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Indian Medicinal Plants
C.P. Khare (Ed.)




Indian Medicinal Plants
An Illustrated Dictionary


With  Pictures of Crude Herbs




123
Author
C.P. Khare
B-/, Janak Puri
New Delhi- 
India
chandrma_khare@yahoo.com




Library of Congress Control Num...
Dedicated to
     the distinguished scientist

      Dr. A. P. J. Adbul Kalam

      who revived the glory of
Indian medic...
Guiding Factors

First of all, let me acknowledge with gratitude the contribution of the following
reference works which s...
VIII   Guiding Factors



       • Plants of Bhava Prakash by Prof. K.C. Chunekar and Dr. N.P. Hota (National
         Aca...
Guiding Factors   IX



• The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.
• The British Herbal Compendium.
• Natural Medicines Comprehen...
X   Guiding Factors



    included among the common names of Catha edulis, while the common name
    of Gymnema sylvestre...
A
Abelmoschus esculentus                      Abies pindrow Royle.
(Linn.) Moench.
                                       ...
2   Abies webbiana Lindl.



A       leaves, showed mild activity against
        Gram-positive bacteria but exhibit-
    ...
Abutilon indicum Linn. Sweet.   3



disorders, contain taraxerol, its acetate
and lupeol.
                               ...
4   Acacia arabica Willd. var. indica Benth.



A       Unani     Kanghi, Musht-ul-Ghaul,
           Darkht-e-Shaan.
     ...
Acacia catechu (Linn. f.) Willd.   5



  diabetic rats. Seed oil—antifungal.
  Flowers, pods and gum resin—used
         ...
6   Acacia chundra Willd.



A          Seed extract—hypoglycaemic to
        normal albino rats, but not effective
       ...
Acacia leucophloea Willd.   7



   The bark yields a saponin which,
on hydrolysis, yields lupeol, alpha-
                ...
8   Acacia pennata (L.) Willd.



A          The rootbark contains leucophleol,
        leucophleoxol and leucoxol.
      ...
Acanthospermum hispidum DC.     9



Ayurvedic      Aadaari, Lataa Khadira
  (related sp., see. A. pennata).
             ...
10   Acanthus ilicifolius Linn.



A    Ayurvedic    Trikantaka. (Different
        from Gokshura; also equated with
      ...
Achyranthes aspera Linn.   11



haemostatic. Salicylic acid is anti-
inflammatory. Chamazulene is anti-
                  ...
12   Achyranthes bidentata Blume



A    reported to dilate blood vessels, low-
     er blood pressure, decrease heart rat...
Aconitum falconeri Stapf.   13



  Chamba in Himachal Pradesh,
  between altitudes of , m and
                       ...
14   Aconitum ferox Wall. ex Ser.



A       The root alkaloids contain bishati-
     sine, bishaconitine, falconitine and...
Aconitum violaceum Jacq. ex Stapf.   15



pseudoaconitine. (The inert character
of the plant is well known to the hill
  ...
16   Acorus calamus Linn.



A    Habitat   The alpine zone of the
       Himalayas from Gilgit to Kumaon.
               ...
Actinodaphne hookeri Meissn.   17



Habitat    Native to Japan, occasion-
  ally met within Sikkim at an altitude
       ...
18   Adansonia digitata Linn.



A    quercetin--rhamnoside and hydro-
     carbons.
                                    ...
Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn.   19



Ayurvedic     Vaasaa, Vaasaka,
  Vaasikaa, Simhaasya, Simhaparni,
                ...
20   Adiantum incisum Forsk.



A    Action     Astringent, demulcent,
       expectorant, antitussive, stimulant,
       ...
Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schult.   21



Siddha/Tamil    Manjakadambu.               use of root in dysuria; ste...
22   Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult.



A    English       Javanese Wool Plant.            Aerva scandens Wall., synony...
Aframomum melegueta (Rosc.) K. Schum.     23



   Horse Chestnut contains triterpe-
noid saponins (especially aescin, a
 ...
24   Aganosma dichotoma (Roth) K. Schum.



A    False cardamom, is also equated with
     Heel Habshi.
                  ...
Aglaia roxburghiana Miq. Hiern   25



es, polyphosphatases, polyphenoloxi-
dase and dehydropeptidases.
                  ...
26   Agrimonia eupatoria auct non L.



A    Siddha/Tamil    Gnaazhal. (Dried
       flowers of Myristica malabarica
      ...
Ailanthus glandulosa Desf.   27



