C 7


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C 7

  1. 1. CLASS 7 Introduction to Computers
  2. 2. Input and output Name these peripherals: a b c d e f g h i j
  3. 3. Input and output Name these peripherals: joystick printer earphones keyboard scanner mouse microphone speakers monitor barcode reader
  4. 4. Input and output Now put the peripherals into “input” and “output” devices: a b c d e f g h i j
  5. 5. Input and output input devices output devices
  6. 6. QR questions What does “QR” mean? When were QR codes invented? By what company? Which holds more information, barcodes or QR codes? Which direction are QR codes “read” ? Which of these is the “correct” direction for a QR code? a) b) c) d)
  7. 7. QR questions What does “QR” mean? Quick Response When were QR codes invented? By what company? QR codes were invented in 1994 by Toyota. Which holds more information, barcodes or QR codes? QR codes kick barcode butt. Which direction are QR codes “read” ? Up and down (barcodes are read side to side). Which of these is the “correct” direction for a QR code? a) b) c) d)
  8. 8. Internet security There are threats to anyone who uses a computer. Some of these include: Viruses / malware Online Scams Phishing Social Network Hacking Credit Card Fraud Let’s take a look at each type…
  10. 10. Internet Security The internet is such a big part of your lives that we can forget that it even though it is convenient, it can also be dangerous. You need to be careful. Today I will introduce some of the most common threats ( 威 脅 ). Sources: http://www.slideshare.net/TechSoupGlobal/security-basics-webinar http://en.wikipedia.org/ Malware Phishing Social Network Hacking
  11. 11. Malware Most of you have hear d of a computer “virus” before… Viruses are actually a kind of Malware ( 惡意軟體 ) Virus - that can spread from computer to computer by itself. Trojan - a hidden program (for example in free / illegal software) Bot - a robot network which can be controlled outside the computer. Keystroke logger (keylogger): a program that records what you type into the computer.
  12. 12. Virus Some viruses can be harmless, but others can slow down or even ruin a computer. Many people don’t even know that their computer has a virus at all. A computer virus is a computer program that can spread from one computer to another. A virus can spread from one computer to another using code, for instance because a user sent it over the Internet, or carried it on a memory device such as a CD, DVD, or USB drive. Viruses that spread them- selves online or across a network are called worms.
  13. 13. Trojans The term “Trojan” comes from the Greek story about the Trojan Horse from a very old story (The Iliad). In the story, Greeks left a big wooden horse to the Trojans, people they were at war against. After the Trojans brought the horse into the city, the Greeks who were hidden inside snuck out and opened the city gates to let the Greek army come in and destroy the city of Troy. A Trojan horse, or Trojan, is software that hides inside software and then steals information or hurts the user’s computer. Some things trojans can do to your computer:  Make your computer a “zombie”  Download or upload files  Steal your information  Watch your screen  Crash your computer  Record your keystrokes
  14. 14. Bots, botnets and zombies! Bots, or internet robots, didn’t start out as bad - and not all of them are. For example, Google uses bots to get for their search results. What we are talking about here are botnets, which take over computers and become an army of computers doing what they are told, or zombies, by an outside program. One kind of malware, usually brought into a computer through a trojan, is a bot. Here’s one of the way hackers can use bots:
  15. 15. Bots, botnets and zombies! Bots, or internet robots, didn’t start out as bad - and not all of them are. For example, Google uses bots to get for their search results. What we are talking about here are botnets, which take over computers and become an army of computers doing what they are told, or zombies, by an outside program. Botnets are bad. Really bad. They can be used to send spam, send or download files or even more malware, and they can even be used for Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, where so many different computers are told to go to the same website all at the same time that the website crashes.
  16. 16. Keyloggers Keyloggers are actually quite easy to write. Usually keyloggers are put together with other types of malware. Keyloggers simply record whatever the user is typing on their keyboard. Some keyloggers also record what is on the screen at the same time. Here’s an example of a keylogger file that also shows what form the user was typing in (form grabbing):
  17. 17. Keyloggers Keyloggers are some of the worst kinds of malware. Spies love keyloggers, and countries often try to sneak them onto computers. Sometimes people use them to spy on each other - for example, maybe a husband thinks his wife has a secret boyfriend… Criminals use keyloggers to try to get usernames and passwords for bank information.
