 • How to have more girls choosing Informatics as their higher education studies and profession. • How to retain female students and assure they finish their studies and start successful careers in the field. • How to encourage more female Ph.D. and postdoctoral researchers to remain in the academic career and apply for professorships in Informatics departments. • How to support and inspire young women in their careers and help them to overcome the main hurdles that prevent women to reach senior positions in the field. • How to leverage from the experience of the partners in the network to tackle the previous challenges and achieve progress across more institutions and countries, and positive results that are sustained on the longer term. WG1: FROM SCHOOL TO UNIVERSITY WG2: FROM BACHELOR/MASTER STUDIES TO PH.D. WG3: FROM PH.D. TO PROFESSOR WG4: COOPERATION WITH INDUSTRY AND SOCIETY WG5: STRATEGY & DISSEMINATION The 38 COST Members are: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Republic of Moldova, Montenegro, The Netherlands, The Republic of North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom.
  24. 24. Research • I have never tried that before so I think i should definitely be able to do that - Swedish author Astrid Lindgren
  25. 25. Margaret Burnet and Anita Sarma • Gender Inclusiveness • Magnifier https://gendermag.org/ • Product attribute
  26. 26. A. Serebrenik • Alexander Serebrenik • Gender Diversity and Inclusion and Software Engineering (team, process)
  27. 27. EUGAIN School • The EUGAIN-STS 2022 will focus on how to conduct research studies. Participants will acquire knowledge, skills, and competencies needed to design gender and gender-sensitive studies in Informatics.
  28. 28. Kodeløypa • Papavlasopoulou, S., Giannakos, M. N., & Jaccheri, L. (2016, June). Creative programming experiences for teenagers: attitudes, performance and gender differences. In Proceedings of the The 15th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (pp. 565-570).
  29. 29. Digital story telling • Rubegni, E., Landoni, M., Malinverni, L., & Jaccheri, L. (2022). Raising Awareness of Stereotyping Through Collaborative Digital Storytelling: Design for Change with and for Children. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 157, 102727.
  30. 30. UN Goal 5 • Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Ending all discrimination against women and girls is not only a basic human right, it's crucial for sustainable future; it's proven that empowering women and girls helps economic growth and development.
  31. 31. Software engineering and gender • Brevik, J., Jaccheri, L., & Vidal, J. C. T. (2019, June). Designing software to prevent child marriage globally. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (pp. 452-457).
  32. 32. Literature review (SMS) • Patón-Romero, J. D., Vinuesa, R., Jaccheri, L., & Baldassarre, M. T. Artificial Intelligence and Gender Equality: A Systematic Mapping Study. In: 15th International Conference on ICT, Society and Human Beings (ICT 2022), 2022. • 29 studies Can we develop AI proposals that help gender equality? Gender by AI gender AI Gender in AI
  33. 33. Addressing Gender Inequality in Software Development Processes (1) • Agile manifesto was written by 17 male, neither Scrum, XP, Kanban include practices for increasing gender equality • SMS (15 studies) and 12 interviews RQ2: What gender equality targets are addressed by IT processes?
  34. 34. Addressing Gender Inequality in Software Development Processes (2) 12 interviews Work in progress
  35. 35. Modules • Anti-Bias Training Module Gender Bias • Feedback Module to improve self-efficacy Imposter Syndrome • Coding Standard Module Code Review • Work Allocation Module for Allocating all types of tasks collectively Gender Stereotypes • Clarification of Requirements Module • Extended User Testing Module Women’s Impact on Software Development
  36. 36. ACM Women Chapter • Why Should You Start an ACM-W Chapter at Your School? • “101 Ideas for ACM-W Chapters” • Activities to educate women about the opportunities in the computing field • Engage women students in exciting computing activities; • Connect students with women leaders in the field; • Encourage students to promote the field of computing to young girls; • Promote the activities of ACM • Network with other ACM-W Chapter leaders and members • Mentor chapter members and pre-college girls • Broaden the computing community • Extend the “conversation” about why it’s important to increase the number of women in computing https://women.acm.org/chapter/ https://trondheimwomen.acm.org/home/
