Escrito proposal


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Escrito proposal

  1. 1. Lester J. Rosario Rodríguez RISE Program July 26th, 2010804-10-7740Proposal: Prenatal Exposure to Cell Phones and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in theOffspringIntroduction:Today technology is our best arm to survive in this world. All here is about technology, and it iscontinuously enhancing. As the technology continues to advance, the people become even moredependent to it. These are the cases of cell phones. They have become people’s most importantgadgets because they facilitate the communication. There are several negative things that are beingattributed to the high exposure of electromagnetic fields by the use of cell phones:  Divan and collaborators in 2008 associated cell phones use during pregnancy to behavioral problems in children. The attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was associated. The results of this research tended to confuse scientists.  Vrijheid and collaborators in 2010 associated high exposure to cell phones during pregnancy to neurodevelopment problems in the offspring. Those children of users had higher mental development scores and lower psychomotor development scores, which may be due to unmeasured confounding.The symptoms of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include:  difficulty staying focused and paying attention  difficulty controlling behavior  Hyperactivity (over-activity).
  2. 2. Hypothesis:Prenatal high exposure to cell phone use provokes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in theoffspring.Objective:To determine if the prenatal high exposure to cell phone use causes attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorderGoal:Raise awareness in pregnant women about the use of cell phones.Methodology:First Phase:  A big group of recently pregnant women will be asked to fill a questionnaire about the time they spent a day talking through cell phones until their children are born.  Another questionnaire will be filled by these mothers about the behavior of their children when they are 3 to 6 years old. They will also answer if their children are using cell phones and how much time, because the ADHD is diagnosed at the ages of 5 or 6 and there could be a postnatal exposure associated. Their behavior will be compared with the one of children with ADHD when they were at that age. I chose that ages because there the symptoms may be present, but it is difficult to diagnose ADHD, because a normal child could behave that way  It will be determined how many children are diagnosed with ADHD, if there is any. Second Phase:  Expose pregnant hamsters to electromagnetic radiation equivalent to cell phone exposure, at different frequencies and time intervals:  These are the frequencies of cell phones):  900 MHz  1.9 GHz  2.4-GHz  5.8 GHz
  3. 3.  In each frequency there will be 2 groups. One group will be exposed for 3 hours a day and the other group for 6 hours a day.  There will be a control group with no exposure  It will be observed the behavior of the hamstersProjections:  Propose pregnant women to use cell phones with low frequencies of electromagnetic radiation or use them for short periods.  Research about the effects of high exposure to cell phone use in the behavior or health of children, adolescents and adults.
  4. 4. References:  Divan, Hozefa A.; Kheifets, Leeka; Obel, Carsten; Olsen, Jørn. (2008). Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children. Retrieved from: Cell_Phone_Use.1.aspx  Vrijheid M, Martinez D, Forns J, Guxens M, Julvez J, Ferrer, Sunyer J. (2010). Prenatal exposure to cell phone use and neurodevelopment at 14 months. Retrieved from:  NIMH. (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Retrieved on July 2, 2010, from: disorder/complete-index.shtml