  diuretic and urinary antiseptic,
  anticholesterolaemic.
                            ...
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  1. 1. Indian Medicinal Plants
  2. 2. C.P. Khare (Ed.) Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary With  Pictures of Crude Herbs 123
  3. 3. Author C.P. Khare B-/, Janak Puri New Delhi-  India chandrma_khare@yahoo.com Library of Congress Control Number:  ISBN: ---- Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg ©  Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.,  Spring Street, New York, NY , USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adap- tation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. springer.com Printed on acid-free paper SPIN:   —      
  4. 4. Dedicated to the distinguished scientist Dr. A. P. J. Adbul Kalam who revived the glory of Indian medicinal and aromatic plants in the Rashtrapati Bhawan.
  5. 5. Guiding Factors First of all, let me acknowledge with gratitude the contribution of the following reference works which synchronised the synonyms and medicinal properties of Indian medicinal plants: • A Catalogue of Indian Synonyms of the Medicinal Plants of India by Moodeen Sheriff (). (The first exhaustive compilation of synonyms of Indian medic- inal plants in  regional languages, besides Latin and English). • Indian Medicinal Plants by Lt. Col. K.R. Kirtikar and Major B.D. Basu (). • Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants by Col. Sir Ram Nath Chopra et al. (CSIR, ). • Useful Plants of India (CSIR, ; based on The Wealth of India series, Vol. I , Vol. XI ). • Dictionary of Indian Medicinal Plants by Akhtar Husain et al. (CIMAP, ). Based on this legacy, Indian Medicinal Plants. An Illustrated Dictionary is aimed at bringing out an updated Active Study Dictionary of plant sources of Indian medicine, as a companion volume of my earlier book Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants/Indian Herbal Remedies, published by Springer. Ayurvedic synonyms have been selected from the following sources: • The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Vol. I to IV). • Standard Nomenclature of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants (CCRAS, ). • Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda (Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth/ National Academy of Ayurveda, ). • Plants of Sharangadhara Samhita by Prof. K.C. Chunekar and Dr. K. Pondel (National Academy of Ayurveda, ).
  6. 6. VIII Guiding Factors • Plants of Bhava Prakash by Prof. K.C. Chunekar and Dr. N.P. Hota (National Academy of Ayurveda, ). • Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS). Published literature. • Dravyagun Vigyaan, Vol. II (Hindi) by Dr. Priyavrata Sharma (). Unani synonyms have been selected from the following sources: • The National Formulary of Unani Medicine. • Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM). Published litera- ture. • Unani Dravyagunaadarsh (Hindi) by Daljit Singh (Ayurvedic and Tibbi Acade- my, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, ). Siddha/Tamil synonyms have been selected from the following sources: • Formulary of Siddha Medicine. (Indian Medical Practitioners’ Cooperative Pharmacy and Store Ltd., IMPCOPS, Chennai). • The Wealth of India (Vol. II to XI). • Dictionary of Indian Medicinal Plants (CIMAP). • The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Vol. I to IV). • Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS). Published literature. The medicinal plants shortlisted by the National Academy of Ayurveda and the department of Indian Systems of Medicine (AYUSH) have been included in the book. Key applications of medicinal plants are based on the following sources: • German Commission E monographs. • ESCOP monographs. • WHO monographs. • Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. • The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Vol. I to IV) for traditionally recognised applications.
  7. 7. Guiding Factors IX • The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. • The British Herbal Compendium. • Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, . For further study, all major findings and leads, including references to re- search documents and journals, can be reached through the following books (in sequence): • The Wealth of India First Supplement Series (Vol. I to V). • The Wealth of India original series (Vol. II to XI and revised Vol.  to ). • Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants (Vol. I to V, CDRI). • Potter’s New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations ( edn). • Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, . • PDR for Herbal Medicines, . • The Treatise on Indian Medicinal Plants (Vol. I to VI). • Additional sources, as cited at appropriate places. Dosage of crude herbs is based on the recommendations of The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Vol. I to IV) and Standard Nomenclature of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants (CCRAS). Roman spellings of Ayurvedic synonyms, introduced for the first time by Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth (National Academy of Ayurveda), New Delhi-  , have been followed. Asiatic Society’s markings are now obsolete. The text has been formatted following the style-manual of The Wealth of India series of CSIR. Detailed references of research journals are beyond the purview of this project. The text is based on authentic treatises which are the outcome of scientific screening and critical evaluation by eminent scholars. As I have already indicated, readers, if they so desire, can always refer back to a particular research paper cited in the original source. I did not follow the trend of enumerating research papers which were not actually consulted by me. Researchers should consult the Database on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda series (CCRAS) and Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants series (ICMR) for detailed bibliography. All Indian common names have been spelled according to their actual pro- nunciation. The way was shown by the National Academy of Ayurveda by introducing aa in the spellings. In The Review of Natural Products (Facts and Comparisons)  edition., Khat, Chaat, Chat, qaad, jaad and Miraa have been
  8. 8. X Guiding Factors included among the common names of Catha edulis, while the common name of Gymnema sylvestre is spelled as Gurmar instead of Gurmaar. Perhaps the actual pronunciation was not known to the editors. In India, O is pronounced in a specific ascent, as in Om, that is the reason uu is used instead of oo. Simi- larly, Sanskrit synonyms end with a, that is why aa is used for facilitating proper pronunciation. These changes have been included so that Indian names are pronounced correctly. A few words of gratitude. Dr. V.K. Agarwal Ph. D. (Medicinal Chemistry), who was the senior editor (chemistry and pharmacology) of The Wealth of India series for  years, reviewed the entire text. He remained closely associated with all my projects and deserves much more than a few formal words of thanks. Sarita Joshi, my research associate, bore the brunt of the workload throughout the difficult phases of the project. For this she also deserves a special mention. Finally, I would like to add that a concerted effort has been made in the book to rationalise the therapeutic coverage of Indian medicinal plants as part of my commitment to scientific herbalism. C.P. Khare Society for New Age Herbals B-/, Janak Puri, New Delhi- 
  9. 9. A Abelmoschus esculentus Abies pindrow Royle. (Linn.) Moench. Synonym A. pindrow Spach. Synonym Hibiscus esculentus Linn. A. webbiana Lindl. var. pindrow Brandis. Family Malvaceae. Pinus pindrow Royle. Habitat Native to tropical Africa; Family Pinaceae. cultivated throughout India, up to Habitat Kashmir, Himachal , m. Pradesh, Tehri-Garhwal and other areas of northern India, at altitudes English Gumbo, Lady Finger, Okra. of ,–, m. Ayurvedic Bhaandi, Bhindaka, English Pindrow-Fir, Silver-Fir, The Bhendaa. West-Himalayan Low-Level Fir. Unani Baamiyaa. Ayurvedic Taalisha (related sp.). Folk Badar, Morinda, Raisalla, Siddha/Tamil Vendai. Ransla. Folk Bhindi, Raamturai. Action Uses similar to those of A. webbiana. Action Immature pods (decoc- tion)—emollient, demulcent and Terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides diuretic (in catarrhal affections, and steroids of the leaf were found ardor urine, dysuria, dysentery). to have mast cell stabilizing action in Seeds—antispasmodic. rats. Terpenoids and flavonoids of- fered bronchoprotection against his- Fatty fraction of the fresh watery ex- tamine challenge in guinea pigs. The tract of the seeds causes destruction ulcer protective action of petroleum of cancerous cell growth in vitro. The ether, benzene and chloroform frac- pods are reported to exhibit antitu- tion has been attributed to steroidal mour activity. An ethanolic extract contents. Terephthalic acid demethyl of pods was effective against Gram- ester (TADE), isolated from the leaf, positive bacteria. exhibited protection against inflamma- The ripe fruits contain quercetin, tion and bronchospasm in guinea pigs. hyperin (hyperoside), hydrolysate of Ethanolic extract of leaves showed sig- precipitated mucilage, proanthocyani- nificant anxiolytic effects on all the dins, D-glucose, D-glucuronic and paradigms of anxiety, barbiturate hyp- galacturonic acids. nosis potentiation. Fresh flowers contain flavonol gly- Pindrolactone, a lanostane-based cosides and anthocyanins. triterpene lactone, isolated from the
