Learning goalsKnowledgeTo know what is meant by an extreme weather eventUnderstandingTo understand why the UK weather pattern is becoming moreextremeTo understand what impact this has on people’shomes, lives, agriculture, health and transport.SkillsTo appreciate the need for planning and being preparedExamination question practice
What questions would you like to askof this image?
An extreme heat waveIn summer 2003 Europesuffered from an intenseheat wave. In the UK thetemperature of 38.5°Cwas the highest ever tobe recorded.Extreme weather – what do you mean?What evidence is there thatthat weather is becomingmore extreme?Look back at the last 10years or so in the UK – whathave we seen?HEATWAVEHEATWAVE
A lack of rainfall leading todroughtDuring 2004-06 the UKreceived below averagerainfall. This meant thatreservoirs and groundwatersupplies were not rechargedwith the water needed.Lack of rainfall
Boscastle in Cornwall suffereda flash flood in August 2004.Nearly three times theaverage rainfall for the wholeof August fell in just one day.The rain ran down the steepvalley sides causing floodingin the village. The floodwaterpicked up cars and trees in itspath.Flash floodFlash flooding
Strong winds and stormsIn January 2005 stormyweather brought havoc toroads in the North of Englandas lorries overturned. Powerwas also cut off in 80,000homes. Winds of over 100mph were recorded.In January 2005 stormyweather brought havoc toroads in the North ofEngland as lorriesoverturned.Power was also cut off in80,000 homes. Winds ofover 100 mph wererecorded.High winds andstorms
An extreme cold spellIn December 2010 much of theUK was under snow. Arctic aircaused the temperatures todrop significantly below theaverage. At night temperaturesof -10°C were not uncommon.Extreme coldspell
What do I need to know for the exam?The impact of extreme weather on people’s homes and lives,agriculture (farming), health and transport. The benefits andcosts of extreme weather and the issues raised. The need foradequate warning, preparation, and plans to deal with theimpacts.
Boscastle August 2004The emergency services whoresponded that day, it emergedlater, came with 100 body bags.Boscastle had suffered a one-in-400disaster, a flood of a magnitudeexpected only once every 400years.In a village of 800 people, 58 properties were flooded, twoshops, one visitor centre and 116 cars swept away. And yet no onedied.In time, it became known as the miracle of Boscastle.
The Environment Agency has had a great deal of input. Firstly, theentire region was inspected & the probability of a recurrencecalculated.Estimates from various sources differ greatly, somepredicting a repeat event in 2005 & some not expectingsimilar to happen for another 60-70 years.Developments
DevelopmentsIn any case, the EnvironmentAgency has recommended thatconstruction in the area in thefuture should not includefacilities for those mostvulnerable to flash-floodingemergencies, such as the elderly& young children. Effectively, thismeans that the local council willreject any planning applicationsfor residential homes or schoolsin the valley.
DevelopmentsThe Environment Agency hasalso removed debris upstream& burned vegetation awayfrom the river channel toprevent trees causingstructural damage if sweptdownriver should anotherflood occur.
Management and effectivenessIn terms of management & effectiveness, thesemeasures are poor & arguably will not containanother flood.
Management and effectivenessThe organisations most active inBoscastle are the insurancecompanies, who have had tomanage redevelopments & assessdamage in order to limit themassive costs incurred due topolicy holders claiming for thedamage caused.Due to the historical merit of several of the towns buildings, reconstruction work hasbeen complicated by the need to find lost artefacts or reconstruct buildings usingtraditional materials & methods. The inherent lack of flood-resistance in these buildingsis likely to cause problems if another flood occurs.
Impact on peopleThe focus in Boscastle has been on repairingthe damage & clearing up only – while theneed of the community to return to somesort of normality as quickly as possible isobvious, the distinct lack of effective floodprevention measures, such as improving themaximum discharge volume capacity of theriver channel or building floodbarriers, means that Boscastle is unpreparedfor another flood, which could result in yetanother disaster & even loss of life in lateryears.
Plenary - can you list:1 Cause of the flood2 Economic impacts of the flood3 Social impacts of the flood2 Immediate responses1 Long-term responses
Exam question3a) Study Figure 8, above, which describes floods in Hull in June 2007. UseFigure 8 to give evidence that supports the following statement:‘The UK weather is becoming more extreme.’ (4 marks)
Marks scheme3a) There is reference to May, June and July 2007 being the wettest June since records began in 1760– i.e. 247 years earlier. June was the wettest since 1882 – over 100 years ago. 110mm fell on 25 June– 110mm in 21 hours – approx 4 -mm per hour. Rainfall was very heavy and intense – not whatexpected in a summer month – and this occurred on 2 separate occasions – 14/15 June & 20-24 June– before 25th. Should recognise exceptional weather, its rarity. (4 marks)Level 1 (Basic) (1-2 marks)Simple statements providing relevant evidence from Figure 8.Relies on Figure 8, may copy relevant parts.Random order.May, June and July were the wettest since records began. More rain fell in June 2007 than in any June since1882.Level 2 (Clear) (3-4 marks)Begins to develop points and to link ideas.Information in Figure 8 is used.Answer has clear structure – provide evidence and is aware of significance of it.May, June and July 2007 were the wettest since records began in 1760, i.e. 247 years earlier. June was thewettest since 1882 – over 100 years ago. Both these show extreme weather and both records were broken in2007. 110mm fell from 0200 to 2330 hours on 25 June – 110mm in 21 hours – approx. 5mm per hour. This is theamount expected during the whole month – not on one day. Rainfall was very heavy and intense – not what isexpected in July that is a summer month.
3b) What is the difference between weather and climate? (2 marks)Exam question3b) Weather is the day-to-day variation of features such asrainfall, temperature, wind, whilst climate represents theaverage weather conditions – over a period of time,average of at least 30 years