  37. 37. Future • Women are underrepresented in computer science and it is important to do something for social, economic, and environment reasons • EUGAIN Eugain.eu • Apply to enter a Working group • STSM and Virtual Grants – apply! • ITC Grants – apply! • ACM Celebration of Women in Computing: womENcourage https://womencourage.acm.org September 2022 • Get sponsors, get involvement
  38. 38. Advice • Know your numbers and Set your goals • Keep and empower the female you have • LGBT+ (LGBT stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender/transsexual people) • Look for funds, connections, projects • Celebrate • Document • Everything is research
  39. 39. Thanks to • This work is co-funded by the Research Council of Norway under BALANSE - Programme on Gender Balance in Senior Positions and Research Management and EUGAIN COST Action 19122
  40. 40. The Distinguished Speakers Program is made possible by For additional information, please visit http://dsp.acm.org/
  41. 41. Conferences • Grace Hopper Celebration https://ghc.anitab.org • ACM ACM Celebration of Women in Computing womENcourage (Cyprus 2022) • IEEE Women in Engineering http://ieee-wie-ilc.org/
  42. 42. Projects • CS4All initiative, School of Computing, TU Dublin, www.dit.ie/computing/studentresources • Irène Curie Fellowship at TU Eindhoven. https://www.tue.nl/en/working-at- tue/scientific-staff/irene-curie-fellowship • Gender Initiative Chalmers https://www.chalmers.se/en/about- chalmers/Chalmers-for-a-sustainable-future/initiatives-for-gender- equality/gender-initiative-for-excellence/Pages/default.aspx • EQUAL-IST Project. https://equal-ist.eu • NFR BBI UiT • Minerva Award Informatics Europe
  43. 43. Policy documents & white papers • ec.europa.eu • SHE Figures 2021 (352 pages) • EU Report of the Expert Group “Innovation through Gender” 2013 • Unesco.org • I'd blush if I could: closing gender divides in digital skills through education • ELSEVIER • Gender Report 2020: The researcher journey through a gender lens • Informatics Europe • https://www.informatics-europe.org/publications.html
  44. 44. International Networks • Informatics Europe WIRE https://www.informatics-europe.org/working- groups/women-in-icst-research-and-education.html -> EUGAIN • ACM Women in Computing Europe. https://europe.acm.org/acm-we • European Centre for Women and Technology. http://www.ecwt.eu • CEPIS Women in ICT Task Force. https://www.cepis.org/index.jsp?p=1142&n=2909
  45. 45. References • BURNETT, Margaret, et al. GenderMag: A method for evaluating software's gender inclusiveness. Interacting with Computers, 2016, 28.6: 760-787. • Vasilescu, B., Capiluppi, A., & Serebrenik, A. (2012, December). Gender, representation and online participation: A quantitative study of stackoverflow. In 2012 International Conference on Social Informatics (pp. 332-338). IEEE. • Trifonova A, Jaccheri L, Bergaust K. Software engineering issues in interactive installation art. International Journal of Arts and Technology. 2008 Jan 1;1(1):43-65. • Brevik J, Jaccheri L, Vidal JC. Designing software to prevent child marriage globally. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM International Conference on Interaction Design and Children 2019 Jun 12 (pp. 452-457). • Rubegni E, Landoni M, De Angeli A, Jaccheri L. Detecting gender stereotypes in children digital StoryTelling. InProceedings of the 18th ACM International Conference on Interaction Design and Children 2019 Jun 12 (pp. 386-393). • Papavlasopoulou S, Giannakos MN, Jaccheri L. Creative programming experiences for teenagers: attitudes, performance and gender differences. InProceedings of the The 15th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children 2016 Jun 21 (pp. 565-570). • Jaccheri L, Pereira C, Fast S. Gender Issues in Computer Science: Lessons Learnt and Reflections for the Future. In2020 22nd International Symposium on Symbolic and Numeric Algorithms for Scientific Computing (SYNASC) 2020 Sep 1 (pp. 9-16). IEEE. • Wiken Wilson, A. & Patón-Romero, J. D. Gender Equality in Tech Entrepreneurship: A Systematic Mapping Study. In: 3rd Workshop on Gender Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion in Software Engineering (GE@ICSE 2022) at the 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2022), 2022. • Patón-Romero, J. D., Vinuesa, R., Jaccheri, L., & Baldassarre, M. T. Artificial Intelligence and Gender Equality: A Systematic Mapping Study. In: 15th International Conference on ICT, Society and Human Beings (ICT 2022), 2022.

