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Psych 41 (Chapter 16)Pdf


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Psych 41 (Chapter 16)Pdf

  1. 1. Kathleen Stassen Berger Part V Chapter Sixteen Adolescence: Psychosocial Development Identity Relationships Sexuality Sadness and Anger Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield 1 Tattoon, M.A.
  2. 2. Identity A consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations. 2
  3. 3. Identity – identity versus diffusion • Erikson’s terms for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt. 3
  4. 4. Identity, cont. – identity achievement • Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans. 4
  5. 5. Identity, cont. • Not Yet Achievement – identity diffusion is the opposite of identity achievement… • it is a situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is. – “Whatever.” 5
  6. 6. Identity, cont. • Not Yet Achievement – Foreclosure • Erickson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning and analysis. – short-circuit their search by not questioning traditional values 6
  7. 7. Identity, cont. • Not Yet Achievement, cont. – moratorium • A way for adolescents to postpone making identity achievement choices by finding an accepted way to avoid identity achievement. – going to college is the most common example 7
  8. 8. Identity, cont. • Four Arenas of Identity Achievement highlighted by Erikson… – religious identity • few teenagers achieve • most religions expect young people to struggle with theological questions – sexual or gender identity • “sex/sexual” referring to biological male/female characteristics • “gender” referring to cultural and social characteristics 8
  9. 9. Identity, cont. • Four Arenas of Identity Achievement… – “political” or “ethnic” identity • political, identifying with a party • ethnic, identifying with a person – vocational identity • few teenagers can find meaningful work • most available jobs are different from in the past • the required skills for many vocations take years to attain – makes it premature to select at age 16 9
  10. 10. Relationships • Adults and teenagers • Conflicts at home – bickering – repeated, petty arguments What do you see in the body position of these two that suggests a generational conflict? 10
  11. 11. Relationships • Closeness with the family – Communication • talk openly with one another – Support • rely on one another – Connectedness • emotionally close – Control • encourage or limit autonomy – parental monitoring – parent knowledge about child’s whereabouts 11
  12. 12. Relationships • Ongoing influence • Peer Support • Cliques and Crowds – Clique • A group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding outsiders – Crowd • A large group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily related 12
  13. 13. Relationships • Choosing friends – peer pressure • social pressure to conform to peer activities – deviance training • destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms – peer selection • ongoing, active process whereby adolescents select friends based on shared interests and values – peer facilitation • encouragement adolescents give one another to partake in activities or behaviors they would not otherwise do alone – constructive or destructive 13
  14. 14. Relationships • Friends of Both Sexes – parents sometime worry about boy-girl contact.. • Immigrant Youth – millions of immigrants born abroad or those whose parents were born in another nation • one-third in Frankfurt • one-half in Amsterdam • two-thirds in Los Angeles and New York 14
  15. 15. Sexuality • Before Committed Partnership 1. groups of friends, exclusively one sex or the other 2. a loose association of girls and boys, with public interactions within a crowd 3. small mixed-sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd 4. formation of couples, with private intimacies 15
  16. 16. Sexuality • Romances – first appears in high school 16
  17. 17. Sexuality • Homosexual Youth – complications slow down the formation of friendships and romantic bonds • Learning About Sex – parents and societies continue to be concerned about adolescent sexual relationships • Peers – sexual behavior is strongly influenced by information, and examples of other adolescents 17
  18. 18. Sexuality, cont. • Parents – play a pivotal role in teenagers sexual decisions • Sex Education in School – U.S. began a massive experiment in 1998 • Sexual Behavior – not all adolescents are having sex – rates vary from nation to nation • teen births overall have decreased dramatically in every nation • the use of “protection” has increased • the abortion rate is also down 18
  19. 19. Sadness and Anger • Comorbidity – a situation in which two or more unreleated illnesses or disorders occur at the same time • Depression – Clinical depression • Suicide – Suicidal ideation • Parasuicide • Cluster suicides 19
  20. 20. Sadness and Anger, cont. • More destructiveness • Breaking the law – Incidence – Prevalence 20
  21. 21. Sadness and Anger, cont. • Cause of delinquency – Life-course-persistent offender – Adolescence-limited offender 21