Immigrant: chooses “to move in order to improve the future prospects of themselves and their families,” usually for employment or education opportunities. ~Immigration and Nationality Act Refugee: “a person who is unable or unwilling to return to his or her country of nationality because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.” ~United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) website Refugees experience a number of unique health issues: May be less likely to have health insurance and/or coverage may be inadequate. May not be current with immunizations (adults and children) May have been exposed to high levels of pesticide. May be suspicious of Western medicine and avoid treatment. May also have different view of alternative/complimentary treatments. Higher rates of malnutrition, infection, lead poisoning, and mental disorders. May have been victims of trauma (including violence) and high levels of stress. 1) psychiatric disorders precipitated by the refugee experience 2) infectious and parasitic diseases endemic to countries of origin 3) chronic diseases endemic to host countries
Health Disparities: Don't Despair, Be Aware
Health Disparities: Don’t Despair, Be Aware!Jacqueline Leskovec, MLIS, MA, RN National Network of Libraries of Medicine Greater Midwest Region DSLC St Mary’s College March 2013
ObjectivesParticipants will:•Understand the meaning of health disparities•Be able to identify 4 population groups affected byhealth disparities•Learn 4 resources for promoting health equity
National Network of Libraries ofMedicine Greater Midwest Region Who We Are This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. HHS-N-276-2011-00005-C with the University of Illinois at Chicago.
THE LITERATURE OF PRESCRIPTION MARCH 08, 2014 - APRIL 19, 2014
Culture and Patient Health• Beliefs about objects, symbols, food, the body, blood, non-traditional medicine, etc.• Communication styles and norms• Role of relationships• Ways of learning new information• Role of translations and interpreters
The 4 C’s of Culture1. What do you call your problem?2. What do you think caused your problem?3. How do you cope with your condition?4. What are your concerns regarding the condition and/or recommended treatment? ~The 4 C’s of Culture: A Mnemonic for Health Care Professionals
Health Equity• [The] attainment of the highest level of health for all people. Achieving health equity requires valuing everyone equally with focused and ongoing societal efforts to address avoidable inequalities, historical and contemporary injustices, and the elimination of health and health care disparities. ~Healthy People 2020 HealthyPeople.gov
Definition• “A population is a health disparity population if there is a significant disparity in the overall rate of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality or survival rates in the population as compared to the health status of the general population.” o Minority Health and Health Disparities Research and Education Act United States Public Law 106-525 (2000), p. 2498
American Indian/Alaskan Native• Higher unemployment rate• Shorter life expectancy• IHS• High rates of alcohol use, diabetes, infant mortality, HIV/AIDS, obesity, mental health concerns, smoking & tobacco use
Asian Americans• Myth of the model minority• Certain types of cancer, TB, hepatitis B• Language & cultural barriers• Stigma associated with certain conditions• Lack of health insurance
Women’s Health Issues• Heart disease• Maternal and child health• Breast and cervical cancer• Binge drinking• Intimate partner violence http://www.cdc.gov/women/lcod/2009/index.htm
Men’s Health Issues• Tendency to smoke & drink > women• Shorter life expectancy• Job related stress• Prostate cancer• Low testosterone
LGBTI Social stigma Rejection by family members Abuse and violence Unfair treatment in the legal system Hiding some or all aspects of one’s life Lacking health insurance Shortage of culturally competent health providers
Senior Health Issues• Balance problems, risk for falls• Diseases and injuries to bones and joints• Hearing loss• Diabetes• High blood cholesterol• Kidney disease• Problems with smell, taste; dry mouth• Stroke• Peripheral arterial disease
Scholarly Resources/Databases• PubMed o MeSH Terms• Google Scholar• CINAHL• PsycINFO
ARRA & ACA• Proposed Data Collection Standards• Plan for Health Data Collection on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Populations• Preventive care, coordinated care, diversity and cultural competency, health care providers for underserved communities, ending insurance discrimination, affordable insurance coverage
MedlinePlus• http://medlineplus.gov• Health Topics• Drugs & Supplements• Videos & Cool Tools• Medical dictionary• Population groups o African-American, Latino/Hispanic, Asian Americans, American Indians, Alaskan Natives, LGBT, seniors, children’s health and more• En español• Free!
CDC• Health & Safety Topics o Diseases & Conditions; Healthy Living; Emergency Preparedness & Response; Injury, Violence & Safety o Data & Statistics: FastStats• For Specific Groups o Travelers’ Health; Life States & Populations; State, Tribal, Local & Territorial• Office of Minority Health & Health Equity• Women’s Health• http://www.cdc.gov
• Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health knowledge path• Health professionals, program administrators, policymakers, and researchers• Racial and ethnic health disparities, health equity, and removing barriers to care; http://www.mchlibrary.info/KnowledgePaths/kp_race.ht
Men’s Health• CDC Men’s Health o http://www.cdc.gov/men/• NIH Men’s Health Topics o http://health.nih.gov/category/MensHealth/• AHRQ Healthy Men o http://ahrq.gov
NIH Senior Health• Basic health and wellness information• Topics of concern for seniors o Bones and Joints o Cancer o Diseases and Conditions o Healthy Aging o Heart and Lungs o Memory and Mental Health o Treatments and Therapies o Vision and Hearing http://nih.seniorhealth.gov
LGBTMedlinePlus•http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/gaylesbianbisexualandtransgendNational Institutes of Health: Gay/Lesbian Health•http://health.nih.gov/topic/GayLesbianHealthAIDS.gov: http://aids.govAIDSinfo / infoSIDA: http://aidsinfo.nih.govGMHC: http://www.gmhc.org/Lesbian Health & Research Center • http://www.lesbianhealthinfo.org/The Mautner Project • http://www.mautnerproject.org/
RHINRefugee Health Information Network•http://www.rhin.org•Multilingual health information (more than 80languages) for health providers, refugees and asylees•Large section on cultural guidance•Country Conditions Reports•Multiple formats (print, audio, video)
EthnoMed• http://ethnomed.org• Merged material from former 24 Languages Project• Background information on cultures and cultural competency• Patient education materials
DiversityRxImproving Health Care for a Diverse World•http://www.diversityrx.org•Webinars•Cultural Competence
o http://www.healthyroadsmedia.org/o Multiple languages; multiple formats • Includes iPod video and multimedia
Health Information Translationso http://healthinfotranslations.org/o Health topics include Diagnostic Tests and Disaster Preparednesso Linked to from MedlinePlus!
Follow, Fan and Connect with NLM• http://www.nlm.nih.gov/socialmedia/index.html
Thank you!Jacqueline LeskovecSMC Class of firstname.lastname@example.org-DEV-ROKSSlideshare: leskovecNN/LM Greater Midwest Regionhttp://nnlm.gov/gmr/This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes ofHealth, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. HHS-N-276-2011-00005-C with the University of Illinois at Chicago.