Kathleen Stassen Berger


                      Part II            Chapter Six

    The First Two Years: Cognitive Develop...
The First Two Years: Cognitive Development

• Infant cognition
  – cognition = “thinking”
    • “thinking” in a very broad...
The First Two Years: Cognitive Development
• Infants organize by the end of the first
  year…
  –   sensations and percept...
Sensorimotor Intelligence
• Remember…
 – Piaget’s first stage (chapter 2)
   • infants learn through senses and
     motor...
5
Piaget and Research Methods
• Piaget’s sensorimotor intelligence actually
  occurs earlier for most infants than Piaget
  ...
Information Processing Theory
• “a perspective that compares human
  thinking processes, by analogy, to
  computer analysi...
Information Processing Theory
• With the aid of technology this theory has found
  some impressive intellectual capacities...
Information Processing Theory
• affordance
  – “…an opportunity for perception and
    interaction that is offered by a pe...
Information Processing Theory
• affordance
  – One puzzle of development is that two
    people can have discrepant percep...
Information Processing Theory
• Research on Early Affordance
  – Information processing improves over the
    first year a...
Information Processing Theory
• Sudden Drops
  – …the visual cliff, an apparatus to
    measure depth perception

  – infa...
Information Processing Theory
• Movement and People
  – infants have:
    • dynamic perception
      – primed to focus on ...
Information Processing Theory
• Memory
  – Developmentalists now agree that even
    very young infants can remember under...
Information Processing Theory
• Reminders and Repetition
  – reminder sessions
    • a perceptual experience that is
     ...
Information Processing Theory
• A Little Older, a Little More Memory
  – after about 6 months infants can retain
    infor...
Information Processing Theory
• Aspects of Memory
  – Memory is not one “thing”
    • brain-imaging techniques reveal many...
Language: What Develops
       in the First Two Years?
• “The acquisition of language,… its
  idiomatic phases, grammar ru...
Language: What Develops
        in the First Two Years?
• The Universal Sequence
  – Around the world children follow the
...
20
Language: What Develops
       in the First Two Years?
• Listening and Responding
    • infants begin learning language be...
Language: What Develops
     in the First Two Years?
• Babbling
  – repeating certain syllables (e.g., da-da-
    da).
   ...
Language: What Develops
      in the First Two Years?
• First Words
  – usually around 1 year the average baby
    speaks,...
Language: What Develops
      in the First Two Years?
• The Naming Explosion
  – a sudden increase in an infant’s
    voca...
Language: What Develops
      in the First Two Years?
• Cultural Differences
  – the ratio of nouns to verbs and
    adjec...
Language: What Develops
      in the First Two Years?
• Sentences
  – “The first words soon take on nuances
    of tone, l...
Language: What Develops
      in the First Two Years?
• Sentences
           “Dada!” “Dada?” and “Dada.”
  – each is a hol...
Language: What Develops
      in the First Two Years?
• Theories of Language Learning
    • 2 year olds worldwide use lang...
Language: What Develops
       in the First Two Years?
• Theories of Language Learning
  – There are 3 theories of how inf...
Language: What Develops
       in the First Two Years?
• Theory One: Infants Need to Be Taught
  – 50 years ago the domina...
Language: What Develops
      in the First Two Years?
• Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves
  – a contrary theory is that...
Language: What Develops
      in the First Two Years?
• Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves
  – universal grammar--all yo...
Language: What Develops
       in the First Two Years?
• Theory Three: Social Impulses Foster Infant
  Language
  – a thir...
Language: What Develops
  in the First Two Years?




                            34
Language: What Develops
      in the First Two Years?
• A Hybrid Theory
  – the integration of all three perspectives…
   ...
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Chapter 6 (Psych 41)Pdf

