Emerging Trends in Scholarly                      Communications and the Coming                          Decade of Open Ac...
Key issues• Changing contexts of research discovery and  dissemination in the digital environment• Why Open Access is impo...
Key Issues• From “Wealth of Nations” to “Wealth of  Networks”• Need to rethink measurements of “impact” and  values, espec...
The Dysfunctional Economy of Scholarly          Communications               • Commodification of                 public k...
http://thomsonreuters.com/
The World of Scientific Output According to Thomson’s ISI                 Science Citation Index                          ...
Has the Internet become an avatarHas the Internet become an avatarof Gandhi’s charkha? Can its manyof Gandhi’s charkha? Ca...
“An old tradition and a new technologyhave converged to make possible anunprecedented public good.”    Budapest Open Acces...
arXiv began its operationsbefore the World Wide Web,search engines, onlinecommerce and all the rest,but nonetheless antici...
http://www.bioline.org.br
OA does not only remove or reduce pricebarriers for researchers in developingcountries, it offers a more equitable model f...
Open Access week          BOAIBioline
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L5rVH1KGBCY
“Ten years of experience lead us to reaffirm the definitionof OA introduced in the original BOAI:By “open access” to [peer...
“The BOAI is distinctive in its scope and its “The BOAI is distinctive in its scope and itsinsistence on author consent. (...
Modes of Open Access                                        User Rights                               Gratis         Libre...
http://maps.repository66.org/
http://www.doaj.org/
• OA benefits research and researchers, and the lack of OA impedes  them.• OA for publicly-funded research benefits taxpay...
• 1.5. We discourage the use of journal impact factors as  surrogates for the quality of journals, articles, or authors.  ...
• 3.14. We encourage experiments with new forms  of the scholarly research “article” and “book” in  which texts are integr...
And there are obvious synergiesAnd there are obvious synergiesbetween Open Access and otherbetween Open Access and other“o...
Hacking the bundleExplore ways by which new practices can be coded(codified) so that the key functions of scholarlycommuni...
But Open Access is only the Substrate of the           Research Life Cycle
Scholarly Primitives                                                                          “…basic functions common    ...
The JIF is appallingly open to manipulation; mature alt-metricssystems could be more robust, leveraging the diversity of o...
http://impactstory.org/
The IF is negotiable and doesn’t reflectactual citation countshttp://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal...
The IF cannot be  reproduced, even if itreflected actual citations         http://jcb.rupress.org/content         /179/6/1...
The IF is not statistically sound, even if  it were reproducible and reflected            actual citations  http://www.mat...
The IF are more effhttp://iai.asm.org/content/early/2011/08/08/IAI.05661-11.full.pdf+html?view=long&pmid=21825063
http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.4328
http://impactstory.org/
Reputation is nested insocial networkUnderstanding influenceand engagement in theopen digital knowledgeenvironment
Commons-basedpeer productionin the networkedeconomy
"commons-based peer production refers to anycoordinated, (chiefly) internet-based effort wherebyvolunteers contribute proj...
From “Big”science toNetworkedscienceKnowledge forlocal problemsolving
Conclusions• Leverage the various Open movement• Align the values of research with appropriate incentives and  recognition...
http://www.openoasis.org   http://www.bioline.org.br   http://www.openaccessmap.org   Thank You!chan@utsc.utoronto.ca
Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communication and the coming Decade of Open Access
Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communication and the coming Decade of Open Access
Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communication and the coming Decade of Open Access
Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communication and the coming Decade of Open Access
Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communication and the coming Decade of Open Access
Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communication and the coming Decade of Open Access
Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communication and the coming Decade of Open Access
Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communication and the coming Decade of Open Access
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communication and the coming Decade of Open Access

524 views

Published on

Talk presented at the Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management- Kerala (IIITM-K) Technopark, Trivandrum Kerala, INDIA, Dec. 18, 2012

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
524
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Consequences of publishing in “ internatioanlly ” indexed journals
  • metrics of total publications and citations. Top 15 countries account for 82% of total publications Author with African institutional affiliation account for less than 1% of global output, and S. Africa has the highest output. The rest are “invisible” Consequence of trying to publish in “International” journal results in neglect of important local problems and solutions that are appropriate for local conditions.