  10. 10. 2 Abies webbiana Lindl. A leaves, showed mild activity against Gram-positive bacteria but exhibit- A biflavonoid, abiesin, n-triaconta- nol, beta-sitosterol and betuloside are ed potent antibacterial activity against present in the leaves. Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. The essential oil from leaves con- tains alpha-pinene, l-limonene, delta- carene, dipentene, l-bornyl acetate and l-cardinene as major constituents. Abies webbiana Lindl. Dosage Needles—– g powder. Synonym A. spectabilis (D. Don) (API Vol. IV.) Spach. Pinus webbiana Wall. Family Pinaceae. Abroma augusta Jacq. Habitat The Himalayas from Synonym Ambroma augusta Kashmir to Assam at altitudes of Linn. f. ,–, m. Family Sterculiaceae. English Indian Silver Fir, The West-Himalayan High-Level Fir, Habitat Throughout the hotter and The East-Himalayan Fir. moister parts of India, from Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, eastwards Ayurvedic Taalisa, Taalisapatra, to Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Taalisha, Patraadhya, Dhaatriparni, Meghalaya and Tripura, ascending Dhaatripatra. to , m, southwards in Peninsular Unani Taalisapattar. India. Siddha/Tamil Taalispatri. English Perennial Indian Hemp, Devil’s Cotton. Folk Badar, Chilrow, Morinda, Raisalla, Taalispatra. (Tallispatra, Ayurvedic Pishaacha Kaarpaasa, Taalispatri and Talespattre are Pivari. also equated with the leaves of Unani Ulat-kambal. Cinnamomum tamala Nees.) Siddha/Tamil Sivapputtuti. Action Expectorant, bronchial seda- Folk Kumal, Sanukapaasi. tive, decongestant, anticatarrhal, antiseptic, carminative. Action Rootbark—emmena- gogue (used for dysmenorrhoea, Key application Fir (Abies alba amenorrhoea), abortifacient, galac- Miller) needle oil—in catarrhal ill- totrophic. ness of upper and lower respiratory tract (internally and externally); The root contains abromine (be- externally in rheumatic and neu- taine), friedelin, abromasterol, abro- ralgic pains. Contraindicated in masterol A, choline, beta-sitosterol, bronchial asthma and whooping stigmasterol and octacosanol. Leaves, cough. (German Commission E.) reported to be useful in treating uterine
  11. 11. Abutilon indicum Linn. Sweet. 3 disorders, contain taraxerol, its acetate and lupeol. antibody-forming cells, bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase-positive A bone marrow cells. Dosage Leaf juice—– ml. Oral administration of agglutinins, Rootbark powder—– g. (CCRAS.) isolated from the seeds, is useful in the treatment of hepatitis and AIDS. The seed extract exhibited antischis- Abrus precatorius Linn. tosomal activity in male hamsters. The methanolic extract of seeds in- Family Papilionaceae; Fabaceae. hibited the motility of human sperma- Habitat Throughout the country, tozoa. ascending to an altitude of about The roots contain precol, abrol, gly- , m in the outer Himalayas. cyrrhizin (.%) and alkaloids—abra- sine and precasine. The roots also con- English Indian Wild Liquorice, tain triterpenoids—abruslactone A, Jequirity, Crab’s Eye, Precatory methyl abrusgenate and abrusgenic Bean. acid. Ayurvedic Gunjaa, Gunjaka, Alkaloids/bases present in the roots Chirihintikaa, Raktikaa, Chirmi- are also present in leaves and stems. ti, Kakanti, Kabjaka, Tiktikaa, A. fruticulosus Wall. Ex Wight and Kaakananti, Kaakchinchi. (Not to Arn. synonym A. pulchellus Wall., A. be used as a substitute for liquorice.) laevigatus E. May. (Shveta Gunjaa) is Unani Ghunghchi, Ghamchi. also used for the same medicinal pur- poses as A. precatorius. Siddha/Tamil Kunri. Folk Chirmiti, Ratti. Dosage Detoxified seed—– g powder. Root powder—– g. (API Action Uterine stimulant, abortifa- Vols. I, II.) cient, toxic. Seeds—teratogenic. A paste of seeds is applied on vitiligo patches. Abutilon indicum Linn. Sweet. Along with other therapeutic appli- cations, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Synonym A. indicum G. Don. of India has indicated the use of seeds Family Malvaceae. in baldness. Habitat Throughout the hotter Seeds contain abrin, a toxalbumin, parts of India. Found as a weed in indole derivatives, anthocyanins, ste- the sub-Himalayan tract and other rols, terpenes. Abrin causes aggluti- hills up to , m. nation of erythrocytes, haemolysis and enlargement of lymph glands. A non- English Country Mallow, Flowering toxic dose of abrin (. mcg/kg body Maples, Chinese Bell-flowers. weight), isolated from the seeds of red Ayurvedic Atibalaa, Kankatikaa, var., exhibited a noticeable increase in Rishyaproktaa.
  12. 12. 4 Acacia arabica Willd. var. indica Benth. A Unani Kanghi, Musht-ul-Ghaul, Darkht-e-Shaan. Medic.; A. fruticosum Guill. et al.; A. hirtum (Lam.) Sweet, synonym A. Siddha/Tamil Thutthi. graveolens Wt. and Arn.; A. muticum Sweet, synonym A. glaucum Sweet; and Folk Kanghi, Kakahi, Kakahiyaa. A. polyandrum Wight and Arn., syn- Action Dried, whole plant— onym A. persicum (Burm. f.) Mer- febrifuge, anthelmintic, demulcent, rill (known as Naani-khapaat, Jhinaki- diuretic, anti-inflammatory (in khapaat, Kanghi, Makhamali-khapaat urinary and uterine discharges, and Khaajavani-khapaat, respectively, piles, lumbago). Juice of the plant— in folk medicine). emollient. Seeds—demulcent Dosage Root—– g powder. (API (used in cough, chronic cystitis), Vol I.) laxative. Leaves—cooked and eaten for bleeding piles. Flowers— antibacterial, anti-inflammatory. Bark—astringent, diuretic. Root— Acacia arabica Willd. var. nervine tonic, given in paralysis; indica Benth. also prescribed in strangury. Synonym A. nilotica (Linn.) Delile Along with other therapeutic appli- subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan. cations, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Family Mimosaceae. of India indicates the use of the root in Habitat Throughout the drier parts gout, polyuria and haemorrhagic dis- of India. eases. The plant contains mucilage, tan- English Babul, Black Babul, Indian nins, asparagines, gallic acid and ses- Gum arabic tree. quiterpenes. Presence of alkaloids, Ayurvedic Babbuula, Babbuuri, leucoanthocyanins, flavonoids, sterols, Baavari, Aabhaa, Shuulikaa, triterpenoids, saponins and cardiac Shitaka, Kinkiraata, Yugmakantaka, glycosides is also reported. Sukshmapatra, Pitapushpaka. Asparagine is diuretic. Gallic acid Unani Aqaaqia, Babuul, Kikar, is analgesic. Mucilages act by reflex, Mughilaan, Samur. loosen cough as well as bronchial ten- sion. Essential oil—antibacterial, anti- Siddha/Tamil Karu-velamaram, fungal. Karuvelei. Velampisin (gum). The drug exhibits immunological Action Stembark—astringent, activity. It augments antibody in spasmolytic, hypoglycaemic. animals. EtOH (%) extract of A. Gum—demulcent (soothing agent indicum ssp. guineense Borssum, syn- for inflammatory conditions of the onym A. asiaticum (Linn.) Sweet, ex- respiratory, digestive and urinary hibits anticancer activity. tracts). Pods—used in urogenital Related sp. include: Abutilon avicen- disorders. Seeds—hypoglycaemic nae Gaertn., synonym A. theophrastii in normal rats; no such effect in
  13. 13. Acacia catechu (Linn. f.) Willd. 5 diabetic rats. Seed oil—antifungal. Flowers, pods and gum resin—used Habitat Drier regions of India, particularly Punjab, Madhya A in diarrhoea and dysentery. Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Along with other therapeutic appli- Rajasthan. cations, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of stembark English Cutch tree, Catechu. in acute diarrhoea and helminthiasis. Ayurvedic Khadira, Kadara, Tannin contents of the bark varies Somavalka, Gaayatri, Dantdhaavan, considerably (–%). Several poly- Kantaki, Raktasaara (heartwood phenolic compounds have been re- extract). ported in the bark, also in the pods. The whole pod contains –% tan- Unani Khair, Kaat, Katthaa nins and –% after the removal of (heartwood extract). seeds. Siddha/Tamil Karunkaali The seeds of A. benthamii, A. nilotica (bark), Kalippakku, Kadiram. ssp. subulata, probably same as ssp. in- Katthakkaambu, Kaasukkatti dica, are considered hypoglycaemic. (heartwood extract). Some seed components stimulate in- sulin secretion by beta cells. Action Cutch from wood— The gum contains galactose; l-ara- powerful astringent (in urinary and binose, l-rhamnose and aldobiouronic vaginal discharge), antidiarrhoeal, acids, also arabinobioses. haemostatic; used for treating The flowers contain flavonoids— excessive mucous discharges, kaempferol--glucoside, iso-quercitrin haemorrhages, relaxed conditions and leucocyanidin. of gums, throat and mouth, stomatitis, irritable bowel; also used Dosage Stembark—– g for as an antileprotic drug. decoction. (API Vol. I.) Along with other therapeutic appli- cations, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried pieces Acacia canescens Grab. of heartwood in inflammations, skin Family Mimosaceae. diseases and urinary disorders, recom- Habitat Bihar and South India. mends its use as a blood purifier, in diseases caused by lipid disorders. Ayurvedic Aadaari (related sp.) Cutch (the concentrated extract) Folk Ari, Araara. contains tannins –%, catechin – Action See A. torta. %, phlobatannins including cate- chutannic acid –%; flavonoids in- cluding quercetin, quercitrin, fisetin; gums, resins, pigments. The gum from Acacia catechu (Linn. f.) Willd. A. catechu is a good substitute for Gum Family Mimosaceae. arabic.