  18. 18. Phishing While phishing isn’t a from of malware (it’s more like tricking you and stealing), it’s becoming more and more common, and more dangerous. Phishing is a way of tricking people into giving their information to what they think is site they can trust. Here’s an example: The link in the email takes you to a login page that asks you to type in your gmail information. Look at the domain name!
  19. 19. More Phishing Phishing has become a real problem in recent years, and social media sites are one of their favorite targets. Here’s another example of an email that takes you to a phishing site:
  20. 20. Here’s another phishing example:
  21. 21. And a “friend phishing” example:
  22. 22. Who is Sophie Ng? Let’s see if Google knows her: Take one of her profile pictures and put it into Google images. Hey, that’s a different name! What’s going on?
  23. 23. After Google searching… After uploading a couple of “Sophie” pictures to Google and getting several different Facebook profiles, her pictures appeared on a different site, where she was listed as “Cute college girl of the day for October 22, 2010” It turns out that people use her (and other college girl photos) to try to get people to accept her as a Facebook friend. Once she has been accepted, the hackers can get information on you and your friends, or get other people to click on links that will download malware to their computers.
  24. 24. How does this happen? Now that we know what some types of malware are called, we should ask, “How do end up with malware?” Dangerous links in email, IM, Twitter messages, Facebook and YouTube comments Infected devices: USB sticks, disks, laptops, digital photo frames Online auctions, online dating Phishing attacks Fake pop-up alerts
  25. 25. Why? Why are people doing this? What’s the point? Underground cybercrime economy Bigger business than international drug trade Hackers with computer skills and desire for money Organized online buy/sell of stolen data Low risk, high reward - many hackers can attack anywhere in the world from their own countries, and most countries don’t have strong laws against hacking
  26. 26. Just one case: Zeus Zeus is a trojan that steals banking information using keylogging and form grabbing. In June 2009, a security company discovered that Zeus had hacked 74,000 FTP accounts on websites of such companies as the Bank of America, NASA, , ABC, Oracle, Play.com, Cisco, Amazon, and BusinessWeek.
  27. 27. Zeus Zeus botnets are thought to include millions of computers (around 3.6 million in the United States). By October 28, 2009 over 1,500,000 phishing messages were sent on Facebook to spread the Zeus trojan. November 14–15, 2009 Zeus spread via e-mails saying it was from a telephone company. A total of 9,000,000 of these phishing e-mails were sent.
  28. 28. Zeus It is still active today. In 2010, an internet security company, wrote that the credit cards of more than 15 unnamed US banks have been stolen using the Zeus malware. So far, over US $70,000,000 has been stolen from people and companies with Zeus. More than 90 criminals using Zeus were arrested in the US, England and Ukraine ( 烏克蘭 ). In May, 2011, the code of Zeus was put online for anyone to use and change.
  29. 29. So what can you do? How can you protect yourself from these kinds of online threats? Don’t open mail attachments from people you don’t know. Try not to click on links inside emails - if you get an email telling you to update your information, go to the website yourself - don’t use their link. Get a good anti-virus program, spyware remover, and firewall. There are free programs available online, such as avast! antivirus, Grisoft's AVG, Microsoft Anti-SpywareWebroot.
  30. 30. So what can you do? How can you protect yourself from these kinds of online threats? Don’t expect something for nothing. Don’t download pirated software, or “keygens” - software that will give you a license number for software. Don’t friend people on Facebook that you don’t know - even if you think they’re attractive! Carefully check where your email is coming from - always check the domain name of the sender.
  31. 31. OK Now: Log into Facebook and check through your friends. Do you really know them?  Go to Facebook. If there are people in your friends list that you don’t really know, put the link to their picture into Google images and see if they are really who they say they are.  Check your email. Are there any emails asking you to update your information? If so, check the domain name. Is it really the website it says it is?  Update your anti-virus software and do a full system scan of your computer at least once a week. Change your passwords every 3-4 months  Think! Be skeptical ( 懷疑論的 ) about what people are sending you, and be careful!