Self-Intro Video• A self-introduction, using images, text, and narratives (using a specific image or set of related images as the backdrop for your view of development)• No more than TWO minutes (could be shorter)• Submit video on the wiki – Instructions posted (pay attention to file naming)• Technical assistant – ask early!
Media Imperialism• Key assumptions?• What are the links between globalization, neoliberalism and media imperialism ?• Why is this thesis so dominant in the media and development literature over the last few decades?• Is this popularity justified in terms of its explanatory power and empirical support?• What accounts for the weaning of the thesis popularity in recent years?• What are the changing perspective on “local” versus “Western” content?
Paradigms of Development Dependency• Modernization World systems perspective – – Western societies as a model – development defined in terms of emphasis on economic growth center and periphery – Causes of underdevelopment inherent Underdevelopment ascribed to the in the countries themselves industrialized capitalist powers of the West – Focus on the nation-state Information gaps – underdevelopment in the periphery is prerequisite to – Emphasis on individual freedoms development in the center – Mass media accorded a central role in The mass media reinforce the the development process dominance of the metropole over its satellites – Vertical pattern of communication – from the elite to the people. A country in the periphery must strive for self-reliance and liberation from the world system Emphasis on social equality.
• Development assistance, technology and skills transfer• Research, fact finding and dissemination• Norm setting, principles and declarations
The McBride Commission Report (1985)• Self-reliance and cultural identity• international character of the media, their structures, world-views and markets• Globalization: concentration of media ownership, monopolization of markets, and a decline in diversity• Emergence of the information society
The New World InformationCommunication Order (NWICO) • The Four “Ds” – Democratization – Decolonization – Demonopolization – Development
Media Imperialism Key claims:• Negative impact of western media – Lost of identity - homogenization – One way flow of media – Widen the class structure – Profit making through exploitation • Reduce the diversity of programming and content in favour of market logic • “greenwashing”
Media Imperlism• Mass media and reception "Power is the ability – Agencies not just to tell the – Consent story of another• Unequal power person, but to make• “The West and the Rest” it the definitive story• Representation of that person".• Essentialism Chimamanda Adichie: The danger of a single• Culture as consumption story• Mechanism of globalization
A look at Francis Nyamnjoh’s work on Africa’s Media (see article by Wasserman, 2009)
“A powerful critique ofWestern liberal modelof journalism based onindividual autonomyand freedom thatignores the complicatedpatterns of ‘‘belonging’’in Africa.”
Critique of Western Media • Liberal democracy and “the autonomous individual” • “ideology of hierarchies of culture” • Unequal power relations • Profit motive over “creative diversity and cultural plurality” • Conflation of State and “Market Logic” • Ignore “personhood and agency” • The West theorizing the Rest • Western journalism as model
New Media and Citizen Journalism ‘‘Africa’s creativity simply cannot allow for simple dichotomies or distinctions between old and new technologies, since its peoples are daily modernising the indigenous and indigenising the modern with novel outcomes’’ (Nyamnjoh, 2005, p. 4).
But is the Media Imperialism thesis overstated?
Rethinking Media Imperialism• Is the power of the Western mass media overstated?• What are the roles of the state and local organizations?• What are the roles of the “audience”?• What about local cultural contexts?