  14. 14. 6 Acacia chundra Willd. A Seed extract—hypoglycaemic to normal albino rats, but not effective Andhra Pradesh on dry and rocky soils. in diabetic rats. The saline extract of English Red Cutch. seeds shows leuco-agglutinating activ- ity against leukaemic cells. It agglu- Ayurvedic Khadira (related sp.). tinates white cells from patients with Siddha/Tamil Katthakkaambu different types of leukaemia. The acti- (heartwood extract). vity is inhibited by simple sugars. Root extract shows antibacterial and fungi- Folk Laal Khair. cidal activity. Action Uses similar to those of A. The heartwood contains a hepato- catechu heartwood extract. protective principle—cyanidanol. Astringent and antibacterial prop- The bark and leaves are used for ul- erties of catechu result from its high cerated abscesses and toothache; wood tannin content. for leucoderma. Gambrine in pale catechu shows hy- EtOH (%) extract—spermicidal potensive effects. and spasmolytic. Fisetin in black catechu and (+)- catechin in black and pale catechu may protect against liver damage; (+)- Acacia concinna (Willd.) DC. catechin is also thought to protect against experimentally induced ulcers Synonym A sinuata (Lour.) Merrill; in animals; (+)-catechin (cianidanol) is A. rugata (Lamk.) Ham. associated with fatal anaemia. Methyl- Family Mimosaceae. catechin, one of the major metabolites of (+)-catechin, inhibits the binding Habitat Tropical jungles throughout of monocytes to vascular endothelial India, especially in the Deccan. cells; thus, the catechin found in cate- Ayurvedic Saptalaa, Shitalaa, chu may reduce atherosclerosis. (Natu- Saatalaa, Shrivalli, Kantvalli. ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .) Unani Shikaakaai, Kharunb Nabti. Siddha/Tamil Seekai, Sigakai. Dosage Heartwood—– g for decoction. (API Vol. I.) Folk Ban-Reethaa. Action Febrifuge, expectorant, emetic, spasmolytic, diuretic, Acacia chundra Willd. antidiarrhoeal. Leaves—an infusion is given in malarial fever. Pods and Synonym A. sundra DC. seeds—decoction is used to remove dandruff (known as Shikaakaai), Family Mimosaceae. extensively used as a detergent. An Habitat Rajasthan, Gujarat, ointment is used for skin diseases. Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Bark—extract is used in leprosy.
  15. 15. Acacia leucophloea Willd. 7 The bark yields a saponin which, on hydrolysis, yields lupeol, alpha- The ethanolic extract of unripe pods yields a glycosidal fraction (.%) A spinasterol and acacic acid lactone. which exhibits anti-inflammatory ac- Pods also yield saponins (.%). Sug- tivity. It also shows significant antibac- ars identified are glucose, arabinose terial activity. and rhamnose. The plant acts as an antiseptic agent The leaves contain alkaloids, nico- for curing sores, gums and loose teeth. tine and colycotomine, a triterpenoid The flowers are the source of Cassie saponin and oxalic, tartaric, citric, suc- perfume. cinic and ascorbic acids. The main constituents of the flowers The bark saponins are spermicidal, are benzyl, anisic, decylic and cuminic also haemolytic and spasmolytic. A de- aldehydes, as well as traces of geraniol, coction of pods relieves biliousness and farnesol and linalool. acts as a purgative. Acacia leucophloea Willd. Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. Synonym A. alba Willd. Family Mimosaceae. Family Mimosaceae. Habitat Native to West Indies; now Habitat Dry regions of the country, occurring throughout India. especially in Punjab, Rajasthan and English Cassie Flower, Cassie Madhya Pradesh. Absolute, Sweet Acacia. English White Babul. Ayurvedic Arimeda, Vitkhadira. Ayurvedic Arimeda, Arimedaka, Arimanja, Irimeda, Vitakhadir, Unani Vilaayati Kikar, Gandbabuul, Godhaa-skandha, Raamaka. Guyaa Babuul, Durgandh Khair. Unani Kath Safed, Vilaayati Babuul, Siddha/Tamil Kastuurivel, Vedday- Guyaa Babuul. ala. Siddha/Tamil Valval, Velvayalam. Action Bark—astringent, demul- cent, anthelmintic, antidysenteric, Folk Safed Babuul, Safed Kikar, anti-inflammatory (used in stom- Renvaa. atitis, ulcers, swollen gums, dental Action Bark—bitter, demulcent and caries, bronchitis, skin diseases). cooling; used in biliousness and bronchitis. Seeds—haemaggluti- Ripe pods contain tannins and sev- nating activity has been reported. eral polyphenolic compounds. Essen- Leaves—antisyphilitic and antibac- tial oil from pods—direct muscle relax- terial. Gum—demulcent. ant, cardiac depressant and sedative. Various plant parts are used in in- EtOH (%) extract of aerial parts— sanity, epilepsy, delirium and convul- hypotensive and central nervous sys- sions. tem depressant.
  16. 16. 8 Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. A The rootbark contains leucophleol, leucophleoxol and leucoxol. Bechic, antihaemorrhagic, anti- inflammatory. Stembark—anti- inflammatory, spasmolytic. Root— used for dysentery and urinary Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. discharges. The gum consists mainly of arabin. Family Mimosaceae. It is the salt of an organic acid, ara- Habitat Throughout India; ascend- bic acid, with metals such as calcium, ing to , m in the Himalayas. magnesium and potassium. Ayurvedic Lataakhadira, Aadaari, The stembark gives octacosanol, Ari. beta-amyrin, uvaol, beta-stosterol and its glucoside and erthrodiol. An al- Siddha/Tamil Indan, Indu. Iyak kaloid, dimethyltryptamine has been Koluntu (tender leaves). isolated from the leaves. Folk Aila. Action Bark—antibilious, antiasth- matic. Leaf—stomachic, styptic Acacia suma Buch.-Ham. (for bleeding gum), antiseptic (for Synonym A. polycantha Willd. scalding of urine). A decoction of young leaves is taken for body pain, Family Mimosaceae. headache and fever. Habitat West Bengal, Bihar, western peninsula. The bark contains tannin %, lupe- Ayurvedic Shveta Khadira, Kadara, ol and alpha-spinasterol. Stem yields Somavalkala. sitosterol. Unani Khor, Safed Khair. Action Cutch is prepared from the Acacia senegal Willd. heartwood. See A. catechu. Acacia ferruginea DC. is also equat- Synonym A. verek Guillem and ed with Shveta Khadira. Perr. Family Mimosaceae. Habitat Native to Sudan. Cultivated Acacia torta (Roxb.) Craib. in dry parts of western India. Synonym A. intsia Willd. English Gum arabic tree. A. caesia Wright and Arn. non- Ayurvedic Shveta Babbuula. Willd. Action The tree yields the true Gum Family Mimosaceae. arabic of commerce. Mucilaginous, Habitat Throughout India in the dry demulcent, emulsifying agent. Used and intermediate zones; ascending as an ingredient in compounds for to an altitude of about , m in treatment of diarrhoea, catarrh. the Himalayas.
  17. 17. Acanthospermum hispidum DC. 9 Ayurvedic Aadaari, Lataa Khadira (related sp., see. A. pennata). Folk Chinnivara. A Action Leaves—stomachic, al- Siddha/Tamil Kariyundu, Ingu. terative; prescribed in digestive Folk Araar, Chilar (Punjab), Aila disorders, dyspepsia, colic, diar- (Maharashtra). rhoea. Action Flower—emmenagogue. Bark—anti-inflammatory, antisep- Acalypha indica Linn. tic (in skin diseases). Bark contains % tannins, triterpene alcohol, Family Euphorbiaceae. saponins of acacic acid, lupeol and Habitat Occurs throughout the a steroid, acaciol. An alkaloid, plains of India, ascending the hills tryptamine, is present in the root in Orissa up to  m. and stem bark. English Indian Acalypha. Various plant parts are used in Ayurvedic Kuppi, Muktavarchaa, cough, bronchitis, measles, tubercular Haritamanjari fistula and in the treatment of men- strual disorders. The bark is used for Siddha/Tamil Kuppaimeni. washing the hair. Folk Khokli, Kuppi, Aamaabhaaji. Action Antibacterial (leaf used in scabies). Plant—emetic, expecto- Acalypha ciliata Forsk. rant (used in bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia). Tincture of fresh Family Euphorbiaceae. plant is used in homoeopathy Habitat Common in plains, for incipient phthisis with bloody as a weed in gardens; also in expectorations, emaciation and wastelands, especially in Bangalore arterial haemorrhage. and Pachmarhi. The plant contains kaempferol; Ayurvedic Kuppi (smaller var.). leaves and twigs contain acalyphamide Folk Daadari (Gujarat). and other amides, quinone, sterols, Action See A. indica. cyanogenic glycoside. The herb causes intestinal irritation. Acalypha fruticosa Forsk. Acanthospermum hispidum Family Euphorbiaceae. DC. Habitat Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Family Compositae; Asteraceae. Karnataka and Kerala. Habitat Native to Brazil; found as English Birch-leaved Acalypha. a weed throughout the greater part Siddha/Tamil Kuppaimeni. of India.
  18. 18. 10 Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. A Ayurvedic Trikantaka. (Different from Gokshura; also equated with Habitat The western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon. Martynia diandra, Martineacea, English Milfoil, Yarrow, Thousand known as Kaakanaasaa.) Leaf. Action Used in dermatological Unani Biranjaasif. National affections. Formulary of Unani Medicine also equates Leonurus cardica The essential oil (yield .%) showed Linn. (Labiatae) with Biranjaasif. antibacterial and antifungal activity. Folk Gandana, Rojmari. Action Anti-inflammatory, anti- spasmodic (used in cold, flatulent Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. colic, heartburn), emmenagogue, Family Acanthaceae. cicatrizant, antidysenteric, anti- haemorrhagic, antipyretic, diapho- Habitat Common in tidal forests retic, diuretic, urinary antiseptic. along the East and West coasts; also distributed in Meghalaya and the Key application In dyspeptic Andamans. ailments, such as mild, spastic discomforts of the gastrointestinal English Sea Holly. tract. As astringent, antispasmodic, Ayurvedic Krishna Saraiyaka. choleretic, antibacterial. (German (Blue-flowered Katasaraiyaa.) Commission E.) As diaphoretic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) In- Siddha/Tamil Kollimulli. ternally for feverish conditions, Folk Hargozaa. common cold and digestive com- Action Decoction—antacid (used plaints; topically for slow-healing in dyspepsia with acid eructations), wounds and skin inflammations. also diuretic (used in dropsy and (The British Herbal Compendium.) bilious swellings). Aerial parts show The plant contains flavonoids, al- effect on nictitating membrane. kaloids (achilleine), polyacetylenes, The root is a cordial attenuant and triterpenes, coumarins, tannins, sal- is used in debility associated with icylic acid, a volatile oil containing asthma, paralysis, leucorrhoea. linalool, camphor, sabinene, chamazu- lene and other azulenes. The air-dried plant contains an al- Sesquiterpene lactones are bitter and kaloid, acanthicifoline, and a flavone. tonic. Achilleine helps arrest internal and external bleeding. Flavonoids con- tribute to the antispasmodic action. Achillea millefolium Linn. The flavonoid apigenin is anti-in- flammatory, antiplatelet and spasmo- Synonym A. lanulosa Nutt. lytic. Alkaloids and bases are anti- Family Compositae; Asteraceae. inflammatory. Alkaloid betoncine is