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Chapter 6 (Psych 41)Pdf

  1. 1. Kathleen Stassen Berger Part II Chapter Six The First Two Years: Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Intelligence Information Processing Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield 1 Tattoon, M.A.
  2. 2. The First Two Years: Cognitive Development • Infant cognition – cognition = “thinking” • “thinking” in a very broad sense includes… – language – learning – memory – intelligence 2
  3. 3. The First Two Years: Cognitive Development • Infants organize by the end of the first year… – sensations and perceptions – sequence and direction – the familiar and the strange – objects and people – events and experiences – permanence and transiency – cause and effect 3
  4. 4. Sensorimotor Intelligence • Remember… – Piaget’s first stage (chapter 2) • infants learn through senses and motor actions 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Piaget and Research Methods • Piaget’s sensorimotor intelligence actually occurs earlier for most infants than Piaget predicted. – Habituation, the process of getting used to (i.e., bored with) a stimulus after repeated exposure. An infant can show this by looking away. – If a new object appears and the infant reacts (change in heart rate, sucking), it is assumed they recognize the object as something different. • Summing up… – In six stages of sensorimotor, Piaget discovered, described, and then celebrated active infant learning. 6
  7. 7. Information Processing Theory • “a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output” 7
  8. 8. Information Processing Theory • With the aid of technology this theory has found some impressive intellectual capacities in the infant • Intellectual capacities, concepts, and categories seem to develop in the infant brain by 6 months • Perspective helps tie together various aspects of infant cognition: affordance and memory. 8
  9. 9. Information Processing Theory • affordance – “…an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment” • afford = offer • perception is the mental processing of information that arrives at the brain from the sensory organs 9
  10. 10. Information Processing Theory • affordance – One puzzle of development is that two people can have discrepant perceptions of the same situation, not only interpreting it differently but actually observing it differently • depending on: – past experiences – current developmental level – sensory awareness of opportunities – immediate needs and motivation 10
  11. 11. Information Processing Theory • Research on Early Affordance – Information processing improves over the first year as infants become quicker to remember – Experiences affect which affordances are perceived… 11
  12. 12. Information Processing Theory • Sudden Drops – …the visual cliff, an apparatus to measure depth perception – infants become interested in “crossing” the cliff about 8 months (having had experience falling) – the cliff “affords” danger for older infants 12
  13. 13. Information Processing Theory • Movement and People – infants have: • dynamic perception – primed to focus on movement and change • a people preference – a universal principle of infant perception, consisting of an innate attraction to other humans, which is evident in visual, auditory, tactile, and other preferences 13
  14. 14. Information Processing Theory • Memory – Developmentalists now agree that even very young infants can remember under the following circumstances: • experimental conditions are similar to “real life” • motivation is high • special measures are taken to aid memory retrieval 14
  15. 15. Information Processing Theory • Reminders and Repetition – reminder sessions • a perceptual experience that is intended to help a person recollect an idea, a thing, or an experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment 15
  16. 16. Information Processing Theory • A Little Older, a Little More Memory – after about 6 months infants can retain information for longer periods of time… with less training or reminding – by the middle of the 2nd year toddlers can remember and reenact more complex sequences 16
  17. 17. Information Processing Theory • Aspects of Memory – Memory is not one “thing” • brain-imaging techniques reveal many distinct brain regions devoted to particular aspects of memory – implicit memory is memory for routines and memories that remain hidden until particular stimulus bring them to mind – explicit memory is memory that can be recalled on demand 17
  18. 18. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • “The acquisition of language,… its idiomatic phases, grammar rules, and exceptions, is the most impressive intellectual achievement of the young child.” 18
  19. 19. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • The Universal Sequence – Around the world children follow the same sequence of early language development 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Listening and Responding • infants begin learning language before birth… • infants prefer speech over other sounds – child-directed speech • the high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants 21
  22. 22. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Babbling – repeating certain syllables (e.g., da-da- da). • all babies babble, even deaf babies (although later and less frequently). • babbling is a way to communicate. 22
  23. 23. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • First Words – usually around 1 year the average baby speaks, or signs a few words • they are often familiar nouns – by 13 months spoken language increases very gradually – 6 to 15 month-olds learn meaning rapidly and comprehend about 10 times as many words as they speak 23
  24. 24. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • The Naming Explosion – a sudden increase in an infant’s vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns begins at about 18 months – vocabulary reaches about 50 expressed words at a rate of 50 to 100 per month, 21 month-olds saying twice as many as 18 month-olds 24
  25. 25. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Cultural Differences – the ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives show cultural influences. – one explanation is the language itself (i.e. English, Chinese differ) – another explanation is social context (toys and objects) – every language has some concepts encoded in adult speech 25
  26. 26. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Sentences – “The first words soon take on nuances of tone, loudness, and cadence that are precursors of the first grammar, because a single word can convey many messages by the way it is spoken.” 26
  27. 27. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Sentences “Dada!” “Dada?” and “Dada.” – each is a holophrase, a single word that expresses a complete, meaningful thought. – intonations varying in tone and pitch is extensive in babbling and again in holophrases at about 18 months – grammar--all the methods that languages use to communicate meaning. Word order, prefixes, intonation, verb forms,… are all aspects of grammar. 27
  28. 28. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theories of Language Learning • 2 year olds worldwide use language well • bilingual children keep two languages separate and speak whatever language a listen understands – each theory of language acquisition has implications for parents and educators…all want children to speak fluently…without instruction 28
  29. 29. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theories of Language Learning – There are 3 theories of how infants learn language: • they are taught (view of B. F. Skinner) • they teach themselves (view of Noam Chomsky) • social impulses foster learning 29
  30. 30. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theory One: Infants Need to Be Taught – 50 years ago the dominant learning theory in North America was behaviorism – B. F. Skinner (1957) noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced… a grinning mother appears, repeating, praising, giving attention to the infant – Parents are expert teachers, other caregivers help – Frequent repetitions instructive when linked to daily life – Well-taught infants become well-spoken children 30
  31. 31. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves – a contrary theory is that language learning is innate--adults need not teach it – Norm Chomsky (1968,1980) felt that language is too complex to be mastered merely through step-by-step conditioning 31
  32. 32. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves – universal grammar--all young children master basic language at about the same age – Language acquisition device (LAD) • a term used for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary and intonation 32
  33. 33. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theory Three: Social Impulses Foster Infant Language – a third theory called social-pragmatic perceives the crucial starting point to be neither vocabulary reinforcement (behaviorism) nor innate connection (epigenetic), but rather the social reason for language; communication – Infants communicate in every way they can because humans are social beings and depend on one another for survival and joy 33
  34. 34. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? 34
  35. 35. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • A Hybrid Theory – the integration of all three perspectives… notably in a monograph based on 12 experiments designed by 8 researchers – their model an emergentist coalition… combing valid aspects of several theories about the emergence of language during infancy 35

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