  • internet as an avatar of the charkha Excerpts from a new book, to be released by former president A.P.J. Abdul Kalam on September 4 at Gandhi Smriti in New Delhi the Gandhian vision seeks to relocate the place of science and its practical uses in the overall terrain of human affairs where it can promote mankind’s holistic progress, and not be used for exploitation and violence. The Mahatma elevates science to a higher level of human pursuit and imparts to it a nobler purpose that is consistent with both mankind’s needs and the Divine Law this simple machine by imparting a mass and moral character to India’s struggle for freedom. He also used it as a powerful symbol for his advocacy of a new global order, based on the ideals of truth, non-violence, justice, universal brotherhood, respect for nature and ethically guided socio-economic development. However, he was by no means dogmatic about the charkha remaining the sole instrument of his economic philosophy forever and everywhere. He repeatedly urged both his followers and his critics to understand what khadi and the charkha stood for , what they connoted . Khadi, he insisted, was not merely a vastra (cloth) but a vichaar (an idea and an ideal). And he was realistic enough to know, and also to explicitly acknowledge, that new historical circumstances would need new tools and technologies to promote his vichaar. Indeed, towards the end of his life, he had contemplated a ‘better substitute’ for the charkha and even anticipated the birth of a new technological device, a non-violent machine that “ helps every individual ” everywhere in the world. ----- Meeting Notes (12/16/12 20:32) ----- this simple machine by imparting a mass and moral character to India’s struggle for freedom. He also used it as a powerful symbol for his advocacy of a new global order, based on the ideals of truth, non-violence, justice, universal brotherhood, respect for nature and ethically guided socio-economic development. However, he was by no means dogmatic about the charkha remaining the sole instrument of his economic philosophy forever and everywhere. He repeatedly urged both his followers and his critics to understand what khadi and the charkha stood for, what they connoted. Khadi, he insisted, was not merely a vastra (cloth) but a vichaar (an idea and an ideal). And he was realistic enough to know, and also to explicitly acknowledge, that new historical circumstances would need new tools and technologies to promote his vichaar. Indeed, towards the end of his life, he had contemplated a ‘better substitute’ for the charkha and even anticipated the birth of a new technological device, a non-violent machine that “helps every individual” everywhere in the world.
  • Green OA is OA delivered by repositories, regardless of peer-review status, gratis/libre status, funding model, embargo period, and so on. Gold OA is OA delivered by journals, regardless of peer-review methods, gratis/libre status, business model, and so on. It should be clear that the green/gold distinction is not the same as the gratis/libre distinction. Green/gold is about venues or vehicles, while gratis/libre is about user rights. For better or worse, there are four cases to keep distinct:  gratis green, gratis gold, libre green, and libre gold.
  • 1.5. We discourage the use of journal impact factors as surrogates for the quality of journals, articles, or authors. We encourage the development of alternative metrics for impact and quality which are less simplistic, more reliable, and entirely open for use and reuse. Insofar as universities, funding agencies, and research assessment programs need to measure the impact of individual articles, they should use article-level metrics, not journal-level metrics. We encourage research on the accuracy of the new metrics. As the research shows them to be useful and trustworthy, we encourage their use by universities (when evaluating faculty for promotion and tenure), funding agencies (when evaluating applicants for funding), research assessment programs (when assessing research impact), and publishers (when promoting their publications). We encourage the development of materials to explain how journal impact factors have been misused, and how alternative metrics can better serve the purposes for which most institutions have previously used impact factors. As impact metrics improve, we encourage further study into the question whether OA and OA policies increase research impact.