  19. 19. Achyranthes aspera Linn. 11 haemostatic. Salicylic acid is anti- inflammatory. Chamazulene is anti- altitude of , m, in the southern Andaman Islands. A inflammatory and antiallergenic. (Nat- English Prickly Chaff Flower. ural Medicines Comprehensive Data- base, .) Ayurvedic Apaamaarga, Chirchitaa, An extract of the plant was found Shikhari, Shaikharika, Adahshalya, to be rich in luteolin or luteolin - Mayura, Mayuraka, Kharamanjari, glucoside and can be used for the treat- Kharapushpaa, Pratyakpushpaa, ment of hyperpigmentation of skin. Aaghaat, Vashira, Kanihi. Unani Chirchitaa. Siddha/Tamil Naayuruvi. Achras zapota Linn. Folk Chirchitta, Chichidaa, Synonym Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Latjeeraa. P. van Royan Action Astringent, pectoral (ashes Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg of the plant used in asthma and Sapota achras Mill. cough), diuretic, hepatoprotective, Family Sapotaceae. emmenagogue. Benzene extract of Habitat Native to Central America. the plant exhibited abortifacient Cultivated chiefly in Maharashtra, activity. The flowers, ground and Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. mixed with sugar, are given for menorrhagia. Roots—astringent, English Sapota, Sapodilla Plum, haemostatic. Seeds—emetic; used Chicle. for biliousness. Essential oil— Unani Sapotaa, Cheeku. antifungal. Siddha/Tamil Shimai eluppai. Key application As astringent, Action Fruit—antibilious. Seed— emetic. (Indian Herbal Pharma- diuretic. Fruit and bark—febrifuge. copoeia.) The bark contains latex (–% Along with other therapeutic appli- of which consists of gutta-percha-like cations, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia substance); also contains tannin of India indicates the use of the whole (.%). The seeds contain quercitol. plant in lipid disorders and obesity, the Chewing gum consists of approxi- root for its blood-purifying property. mately % chicle, plus sugar, corn The plant juice and ash are used syrup and flavourings. for treating bleeding piles. An alka- line powder of the plant is used in preparing Kshaarasutra of Ayurvedic Achyranthes aspera Linn. medicine, which is recommended for treating fistula-in-ano. Family Amaranthaceae. The whole plant contains the alka- Habitat Throughout the tropical loids achyranthine and betaine. Achy- and subtropical regions, up to an ranthine, a water-soluble alkaloid, is
  20. 20. 12 Achyranthes bidentata Blume A reported to dilate blood vessels, low- er blood pressure, decrease heart rate three mannose units, has been isolated from the roots. It enhanced immune and increase the rate and amplitude of response and prolonged survival time respiration. It also shows spasmodic of mice bearing Ehrlich carcinoma. effects on the rectus muscle of frog, di- The roots contain free oleanolic acid uretic and purgative action in albino (.%) and its saponins (.%). An rats. alcoholic extract of the root showed The presence of ecdysterone and presence of amino acids, steroids, tri- oleanolic acid is also reported in the terpenoids, alkaloids and coumarins. root. The seeds afforded achyranthin. The ashes of the plant yield large Extract of the plant—antimicrobial. quantities of potash. The seeds yield saponins and oleanolic acid and its es- ter. Aconitum atrox The presence of tannins and glyco- (Bruchl) Mukherjee. sides is also reported in the plant. Dosage Whole plant—– g for Synonym Aconitum balfourii Stapf. decoction. Root—– g. (API Family Ranunculaceae. Vols. II, III.) Ash— mg to  g. Habitat The sub-alpine and alpine (CCRAS.) Himalayas between , and , m. Ayurvedic Vatsanaabha (related Achyranthes bidentata Blume sp.). Family Amaranthaceae. Folk Banwaa. Habitat The temperate and sub- Action Poisonous, highly toxic. tropical Himalayas from Kishtwar to Sikkim at ,–, m, Khasi Air-dried roots contain .% total hills. alkaloids of which pseudoaconitine is Ayurvedic Shveta Apaamaarga. .%. Pseudoaconitine is biological- (Rakta Apaamaarga is equated ly . times as active as aconitine. (A. with Achyranthes rubra-fusca atrox is a poisonous species and is one Hook. f. and A. verschaffeltii Lam., of the common constituents of Aconi- synonym Iresine herbstii Hook. f.) tum ferox of commerce.) Siddha/Tamil Naayurivi. Action Astringent, diuretic, Aconitum chasmanthum spasmolytic. Plant is given Stapf ex Holmes. in whooping cough, roots in hemicrania. Family Ranunculaceae. A water-soluble oligosaccharide, Habitat The western Himalayas composed of six glucose units and from Hazara to Kashmir and
  21. 21. Aconitum falconeri Stapf. 13 Chamba in Himachal Pradesh, between altitudes of , m and interacts with antiarrhythmics, anti- hypertensives, Digoxin/cardiac glyco- A , m. sides. (Sharon M. Herr.) English Indian Napellus. Dosage Root—– mg powder. Ayurvedic Visha, Shringika-Visha, (CCRAS.) Vatsanaabha (related sp.). Folk Mohri, Meethaa Zahar. Action Sedative, antirheumatic, Aconitum deinorrhizum Stapf. analgesic, antitussive, antidiar- Family Ranunculaceae. rhoeal. Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I and Part II, equated Habitat Alpine regions of Chat- A. chasmanthum with Vatsanaabha. tadhar and Bhalesh ranges of (See A. ferox.) It has the same uses Bhadarwah district in Jammu and as A. ferox. The alkaloid content Kashmir. of the root ranges from . to Ayurvedic Vatsanaabha (related .%; includes chasmaconitine and sp.). chasmanthinine. Folk Bashahr-Mohra, Dudhiyaa Napellus, equated with Aconitum Bish, Safed Bikh. napellus Linn., is indigenous to Cen- Action Roots and leaves are used in tral Europe (named after the Black sea rheumatism, rheumatic fever and port Aconis and known as Wolfsbane, acute headache. Monkshood). Aconitum of homoeo- pathic medicine is an alkaloid obtained The roots contain .% total alka- from the roots and stems of A. nepellus. loids, of which .% is pseudoaconi- Used as an analgesic and sedative. It tine. contains terpenoids up to .%, includ- ing aconitine and aconine. Toxic constituents of A. napellus Aconitum falconeri Stapf. are aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconi- tine, -acetylacoitine, lappaconitine Family Ranunculaceae. (diterpenoid-ester alkaloids), benza- Habitat The sub-alpine and alpine conine, benzoylaconine. zones of the Garhwal Himalayas. Aconitine, mesaconitine and hyp- Ayurvedic Vatsanaabha (related aconitine exert widespread effects on sp.). cardiac, neural and muscle tissue by activitating sodium channels. (Natu- Folk Bikh, Bis, Meethaa Telia. ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, Action Sedative, carminative, .) anti-inflammatory (used for the Aconitine is absorbed through mu- treatment of nervous system, cus membranes and the skin. (Fran- digestive system; rheumatism, cis Brinker.) It is a cardiotoxin and fever).
  22. 22. 14 Aconitum ferox Wall. ex Ser. A The root alkaloids contain bishati- sine, bishaconitine, falconitine and cardiac depression. Topically, aconi- tine has analgesic, anti-inflammatory mithaconitine. Treatment with cow’s and anaesthetic activity. milk reduces cardiotoxic effect of the root. Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle. Aconitum ferox Wall. ex Ser. Family Ranunculaceae. Family Ranunculaceae. Habitat Cultivated at Manali and Rahla in Himachal Pradesh. Also Habitat The alpine Himalayas from found in northwestern Himalayas Sikkim to Garhwal and Assam. at altitudes ranging from , to English Indian Aconite, Wolfsbane, , m. Monkshood. English Atis Root, Aconite. Ayurvedic Vatsanaabha, Visha, Ayurvedic Ativishaa, Arunaa, Amrita, Vajraanga, Sthaavaravisha, Vishaa, Shuklakandaa, Bhanguraa, Vatsanaagaka, Shrangikavisha, Ghunapriyaa, Ghunavallabhaa, Garala. Kaashmiraa, Shishubhaishajyaa Unani Bish, Bishnaag. (indicating its use in paediatrics), Vishwaa. Siddha/Tamil Vasanaavi, Karunaab- hi. Unani Atees. Siddha/Tamil Athividayam. Folk Bacchanaag, Bish, Mithaa Zahar, Telia Visha. Folk Patis. Action Narcotic, sedative, antilepro- Action Often regarded as non- tic, anti-inflammatory. Extremely poisosnous, antiperiodic, anti- poisonous. (Roots possess depres- inflammatory, astringent (used sant activity, but after mitigation in in cough, diarrhoea, dyspepsia), cow’s milk for – days, they exhibit tonic (used after fevers), febrifuge, stimulant activity.) antispasmodic (used in irritabil- ity of stomach and abdominal Key application In neuralgia. pains). (Aconitum napellus L. has been listed by German Commission E Along with other therapeutic appli- among unapproved herbs.) cations, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of the dried, The root contains diterpenoid alka- tuberous root in emesis and helminthi- loids, which act as a powerful poison asis. that affects the heart and central ner- The roots yield .% of total alka- vous system. Aconitine has a short- loids, of which atisin is .%. Atisine lived cardiotonic action followed by is much less toxic than aconitine and