Editor's Notes

  • The university of Pisa was funded in 1343 when scientists were looking at the stars and trying to count.
    Once upon a time in 1960 the first italian computer was built in Pisa. It was built 500 meters from my house and even if nobody in my family …
    When I graduated in 1988

  • •PhDSoftware Engineering Politecnicodi Torino 1995
    •In Norway as exchangestudent in 1989 –supervisor R. Conradi
    •Programmer for twoyearsin late 80’
    •Professor at NTNU since2002 (40000 students)
    •Department head from 2013 to 2017
    •IndependentDirectorof Reply SPA (now10000 employees) in 2015-2018
    •Twogenderequalityprizesin 2021
    •ODA network
    •NTNU gender
    •Activistfor my values: gender, art, climate
    •New European Bauhaus, Positive City ExChange@Annemie Wyckmans


    When I look back and when I look forward, I see that the goal that has motivated my research is the will to understand the relation between art and software. Art is the same as life, and communication between human beings. Software is the language to communicate between human beings and computers.

    Art and science have in common a goal of trying to do something newer and unexplored with respect of what we have done before.
    Art and science are very different in that the subject is science should be as distint as possible from the researcher while the artist uses herself and her feelings as a medium and as a message
    I am not sure if I am an artist or a scientist but I do not care to be defined.
    During the years I have being writing several scientific papers, teaching several courses, supervising students. I also love to write for the popular dissemination, expecially for children and young ones. You find most of what I have written on my blog. Most of the information is in English, something in Italian, or Norwegian. The Doormaid books is also translated to other languages, like Chinese, I would love to translate info your language Urdu, if anybody is interested, you should contact me, it would be fun.
    Experts in Teams is a playground for all students of NTNU, by fostering inderdisciplinarity
  • Netflix 10% internet
    Less than 20% female students and 10% of female professors
  • In recent years, femtech – ‘female technologies’ has received increased attention and venture capital funding, with some celebrating this as a feminist approach to design. While commendable in opening spaces for other genders, these efforts are tethered to the healthcare industry, narrowing the scope and potential of inclusive design.
    This talk broadens these conceptions by drawing from user-research of women ‘gig’ workers in the Global South as they organize themselves to navigate tech platforms and engage with the various design innovations that mediate their work and life worlds. These research efforts are driven by FemLab, a decolonial and co-design initiative that situate at the center the voices of the marginalized workers at the bottom of the global value chain in the design and building of digital storytelling campaigns for inclusive labor futures.

  • How do we understand gender?
    Probably If I had put a computer science concept, like if, or while, or goto, it would be simpler to share the same understanding.
    gender as a social construction (as opposed to sex, which is by birth) (it: genere, sesso – no:
    gender as a non-binary term (as opposed to what it used to be: binary male vs female)
    recent steps (correlated)
    in the women's rights movement #metoo started in 2017
    as well as the LGBTQ rights movement, while the first gay movement started more than 100 years ago, The Netherlands was the first country to allow same-sex marriage in 2001.
    defining one's pronouns has become trendy (she/her)
    non-binary acceptance of gender
    intersectionality, that is, that our identities have several layers and they influence one another --> people who are not only women, but also LGBTQ and of color, are triply underprivileged and left out of rights not only in everyday life but in digital services as well.
    gender equality charts in the EU or over the world and Gender Gap Index
    education + social stereotypes --> girls' barriers to get into IT and CS
    due to women's lack, and the lack of diversity, in IT teams --> bias in designing products due to a lack of diversity, for ex. HCI, AI, etc.
    this creates usability problems, tech issues, discrimination, the spread of bias, etc.
    It is crucial to underline that taking gender into account in tech is not only a human rights issue, but an economic and technological need.

  • The Gender Gap Index quantified the gaps between men and women across four subindexes: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment. 
  • Data for Informatics only is not available at the European level, however, a loose parallel can be drawn from data for Engineering and Technology where on average, in the whole of Europe, women take less than 15% of the full professor positions [SHE Figures, 2018].