  • Open access models are proliferating, not only for sharing traditional forms of scholarly production (peer-reviewed papers), but also among new forms of content, especially databases and media archives. Data are increasingly born digital
  • he New Invisible College, Caroline Wagner combines quantitative data and extensive interviews to map the emergence of global science networks and trace the dynamics driving their growth. She argues that the shift from big science to global networks creates unprecedented opportunities for developing countries to tap science's potential. Rather than squander resources in vain efforts to mimic the scientific establishments of the twentieth century, developing country governments can leverage networks by creating incentives for top-notch scientists to focus on research that addresses their concerns and by finding ways to tie knowledge to local problem solving. T
  • Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communication and the coming Decade of Open Access

    1. 1. Emerging Trends in Scholarly Communications and the Coming Decade of Open AccessIndian Institute of Information Technology and Leslie ChanManagement- Kerala (IIITM-K) Center for Critical Development StudiesTechnopark, Trivandrum Bioline InternationalKerala, INDIA University of Toronto Scarborough
    2. 2. Key issues• Changing contexts of research discovery and dissemination in the digital environment• Why Open Access is important for “development”• Open Access as a philosophical principle and a set of practical tools• “Journal” no longer serves the needs of networked scholarship• Why greater openness is good for science• Tensions between openness, quality measures, impact, and policies
    3. 3. Key Issues• From “Wealth of Nations” to “Wealth of Networks”• Need to rethink measurements of “impact” and values, especially for research relevant to development• Innovations are happening in the “peripheries” but there are gatekeepers and social barriers• Towards a convergence of key values and policy goals
    4. 4. The Dysfunctional Economy of Scholarly Communications • Commodification of public knowledge Bundling • Oligopoly • Artificial scarcity • Homogeneity of forms and functions • Reputation management
    5. 5. http://thomsonreuters.com/
    6. 6. The World of Scientific Output According to Thomson’s ISI Science Citation Index Data from 2002 http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=205
    7. 7. Has the Internet become an avatarHas the Internet become an avatarof Gandhi’s charkha? Can its manyof Gandhi’s charkha? Can its manymarvels—social media, participativemarvels—social media, participativedemocracy, collaborative science,democracy, collaborative science,etc., have the transformative energyetc., have the transformative energyof the spinning wheel?of the spinning wheel?MUSIC OF THE SPINNING WHEEL MUSIC OF THE SPINNING WHEELby Sudheendra Kularni by Sudheendra KularniPUBLISHED BY AMARYLLIS || PUBLISHED BY AMARYLLIS
    8. 8. “An old tradition and a new technologyhave converged to make possible anunprecedented public good.” Budapest Open Access Initiative http://www.soros.org/openaccess/read.shtml
    9. 9. arXiv began its operationsbefore the World Wide Web,search engines, onlinecommerce and all the rest,but nonetheless anticipatedmany components of currentWeb 2.0 methodology… Itcontinues to play a leadingrole at the forefront of newmodels for scientificcommunication."
    10. 10. http://www.bioline.org.br
    11. 11. OA does not only remove or reduce pricebarriers for researchers in developingcountries, it offers a more equitable model forthe exchange of knowledge as a global publicgood (the philosophical dimension)
    12. 12. Open Access week BOAIBioline
    13. 13. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L5rVH1KGBCY
    14. 14. “Ten years of experience lead us to reaffirm the definitionof OA introduced in the original BOAI:By “open access” to [peer-reviewed research literature],we mean its free availability on the public internet,permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute,print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawlthem for indexing, pass them as data to software, or usethem for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal,or technical barriers other than those inseparable fromgaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint onreproduction and distribution, and the only role forcopyright in this domain, should be to give authors controlover the integrity of their work and the right to beproperly acknowledged and cited.”
    15. 15. “The BOAI is distinctive in its scope and its “The BOAI is distinctive in its scope and itsinsistence on author consent. (1) BOAI focuses insistence on author consent. (1) BOAI focusesspecifically on peer-reviewed research literature, specifically on peer-reviewed research literature,and does not apply to software, music, movies, or and does not apply to software, music, movies, oranything else. anything else.(2) For BOAI, free access should depend on (2) For BOAI, free access should depend onauthor consent, not just user need or desire.” author consent, not just user need or desire.”Peter Suber Peter Suberhttp://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/boaifaq.htm# http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/boaifaq.htm#
    16. 16. Modes of Open Access User Rights Gratis Libre Green Green-Gratis Green-Libre Author Self- Archiving ofVenues published papers orand pre-prints in InstitutionalDelivery RepositoriesVehicles Gold Gold-Gratis Gold-Libre Author publish in journals that are open access
    17. 17. http://maps.repository66.org/
    18. 18. http://www.doaj.org/
    19. 19. • OA benefits research and researchers, and the lack of OA impedes them.• OA for publicly-funded research benefits taxpayers and increases the return on their investment in research. It has economic benefits as well as academic or scholarly benefits.• OA amplifies the social value of research, and OA policies amplify the social value of funding agencies and research institutions.• The costs of OA can be recovered without adding more money to the current system of scholarly communication.• OA is consistent with copyright law everywhere in the world, and gives both authors and readers more rights than they have under conventional publishing agreements.• OA is consistent with the highest standards of quality.