  23. 23. Aconitum violaceum Jacq. ex Stapf. 15 pseudoaconitine. (The inert character of the plant is well known to the hill Family Ranunculaceae. A Habitat The alpine Himalayas of people, who often use it as a vegetable.) Sikkim, Nepal, the adjoining parts The plant possesses potent immuno- of southern Tibet, between altitudes stimulant properties. of , m and , m. Dosage Root—.–. g. (API Ayurvedic Prativishaa, Shyaamkan- Vol. I.) daa, Patis. Folk Bikhamaa. Action Root—antiemetic, antidiar- Aconitum laciniatum rhoeal, antirheumatic, antiperiodic. (Bruhl) Stapf. The root contains diterpenoid alka- Family Ranunculaceae. loids and a nitrogenous non-alkaloid compound, benzamide. Alkaloids in- Habitat The sub-alpine and alpine clude vakognavine, palmatisine, vaka- Himalayas of Sikkim between tisine, vakatisinine and vakatidine. altitudes of , m and , m. The root is intensely bitter, like qui- Ayurvedic Vatsanaabha (related nine, is used with Piper longum for di- sp.). arrhoea and vomiting; used externally Folk Kaalo Bikhmo. as an application for rheumatism. Action Poisonous. (Found mixed with the roots of A. ferox and A. spicatum of commerce.) Aconitum spicatum Stapf. Family Ranunculaceae. Habitat The alpine zone of the Aconitum luridum Himalayas of Sikkim and Chumbi. Hook. f. and Thoms. Principal source of Bikh or Bish of Kolkata market. Family Ranunculaceae. English Nepal Aconite. Habitat The Himalayas from eastern Ayurvedic Vatsanaabha (related Nepal to Chumbi at altitudes of sp.). , to , m. Action Antipyretic, analgesic. Ayurvedic Vatsanaabha (related sp.). The roots yield .% of alkaloids which contain mainly pseudoaconitine Action As potent as Aconitum ferox. and bikhaconitine. Aconitum palmatum D. Don. Aconitum violaceum Jacq. ex Stapf. Synonym A. bisma (Buch.-Ham.) Rapaics. Family Ranunculaceae.
  24. 24. 16 Acorus calamus Linn. A Habitat The alpine zone of the Himalayas from Gilgit to Kumaon. calamus L. var. americanus, a diploid American var.; type II—var. vulgaris Ayurvedic Vatsanaabha (related L. (var. calamus), a European triploid; sp.). type III and type IV—var. augustatus Bess. and var. versus L., subtropical Folk Tilia Kachnaag, Dudhia. tetraploids. Action Nervine tonic. Beta-asarone is carcinogenic in ani- mals. Volatile oil of types II, III and Air-dried roots of the plant are re- IV—major constituent is usually beta- ported to contain % indaconitine. asarone (isoasarone), up to %. In- dian calamus oil contains asarone up to % and its beta-isomer. In type I, Acorus calamus Linn. beta-asarone and other phenylpropa- noids are absent. It is superior in spas- Family Araceae. molytic activity to the other types. Habitat Wild and cultivated Indian practitioners mostly use A. throughout India in damp marshy calamus externally. Shveta Vachaa places from  to , m; common (Haimavati, equated with Acorus gra- in Manipur and Naga Hills. mineus Scoland. Ex Ait., a diploid, is English Sweet Flag, Calamus. used internally. Unani physicians use Paris polyphylla Sim. as Khuraasaani Ayurvedic Vachaa, Ugragandhaa, Bach. Ugraa, Golomi, Shadgranthaa, The essential oil-free alcoholic ex- Shataparvaa, Tikshnagandhaa, tract of A. calamus possesses sedative Kshudra-patra, Maangalyaa, Ghor- and analgesic properties. bach. Alpha-asarone potentiates pento- Unani Waj-e-Turki, Waj. barbital, accounts for some, but not all, Siddha/Tamil Vasambu. neurodepressive activity. Beta-asarone Action Rhizome—nervine tonic, is reportedly hallucinogenic. (Francis hypotensive, tranquilizer, sedative Brinker.) (with neuroleptic and antianxiety The ethanolic extract of rhizomes properties), analgesic, spasmolytic, show significant antisecretory and an- anticonvulsant; used for bronchial tiulcerogenic activity; also, protective catarrh, chronic diarrhoea and effect against cytodestructive agents, dysentery. experimentally. Along with other therapeutic appli- Dosage Rhizome—– mg cations, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia powder. (API Vol. II.) of India indicates the use of the dried rhizomes as a brain tonic in weak mem- ory, psychoneurosis and epilepsy. Acorus gramineus Soland. ex Ait. Four types of Calamus are used in herbal medicine: type I—Acorus Family Araceae.
  25. 25. Actinodaphne hookeri Meissn. 17 Habitat Native to Japan, occasion- ally met within Sikkim at an altitude Actiniopteris dichotoma Kuhn. A of , m, in Khasi Hills up to Synonym A. australis (L. f.) Link. , m. A. radiata (Sw.) Link. A. dichotoma Kuhn. Ayurvedic Haimavati (white var. of Vachaa). Family Adiantaceae. Action Antispasmodic (used in Habitat Throughout India, espe- abdominal colic). See A. calamus. cially common in Kumaon Hills and the Nilgiris, below an altitude of , m. English Peacock’s tail. Actaea spicata Linn. Ayurvedic Mayurshikhaa, Madhu- Synonym A. acuminata Wall. ex chhadaa, Sahastrahi, Vahrishikhaa. Royle Action Styptic, antibacterial, Family Ranunculaceae. antipyretic. Habitat Native to Europe; grows in The stems and leaves contain rutin, temperate Himalayas from Hazara a styptic active principle. Anthelmintic to Bhutan. activity, attributed to the fern, was not English Baneberry Grapewort. observed in experiments on mice. Folk Visha-phale (Kannada). Dosage Root—– g powder. (CCRAS.) Action Root—antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, nerve sedative, emetic, purgative; used in the treatment of rheumatic fever, Actinodaphne hookeri Meissn. lumbago, scrofula, nervous disor- Synonym A. angustifolia Nees. ders, chorea. Family Lauraceae. The plant is reported to contain Habitat The western Ghats, Orissa trans-aconitic acid, which shows a and Sikkim up to , m. strong cytostatic action. Its Me ether is active against Ehrlich’s ascites tu- Siddha/Tamil Thali, Paratathali. mours. Folk Pisaa (Maharashtra). In folk medicine, roots are used in Action Infusion of leaves—urinary cases of ovarian neuralgia, uterine ten- tract disinfectant, antidiabetic, derness and sub-involution. They are spasmolytic. adulterant of the roots of Helleborus niger. Berries are poisonous; used top- The leaves contain a very small ically for skin diseases. The toxic con- amount of an amorphous alkaloid. stituent is protoanemonin (lactone). It They also contain beta-sitosterol, hen- is irritant to mucous membrane. triacontanone, hentriacontanol and
  26. 26. 18 Adansonia digitata Linn. A quercetin--rhamnoside and hydro- carbons. The roots contain a flavanone glyco- side. The bark gives an alkaloid, actino- daphnine. Adenanthera pavonina Linn. Family Leguminosae; Mimosaceae. Adansonia digitata Linn. Habitat The western Ghats, the Family Bombacaceae. Andamans and sub-Himalayan Habitat Native to tropical Africa; tract; also cultivated. common along the west coast of English Coral Wood, Red Wood. India. Ayurvedic Rakta Kanchana, Rakta English Baobab, Monkey Bread Kambala. tree, African calabash. Siddha/Tamil Anai-gundumani. Ayurvedic Sheet-phala, Ravanaam- likaa, Gorakshi, Panchparni. Folk Ghumchi (bigger var.). Unani Gorakh Imli. Action Astringent and styptic (used in diarrhoea, haemorrhage Siddha/Tamil Papparapuli. from the stomach, haematuria), Folk Gorakh Imli; Gorakh anti-inflammatory (in rheumat- Chinchaa. ic affections, gout). Seeds— Action Cooling, refrigerant (allays anticephalgic; also used for the burning sensation). Leaves— treatment of paralysis. A decoction diaphoretic (used as a prophylactic is given in pulmonary affections. against fevers). Fruit—antidysen- The seed contains an anti-inflam- teric, antiseptic, antihistaminic. matory active principle, O-acetyletha- The fruit pulp is a source of vita- nolamine. The leaves contain octa- min C (.–. mg/ g); dried cosanol, dulcitol, glucosides of beta- pulp contains calcium and vitamin B. sitosterol and stigmasterol. The bark Furfural (.%) is obtained after dis- contains sitgmasterol glucoside. tillation of the fruit. In Africa, dried leaves provide much of the dietary cal- cium. Aqueous extract of the bark is Adhatoda vasica Nees. used for treating sickle cell anaemia. An infusion of the leaves and flow- Synonym A. zeylanica Medic. ers is given in respiratory disorders. Justicia adhatoda Linn. (Powdered leaves prevented crisis in Family Acanthaceae. asthma induced by histamine in guinea pigs.) Dried fruit pulp also gives relief Habitat Throughout India, up to an in bronchial asthma, allergic dermati- altitude of , m. tis and urticaria. English Malabar Nut, Vasaca.
  27. 27. Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. 19 Ayurvedic Vaasaa, Vaasaka, Vaasikaa, Simhaasya, Simhaparni, more powerful and active than A. vasi- ca. Fresh leaf juice is used in haemop- A Simhavadanaa, Vaajidanta, Vrisha, tysis and menorrhagia, also as an anti- Aataruushaka. asthmatic. Jacobinia tinctoria Henl. is equated Unani Arusaa. with the red-flowered var. of Vaasaa. Siddha/Tamil Aadaathodai. Dosage Leaf—– ml juice. Folk Vasaakaa. Dried leaves—– g for deoction. Action Expectorant (used in Root—– g powder. (API Vols. I, bronchial, asthmatic and pulmo- IV.) nary affections), antispasmodic, febrifuge. Key application As bronchodilatory, Adiantum aethiopicum Linn. expectorant. (Indian Herbal Synonym A. emarginatum Bedd. Pharmacopoeia.) The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates its Family Adiantaceae. use in dyspnoea. Habitat North Kanara and the Nilgiri and Palni hills at higher The chief quinazoline alkaloid vas- elevations. icine is reported in all parts of the plant, the highest being in inflores- Ayurvedic Hansapadi (related sp.). cence. It is a bitter bronchodilator, res- Action Rhizomes—decoction piratory stimulant, hypotensive, car- abortifacient. Astringent and diac depressant, uterotonic and aborti- emetic. Emollient in coughs and facient. An aqueous solution of va- diseases of the chest; sudorific. sicinone hydrochloride, when studied in mice and dogs, was found to po- tentiate the bronchodilatory activity Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. of aminophylline, also that of isopre- naline. Vasicinone exhibited smooth- Family Adiantaceae. muscle-relaxant properties of airways. Habitat All along the Himalayas Alkaloids present in the plant from Kashmir to Sikkim between showed significant protection against altitudes of , and , m. allergin-induced bronchial obstruc- tion in guinea pigs. English American Maidenhair The leaves are found to activate the Fern, Venus Hair, Rock Fern. digestive enzyme trypsin. Ayurvedic Hansaraaja, Hansapadi An extract of the leaves showed (related sp.). significant antifungal activity against Unani Parsiaavashaan. ringworm. Adhatoda beddomei C.B. Clarke, Siddha/Tamil Seruppadai. found in Kerala, is considered to be Folk Mubaaraka.
