Health Disparities: Don't Despair, Be Aware


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  • Immigrant: chooses “to move in order to improve the future prospects of themselves and their families,” usually for employment or education opportunities. ~Immigration and Nationality Act Refugee: “a person who is unable or unwilling to return to his or her country of nationality because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.” ~United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) website Refugees experience a number of unique health issues: May be less likely to have health insurance and/or coverage may be inadequate. May not be current with immunizations (adults and children) May have been exposed to high levels of pesticide. May be suspicious of Western medicine and avoid treatment. May also have different view of alternative/complimentary treatments. Higher rates of malnutrition, infection, lead poisoning, and mental disorders. May have been victims of trauma (including violence) and high levels of stress. 1) psychiatric disorders precipitated by the refugee experience 2) infectious and parasitic diseases endemic to countries of origin 3) chronic diseases endemic to host countries
  • Health Disparities: Don't Despair, Be Aware

    1. 1. Health Disparities: Don’t Despair, Be Aware!Jacqueline Leskovec, MLIS, MA, RN National Network of Libraries of Medicine Greater Midwest Region DSLC St Mary’s College March 2013
    2. 2. ObjectivesParticipants will:•Understand the meaning of health disparities•Be able to identify 4 population groups affected byhealth disparities•Learn 4 resources for promoting health equity
    3. 3. National Network of Libraries ofMedicine Greater Midwest Region Who We Are This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. HHS-N-276-2011-00005-C with the University of Illinois at Chicago.
    5. 5. Getting to Know You
    6. 6. What happened?
    7. 7. Culture & Health
    8. 8. Culture and Patient Health• Beliefs about objects, symbols, food, the body, blood, non-traditional medicine, etc.• Communication styles and norms• Role of relationships• Ways of learning new information• Role of translations and interpreters
    9. 9. The 4 C’s of Culture1. What do you call your problem?2. What do you think caused your problem?3. How do you cope with your condition?4. What are your concerns regarding the condition and/or recommended treatment? ~The 4 C’s of Culture: A Mnemonic for Health Care Professionals
    10. 10. Health Equity• [The] attainment of the highest level of health for all people. Achieving health equity requires valuing everyone equally with focused and ongoing societal efforts to address avoidable inequalities, historical and contemporary injustices, and the elimination of health and health care disparities. ~Healthy People 2020
    11. 11. Health Disparities
    12. 12. Definition• “A population is a health disparity population if there is a significant disparity in the overall rate of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality or survival rates in the population as compared to the health status of the general population.” o Minority Health and Health Disparities Research and Education Act United States Public Law 106-525 (2000), p. 2498
    13. 13. Unique Health Issues
    14. 14. African Americans• Heart disease, stroke, high cholesterol, HTN• Cancer, diabetes, unintentional injuries, maternal and infant health, teen pregnancy,• Smoking and tobacco use, overweight/obesity, nutrition, physical activity, HIV/AIDS• Seasonal influenza, asthma, TB
    15. 15. Hispanic/Latino• Asthma, chronic lower respiratory disease, influenza & pneumonia• Chagas Disease• Unintentional injuries, homicide• Teen pregnancy• Smoking & tobacco use• Stroke• Diabetes• Chronic liver disease/cirrhosis
    16. 16. Immigrants/refugees• Lack of health insurance• Lack of immunizations• Unfamiliarity with Western medicine• Pesticide & other hazards exposure
    17. 17. Emerging Populations ~
    18. 18. American Indian/Alaskan Native• Higher unemployment rate• Shorter life expectancy• IHS• High rates of alcohol use, diabetes, infant mortality, HIV/AIDS, obesity, mental health concerns, smoking & tobacco use
    19. 19. Asian Americans• Myth of the model minority• Certain types of cancer, TB, hepatitis B• Language & cultural barriers• Stigma associated with certain conditions• Lack of health insurance
    20. 20. Women’s Health Issues• Heart disease• Maternal and child health• Breast and cervical cancer• Binge drinking• Intimate partner violence
    21. 21. Men’s Health Issues• Tendency to smoke & drink > women• Shorter life expectancy• Job related stress• Prostate cancer• Low testosterone
    22. 22. LGBTI Social stigma Rejection by family members Abuse and violence Unfair treatment in the legal system Hiding some or all aspects of one’s life Lacking health insurance Shortage of culturally competent health providers
    23. 23. Senior Health Issues• Balance problems, risk for falls• Diseases and injuries to bones and joints• Hearing loss• Diabetes• High blood cholesterol• Kidney disease• Problems with smell, taste; dry mouth• Stroke• Peripheral arterial disease
    24. 24. Health Information Resources
    25. 25. Scholarly Resources/Databases• PubMed o MeSH Terms• Google Scholar• CINAHL• PsycINFO
    26. 26. ARRA & ACA• Proposed Data Collection Standards• Plan for Health Data Collection on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Populations• Preventive care, coordinated care, diversity and cultural competency, health care providers for underserved communities, ending insurance discrimination, affordable insurance coverage
    27. 27. MedlinePlus•• Health Topics• Drugs & Supplements• Videos & Cool Tools• Medical dictionary• Population groups o African-American, Latino/Hispanic, Asian Americans, American Indians, Alaskan Natives, LGBT, seniors, children’s health and more• En español• Free!
    28. 28. CDC• Health & Safety Topics o Diseases & Conditions; Healthy Living; Emergency Preparedness & Response; Injury, Violence & Safety o Data & Statistics: FastStats• For Specific Groups o Travelers’ Health; Life States & Populations; State, Tribal, Local & Territorial• Office of Minority Health & Health Equity• Women’s Health•
    29. 29. • Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health knowledge path• Health professionals, program administrators, policymakers, and researchers• Racial and ethnic health disparities, health equity, and removing barriers to care;
    30. 30. Men’s Health• CDC Men’s Health o• NIH Men’s Health Topics o• AHRQ Healthy Men o
    31. 31. NIH Senior Health• Basic health and wellness information• Topics of concern for seniors o Bones and Joints o Cancer o Diseases and Conditions o Healthy Aging o Heart and Lungs o Memory and Mental Health o Treatments and Therapies o Vision and Hearing
    32. 32.
    33. 33. LGBTMedlinePlus• Institutes of Health: Gay/Lesbian Health• http://aids.govAIDSinfo / infoSIDA: http://aidsinfo.nih.govGMHC: Health & Research Center • Mautner Project •
    34. 34. RHINRefugee Health Information Network••Multilingual health information (more than 80languages) for health providers, refugees and asylees•Large section on cultural guidance•Country Conditions Reports•Multiple formats (print, audio, video)
    35. 35. EthnoMed•• Merged material from former 24 Languages Project• Background information on cultures and cultural competency• Patient education materials
    36. 36. DiversityRxImproving Health Care for a Diverse World••Webinars•Cultural Competence
    37. 37. o Multiple languages; multiple formats • Includes iPod video and multimedia
    38. 38. Health Information Translationso Health topics include Diagnostic Tests and Disaster Preparednesso Linked to from MedlinePlus!
    39. 39. Follow, Fan and Connect with NLM•
    40. 40. Others?Questions?Comments?
    41. 41. Thank you!Jacqueline LeskovecSMC Class of 1974leskovec@uic.edu1.800-DEV-ROKSSlideshare: leskovecNN/LM Greater Midwest Region project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes ofHealth, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. HHS-N-276-2011-00005-C with the University of Illinois at Chicago.