    20. 20. • 1.5. We discourage the use of journal impact factors as surrogates for the quality of journals, articles, or authors. We encourage the development of alternative metrics for impact and quality which are less simplistic, more reliable, and entirely open for use and reuse.• We encourage research on the accuracy of the new metrics. As the research shows them to be useful and trustworthy, we encourage their use by universities (when evaluating faculty for promotion and tenure), funding agencies (when evaluating applicants for funding), research assessment programs (when assessing research impact), and publishers (when promoting their publications). http://www.soros.org/openaccess/boai-10-recommendations
    21. 21. • 3.14. We encourage experiments with new forms of the scholarly research “article” and “book” in which texts are integrated in useful ways with underlying data, multimedia elements, executable code, related literature, and user commentary.• We encourage experiments to take better advantage of the digital medium, and digital networks, for the benefit of research. http://www.soros.org/openaccess/boai-10-recommendations
    22. 22. And there are obvious synergiesAnd there are obvious synergiesbetween Open Access and otherbetween Open Access and other“open” movement: Open Educational“open” movement: Open EducationalResources, Open Science, OpenResources, Open Science, OpenSource, Open Innovation, etc.Source, Open Innovation, etc.
    23. 23. Hacking the bundleExplore ways by which new practices can be coded(codified) so that the key functions of scholarlycommunication – authoring, certification, qualitycontrol, archiving, and rewarding - can bedecoupled and better served by emerging tools forcollaborative authoring, sharing, and reputationmanagement.
    24. 24. But Open Access is only the Substrate of the Research Life Cycle
    25. 25. Scholarly Primitives “…basic functions common to scholarly activity across disciplines, over time, and independent of theoreticalJohn Unsworth. "Scholarly Primitives: What Methods Do HumanitiesResearchers Have in Common and How Might Our Tools Reflect This?" orientation.”"Humanities Computing, Formal Methods, Experimental Practice"Symposium, Kings College, London, May 13, 2000.http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/~jmu2m/Kings.5-00/primitives.html
    26. 26. The JIF is appallingly open to manipulation; mature alt-metricssystems could be more robust, leveraging the diversity of of alt-metrics and statistical power of big data to algorithmically detectand correct for fraudulent activity. This approach already worksfor online advertisers, social news sites, Wikipedia, and searchengines. http://altmetrics.org/manifesto/
    27. 27. http://impactstory.org/
    28. 28. The IF is negotiable and doesn’t reflectactual citation countshttp://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030291
    29. 29. The IF cannot be reproduced, even if itreflected actual citations http://jcb.rupress.org/content /179/6/1091.full
    30. 30. The IF is not statistically sound, even if it were reproducible and reflected actual citations http://www.mathunion.org/fileadmin/IMU/Report/CitationStatistics.pdf
    31. 31. The IF are more effhttp://iai.asm.org/content/early/2011/08/08/IAI.05661-11.full.pdf+html?view=long&pmid=21825063
    32. 32. http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.4328
    33. 33. http://impactstory.org/
    34. 34. Reputation is nested insocial networkUnderstanding influenceand engagement in theopen digital knowledgeenvironment
    35. 35. Commons-basedpeer productionin the networkedeconomy
    36. 36. "commons-based peer production refers to anycoordinated, (chiefly) internet-based effort wherebyvolunteers contribute project components, and thereexists some process to combine them to produce aunified intellectual work. CBPP covers many differenttypes of intellectual output, from software to libraries ofquantitative data to human-readable documents(manuals, books, encyclopedias, reviews, blogs,periodicals, and more)”Krowne, Aaron (March 1, 2005). "The FUD based encyclopedia:Dismantling the Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt aimed at Wikipediaand other free knowledge sources". Free Software Magazine.
    37. 37. From “Big”science toNetworkedscienceKnowledge forlocal problemsolving
    38. 38. Conclusions• Leverage the various Open movement• Align the values of research with appropriate incentives and recognition• Also need to align policies that are emerging from the top with initiatives are rising from the bottom• Support for metadata standards and open licences• Recognition of non-proprietary and collaborative research output from networked scholarship• Reward dissemination of research findings through multiple means – beyond the journal• Move Prestige to Open Access• Participation in scholarly exchanges will be far more inclusive and democratic ?
    39. 39. http://www.openoasis.org http://www.bioline.org.br http://www.openaccessmap.org Thank You!chan@utsc.utoronto.ca

    ×