  28. 28. 20 Adiantum incisum Forsk. A Action Astringent, demulcent, expectorant, antitussive, stimulant, English Walking Maidenhair Fern. Black Maidenhair (A. venustum G. emmenagogue. Fonds used in Don is also known as Hansaraaja.) chronic catarrh (as an ingredient Ayurvedic Hansapadi, Hansapaadi, of cough and bronchial medicines); Raktapaadi, Kitamaataa, Tri- also in cold imposthumes of uterus, paadikaa, Hansaraaja; a substitute hard swellings and hard tumours of for Taamrachuda-paadikaa. spleen, liver and other viscera. Siddha/Tamil Seruppadai. The fern contains flavonoid gluco- Folk Raajhans, Mubaaraka. sides, including rutin, isoquercetin, as- tragalin, kaempferol; hydroxycinnam- Action Febrifugal, antidysenteric, ic acid esters; terpenoids, including soothing agent in erysipelas. The adiantone. rhizome is also prescribed for strangury, atrophy, emaciation or cachexy, muscular pain; emetic in Adiantum incisum Forsk. large doses. Synonym A. caudatum Linn. Along with other therapeutic appli- cations, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Family Adiantaceae. of India indicates the use of the dried Habitat The plains and the lower whole plant in psychosis-related fear. slopes of the hills in Punjab, (It is one of the ingredients of the Rajasthan, West Bengal, Tamil classical drug Maanasamitra Vataka, Nadu and Maharashtra. prescribed for mental disorders.) Ayurvedic Nilakantha-shikhaa, The chemical constituents are chlo- Mayurshikhaa, Vahrishikhaa. rophyll-degradation products and higher carotenoids. Action Used in hemicrania, cough, fever; externally in skin Dosage Whole plant—- g (API diseases; used as a substitute for Vol. III.) A. capillus-veneris. The fern yields adiantone, isoadian- tone, fernene, hentriacontane, hentri- Adina cordifolia acontanone-, beta-sitosterol. Hook. f. ex Brandis Family Rubiaceae. Habitat Indigenous in deciduous Adiantum lunulatum Burm. forests all over India. Synonym A. philippense Linn. English Yellow Teak, Saffron Teak. Family Adiantaceae. Ayurvedic Haridru, Haraduaa- Habitat Throughout the greater kadamba, Gaur-kadamba, part of India, up to an altitude of Girikadamba, Dhaaraakadam- , m. ba, Pitadaaru, Kadambapushpa.
  29. 29. Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schult. 21 Siddha/Tamil Manjakadambu. use of root in dysuria; stembark in diabetes and lipid disorders. A Folk Haladu, Kheta Kadam. Action Antibacterial, antiseptic, A number of coumarins (includ- antidysenteric, antibilious (used ing xanthotoxol and alloimperatorin in biliary colic), febrifuge. Root— methyl ether), flavonoids (including astringent. rutin and marmesin), alkaloids (in- cluding alpha-fagarine), sterols and The heartwood contains indole al- essential oils have been isolated from kaloids; bark .–.% tannin. The plant parts. Pectin is an important leaves contain ursolic acid and querce- constituent of the fruit. tin. Alkaloid aegeline, present in the leaves, is efficacious in asthma. The active principle in aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos leaf shows hypoglycaemic activity sim- (L.) Correa ex Roxb. ilar to insulin. Leaves are also given Family Rutaceae. in jaundice. Alcoholic extract of seeds shows antiallergic activity. Habitat The plains and sub- Marmin, a coumarin isolated from mountain regions of India, ascend- the roots, shows anti-inflammatory ef- ing to an altitude of , m in the fects experimentally. Marmin also in- western Himalayas; cultivated all hibited gastric haemorrhagic lesions over India. in rats and exhibited antiulcer effects. English Bael tree, Bengal Quince. Seed oil showed beneficial effects in Ayurvedic Bilva, Shriphala, regeneration of tumour cells. Shaandilya, Shailuusha, Shalya, Aurapten is found to be the most Sadaaphala, Mahaakapitha (Kapitha potent inhibitor of heart rate. Rootbark is equated with Feronia limonia), is used for palpitation of the heart. Maaluura, Rudrajataa, Rudranir- Dosage Pulp of unripe or half maalya, Shivajataakhya. ripe fruit— g powder. Root— g Unani Bael. powder. (API Vols. I, III.) Siddha/Tamil Vilvam, Koovilam. Action Stomachic, antimicrobial (specific for diarrhoea, colitis, Aerva javanica dysentery and enteric infections), (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schult. digestive, astringent, spasmolytic, hypoglycaemic. Synonym A. persica (Burm.f.) Merill Key application As antidiarrhoeal. A. tomentosa Frosk. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) Along with other therapeutic Family Amaranthaceae. applications, The Ayurvedic Phar- Habitat Punjab, Central and macopoeia of India indicates the Peninsular India.
  30. 30. 22 Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult. A English Javanese Wool Plant. Aerva scandens Wall., synonym A. sanguinolenta Blume, is also known as Siddha/Tamil Perumpoolai. Paashaanabheda in the south. Folk Dholphuli, Khul. Paashaanab- Species used as Paashaanabheda: heda (southern India). Bergenia ligulata (north), Aerva lanata Action Anti-inflammatory, diuretic, (south), Coleus amboinicus (east) and anticalculus, insecticidal. Wooly Bryophyllum pinnatum (west). seeds are used against rheumatism. Dosage – ml decoction. The plant extract contains ascor- (CCRAS.) bic acid, kaempferol, beta-amyrin and beta-sitosterol. The leaves also contain sitosterol and its glucoside. Aesculus hippocastanum Linn. Family Hippocastanaceae; Sapinda- ceae. Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult. Habitat Endemic to the mountains Family Amaranthaceae. of Balkan Peninsula and western Habitat The warmer parts of India, Asia. Introduced into India; occa- ascending to , m. sionally grown as an ornamental tree. Ayurvedic Paashaanabheda. Gorakshaganjaa, Aadaanpaaki, English Horse Chestnut tree. Shatkabhedi. Unani Baloot. (Quercus incana and Siddha/Tamil Sirupeelai. Q. infectoria have also been equated with Baloot in National Formulary Folk Paashaanabheda (southern in Unani Medicine.) India), Gorakhagaanjaa. Folk Pu. Action Anticalculus (used in lithiasis), diuretic, demulcent, Action Anti-inflammatory, va- anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal, sodilator, astringent (used for anticholerin, bechic; leaf used rheumatism, venous congestion, in hepatitis, root in strangury. haemorrhoids), febrifuge. Leaf— A decoction of the plant is used in used in whooping cough. catarrh of bladder. The flowers and Key application In chronic venous roots are used for headache. insufficiency, varicosis, nocturnal Key application As diuretic and systremma (cramps in the calves) lithontriptic. (The British Herbal and swelling of the legs. (Non- Pharmacopoeia.) invasive treatment measures should also be followed.) (German The plant contains palmitic acid, Commission E, ESCOP, The British beta-sitosterol and alpha-amyrin. Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)
  31. 31. Aframomum melegueta (Rosc.) K. Schum. 23 Horse Chestnut contains triterpe- noid saponins (especially aescin, a The leaves contain aescin, quercetin and beta-sitosterol. Stems also con- A complex mixture composed of acylat- tain rutin, astragalin, aesculin. Seeds ed glycosides of protoaesigenin and contain aescin, aesculuside A and B, al- barringtogenol-C, including hippo- so aliphatic esters. Seeds possess anti- caesculin), coumarins and flavonoids. inflammatory activity. Aescin has been shown to eliminate The extract of seeds is considered oedema and reduce exudation. It an- to be active against P- lymphocy- tagonizes the effect of bradykinin, al- tic leukaemia and human epidermoid though it is not a direct bradykinin carcinoma of nasopharynx. antagonist. It causes an increase in plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone and glucose in rats. Hippocaescu- Aframomum melegueta lin and barringtogenol-C--angelate (Rosc.) K. Schum. show antitumour activity in vitro. The hydroxycoumarin aesculin Synonym Amomum melegueta leads to increased bleeding time. Rosc. (Roasting seems to destroy the tox- Family Zingiberaceae. ins.) A few fruits can cause severe Habitat Native to tropical Africa; toxic symptoms. (Francis Brinker.) In cultivated in Indian gardens. some countries, an intravenous mix- ture containing aescin is used after English Grains of Paradise, Alligator surgery. (Natural Medicines Compre- pepper, Meleguetta pepper. hensive Database, .) Unani Heel Habshi. Action Roots possess cardamom- like taste and are given as a decoction for constipation; also as a vermifuge Aesculus indica Hook. for tapeworms. Juice of young Family Sapindaceae; Hippocastana- leaves—styptic. The seeds contain ceae. an alkaloid, piperine; also gingerol, paradol, shogaol and zingerone. Habitat The Himalayas from Kashmir to western Nepal, Kulu Gingerol and shogaol suppress gas- and Chamba in Himachal Pradesh, tric contractions; also have sedative Tehri-Garhwal and Kumaon in and analgesic actions. Pungency of the Uttar Pradesh at –, m. grains is due to paradol. A decoction of the whole plant is English Indian Horse Chestnut, taken internally as a febrifuge. Himalayan Chestnut. High oxalic acid content in the fruit may cause reduced function of the Folk Bankhor. heart. Action Antirheumatic, galacto- Aframomum korarima K. Schum., genic, antileucorrhocic. native to tropical Africa, known as