    The very low number of women reaching senior academic positions results in a scarcity of successful female role models to influence the new generations. To be a distinct minority in academia also results in the overload of invitations and requests (conferences talks, committees, administrative department roles, etc.), which penalizes women's careers, impacting negatively their research productivity, their work-life balance, their personal life, and health.
  • For more girls in STEM we need to tell the girls at high scool – or earlier – whar sort of jobs are waiting for you on the other end. And inform that there are jobs. Lots of them in this secotr. And all these companies - + 30 more have strategies and goals at top level – to work with gender balance – they all want more women staff. So working together with companies in the sector is important.

    And to work with media – to let the girls our there know what sort of jobs these studies lead to. Interesting, well paid – they also onsist of working in teams, with people – and why it is so iportant with balance.
  • Background and challenges: see slide

    By bringing the focus and awareness to diversity and equality, among other aspects also in gender, with projects like IDUN, we aim to keep our faculty attractive for our students and staff. Because we all strive and grow best in a diverse environment with a great variety of role models around us. Our ultimate goal is to give an important impulse towards a cultural change. That encompasses the power structures, communication processes and awareness of the gender related challenges.

    The IDUN project has been named after Idun Reiten, Professor Emerita, the first female professor at the current IE faculty.


    IDUN began August 1, 2019, with the goal that by the end of 2022, we will see an increase to at least 15 - 20% women at all levels.



  • It enables software practitioners (e.g., developers, managers, UX professionals) find gender-inclusivity "bugs" in their software, and then fix the bugs they find.
    M. Guizani, L. Letaw, M. Burnett and A. Sarma, "Gender Inclusivity as a Quality Requirement: Practices and Pitfalls," in IEEE Software, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 7-11, Nov.-Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1109/MS.2020.3019540.
    M. Vorvoreanu, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Hilderbrand, Z. Steine-Hanson, and M. Burnett. 2019. From Gender Biases to Gender-Inclusive Design: An Empirical Investigation. In Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '19). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, Paper 53, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1145/3290605.3300283
  • Why should we care for communication?
  • Research projects based on empirical studies - the subjects of our experiments and case studies, it is important that they represent both males and females.
  • Kodeløypa is a project that we started in 2014 that build on computing and art to address the goal 4 and 5. We invite each Friday to our department a new class from the ground school. Children come to experience artistic robot programming. We collect rich data to be able to improve knowledge and tools for programming for children. In this specific investigation, we have collected data by eye tracking and analyzed it using ML.
  • Cosa vuol dire gender e perche’ si parla di gender. Mi rifaccio ai 17 goals delle nazioni unite e in particolare al goal 5. fermare la discriminazione contro le donne e le ragazze e’ un diritto umano e inoltre e’ dimostrato che dando potere alle donne si aiuta la crescita economica e lo sviluppo. Vorrei potermi concentrare su quel «e’ provato» ma non ho risultati concreti e vi voglio mostrare un esempio aneddotico che avrete gia’ visto.
  • People decide requirements
    People develop solutions for people
    People Interact with systems

    Question: who decides the
    requirements and for which people?

  • in gender equality and AI we are faced with two perspectives:
    Gender by AI: in which AI provides the necessary tools to achieve gender equality through different contexts (i.e., AI as an enabler).
    Gender in AI: in which AI itself produces a negative impact on gender equality (e.g., lack of balance during the development of a system) and, therefore, said impact must be reduced (i.e., AI as a producer).

    Focus on Gender by AI.Although there is a high level of equality in the number of studies that deal with Gender by AIand Gender in AI, in recent years the main focus has been the development of studies related to Gender by AI. This could be due to the greater ease of developing a specific technology to address an aspect related to gender equality (such as, e.g., an AI device that detects dangerous situations for women) than, e.g., change the business/management processes that guide organizations when developing new AI proposals so that they follow a set of best practices that respect gender equality. Undoubtedly, the latter is more complicated, because it is not only necessary to understand both fields to develop useful and applicable best practices for most contexts, but also a high number of practical cases and the involvement of external actors who allow validation of these practices are needed. Therefore, the fact that the focus is currently on Gender by AIis anissue that can generate a lot of controversy, since the “cart is being put before the horse” and the question arises as to whether AI proposals that help gender equality can actually be developed, when in AI itself and in all the processes that surround it (i.e., the basis) there is no such equality.
  • While some of the participants felt that the battle for gender equality belongs to the past and that one today focuses on each person’s individuality, others had personal experiences with challenges like gender bias

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