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  1. 1. Reasoning<br />“When an argument includes both quality evidence and a valid reasoning foundation, the argument is considered to be sound”<br />By: Eric Melara<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>Reasoning is the process of creating conclusions from evidence</li></ul>Types of reasoning:<br />Inductive reasoning<br />Example reasoning<br />Causal reasoning<br />Sign reasoning<br />Comparison reasoning<br />Reasoning from authority<br /><ul><li>Deductive reasoning
  3. 3. Major premise
  4. 4. Minor premise
  5. 5. Conclusion</li></li></ul><li>INDUCTIVE REASONING<br />The process of reasoning from specifics to a general conclusion related to those specifics<br />
  6. 6. Inductive reasoningExample reasoning<br />Using specific instances as a basis for making a valid conclusion<br />Case #1 Case #2 Case #3 Case #4<br />
  7. 7. Inductive reasoningCausal reasoning<br />For every action there is a reaction<br />Two forms of causal reasoning:<br />Cause to effect: cause capable of producing some unknown effect<br />Effect to cause: some known effect has been produced by some unknown cause<br />
  8. 8. Inductive reasoningSign reasoning<br />A connection between two related things<br />The presence of an attribute indicating that something else exists.<br />
  9. 9. Inductive reasoningComparison reasoning<br />Drawing comparisons between two similar things and concluding that, what is correct about one is also correct about the other.<br />
  10. 10. Inductive reasoningReasoning from authority<br />Accepting an argument because it came from a credible source or authority.<br />
  11. 11. Deductive reasoning<br />Reasoning from general statements to a logically certain conclusion<br />A deductive argument<br /> has three parts: a<br /> major premise, a <br /> minor premise, and <br /> a conclusion.<br />
  12. 12. Deductive reasoningMajor premise<br />The major premise is a general statement<br />“ONLINE CLASSES ARE NOT EASIER THAN REGULAR CLASSES”<br />
  13. 13. Deductive reasoningMinor premise<br />A statement of a specific instance related to the major premise<br />“I AM TAKING AN ONLINE CLASS AND IT HAS BEEN HARDER THAN SOME OTHER CLASSES I HAVE HAD”<br />
  14. 14. Deductive reasoningConclusion<br />The statement derived from the minor premises relationship to the major premise<br />“MY ONLINE CLASS IS NOT EASIER THAN MY OTHER CLASSES”<br />