  32. 32. 24 Aganosma dichotoma (Roth) K. Schum. A False cardamom, is also equated with Heel Habshi. Active principle is agaric acid (aga- ricin), present to the extent of –%. Aganosma dichotoma Agaricus campestris Linn. (Roth) K. Schum. Synonym Psalliota campestris Synonym A. caryophyllata G. Don (Linn.) Fr. Family Apocynaceae. Family Agaricaceae. Habitat Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Habitat The fungi is distributed in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil many parts of India, particularly Nadu; often cultivated in Indian on the hills and plains of northern gardens. and eastern India. Grows during the rainy weather on dead organic Ayurvedic Madhumaalati. matter, e.g. rotting leaves and Action Antiseptic; anodyne (an manure. ingredient in massage oils for English Field mushroom, Edible paraplegia, neuralgia, sciatica); also mushroom. anthelmintic and emetic. Ayurvedic Chhatraka, Bhuumi- The leaves contain quercetin, kaem- chhatra. pferol and phenolic acids. Shoot tips Unani Kammat. and flower buds contain tannin. Siddha Venkodiveli. Aganosma calycina A. DC. is also equated with Madhumaalati. Folk Khumbi. Action A protein (.%) supple- ment and an excellent source of Agaricus albus Linn. vitamins of B complex. Vitamins K, C and D are also present. Though Family Agaricaceae. all the amino acids are reported Habitat Punjab, Asia Minor. to be present, the concentration of tryptophane is particularly low. English Purging Agaric. Extracts of A. campestris contain ty- Unani Gharaiqoon; also equated rosinase; lowered blood pressure of hy- with Fomes officinalis (Vill. ex Fr.) pertensive animals when administered Lloyd. intravenously (exhibited no effect on Action Diuretic, laxative, deob- normal animals). structant, expectorant; purgative Fungal enzyme preparations have and emetic in large doses; used in been used in digestive diseases. the treatment of night sweats in Field mushroom contains amylase, phthisis, and as a supporting drug maltase, glycogenase, protease, cata- for asthma. lase, tyrosinase, phosphomonoesteras-
  33. 33. Aglaia roxburghiana Miq. Hiern 25 es, polyphosphatases, polyphenoloxi- dase and dehydropeptidases. Ageratum conyzoides Linn. A Family Asteraceae, Compositae. Habitat Throughout India, up to an altitude of , m. Agaricus ostreatus (Jacq.) Fries English Goat Weed, White Weed. Family Agaricaceae. Ayurvedic Dochunty, Uchunti, Habitat Artocarpus interifolia, Sahadevi (related sp.). indigenous to the western Ghats. Action Anti-inflammatory, antibac- English Oyster Mushroom (grows terial, antifungal, styptic. on Artocarpus integrifolia). The leaf is reported to contain stig- Action Prevents excessive salivation. masterol (.%) and beta-sitosterol Also given internally in dysentery, (.%) as major component of sterol diarrhoea, stomatitis; as a paste to faction. The dried flowering plant con- gums in apthae. tains the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycop- samine and echinatine. An aqueous extract of leaves is re- Agave americana Linn. ported to show haemostatic activity. The plant extract exhibited muscle re- Family Agavaceae. laxant activity experimentally. The Habitat Native to America; grown ethanolic extract (%) of roots pos- in gardens for ornamentation. sesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. English Century Plant, American The aqueous extract of leaves ex- Aloe. hibits antifungal and crude plant ex- Ayurvedic Kaantala (related sp.). tract antibacterial properties. Siddha/Tamil Alagai. Folk Ban-Kevaraa. Aglaia roxburghiana Miq. Hiern Action Leaf juice—used for warts, cancerous ulcers and putrid Synonym A. elaegnoidea (A. Juss.) tumours. Leaves are also used as Benth. a resolvant in syphilis and scrofula. Milnea roxburghiana (Miq.) Wight and Arn. The leaves contain ten steroidal sa- Family Meliaceae. ponins (six of these are spirostanolic and four furostanolic), also hecogenin Habitat Western Ghats, tropical (.%) and piscidic acid. The seeds forests in the hills of Andhra contain steroid sapogenins including Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and hecogenin. The plant exhibits signifi- Andaman and Nicobar islands. cant antibacterial activity. Ayurvedic Priyangu (var.)
  34. 34. 26 Agrimonia eupatoria auct non L. A Siddha/Tamil Gnaazhal. (Dried flowers of Myristica malabarica and discharging skin, psoriasis and seborrhoic eczemas. Lam. are also used as Priyangu.) Key application In mild, non- Action Fruit—cooling (in febrile specific, acute diarrhoea and complaints), antipyretic, astringent, in inflammation of oral and antidiarrhoeal, antidysenteric, pharyngeal mucosa; as astringent. anti-inflammatory (seeds used for (German Commission E, The British painful micturition). Fruits are Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) also used for treating obstinate skin The herb contains condensed tan- diseases and tumours. nins up to %, coumarins, flavonoids Bisamide alkaloids of the leaves ex- (glucosides of luteolin, apigenin and hibit anticancer activity (by inhibiting quercetin), polysaccharides, volatile the growth of vinblastine-resistant KB oil. Luteolin -glucoside shows a chole- cells). gogic action. Aqueous extracts inhibi- ted Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also strains resistant to streptomycin and p-aminosalicylate. Essential oil is an- Agrimonia eupatoria auct non L. tibacterial, active against Bacillus sub- Synonym A. pilosa Hook.f. non tilis. Ledeb. The ethanolic extracts of the herb A. pilosa Ledeb. var. nepalensis (D. are used for their antiviral proper- Don) Nakai ties. (Natural Medicines Comprehen- Family Rosacae. sive Database, .) Coumarins interact with anticoagu- Habitat The Himalayas from lants, and drugs that increase the risk Kashmir to West Bengal at – of bleeding Furanocoumarin content , m, and in Arunachal Pradesh, increase photosensitivity. (Sharon M. Nagaland and Meghalaya. Herr.) English Agrimony, Stickle Wort. Unani Ghaafis. Agropyron repens Beauv. Folk Belu. Action Astringent, anti- Synonym Triticum repens L. inflammatory, hepatic, cholagogue, Family Gramineae; Poaceae. diuretic, mild haemostatic, an- Habitat The western Himalayas and tibacterial. Used for irritations and Kashmir at altitudes between , infections of the intestinal tract, and , m. gallbladder diseases, hyperacidity, colic, urinary disorders (bed- English Couch grass, dog grass, wetting, incontinence), sluggish wheat grass. liver, mucus membrane inflam- Action Demulcent (used in mations; externally for ulcerated cystitis, nephritis), aperient,
  35. 35. Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. 27 diuretic and urinary antiseptic, anticholesterolaemic. Action Bark—bitter, astringent, febrifuge, anthelminitic, antispas- A Key application In irrigation modic, expectorant (used in asthma, therapy for inflammatory diseases bronchitis). Also used for dysentery of the urinary tract and for the as a substitute for Holarrhena prevention of kidney gravel. antidysenterica. (German Commission E, The British Bark and leaves—used as tonic in de- Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) It is bility, especially after childbirth. contraindicated in oedema due to Leaves—used as adulterant for Ad- cardiac or renal insufficiency. hatoda zeylanica leaves. Along with other therapeutic appli- The juice of rhizomes is used for cys- cations, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia titis, nephritis, scirrhous liver; decoc- of India indicates the use of stembark tion for tonsils and as an adjuvant for in high fevers and giddiness. cancer; also used for gout and rheuma- The bark contains several quassi- tism, and chronic skin disorders. noids including ailanthone derivatives. The rhizome contains triticin, a car- They exhibit antitumour activity bohydrate allied to starch, a fruc- against P- lymphocytic leukaemia tosan polysaccharide, inositol, manni- and are cytotoxic against KB test sys- tol; volatile oil up to about .%, con- tem. sisting mainly of agropyrene; vanillin glucoside; mucilage, gum, large quan- Dosage Stembark—– g (API tities of silica; iron, minerals, vita- Vol. III.) Decoction—– ml. mins, K salt. Agropyrene is reported (CCRAS.) to have broad antibiotic properties. Ex- tracts show uric acid solvent proper- ties. Agropyrene is antifungal. Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. Synonym A. altissima (Mill.) Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Swingle Family Simaroubaceae. Family Simaroubaceae. Habitat Native of China and Japan. Habitat Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Found in the hills of northern India Gujarat, Orissa and southern India. up to an altitude of , m. English Tree of Heaven, Maharukh. English Tree of Heaven, Ailanto. Ayurvedic Aralu, Katvanga, Ayurvedic Aralu (related sp.). Dirghavranta, Puutivrksha, Bhallu- Action Bark—astringent, anti- ka. (Mahaanimba is a synonym of spasmodic, parasiticidal, narcotic, Melia azedarach Linn.) cardiac depressant (exercises power- Siddha Perru, Perumaruttu, ful depressing influence on nervous Peruppi. system similar to that of tobacco).

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