2. pengertian dasar perencanaan & pengendalian kualitas
Perencanaan & Pengendalian Kualitas Pengertian Dasar
Sub Pokok Bahasan• Pengertian Kualitas• Perkembangan Konsep Manajemen Mutu• Ruang Lingkup
Standar Kompetensi• Pada akhir semester ini, mahasiswa jurusan Teknik Industri semester V, akan dapat mengembangkan konsep Pengendalian dan Penjaminan Mutu.
Kompetensi Dasar• Jika diberikan materi pengertian dasar mutu, mahasiswa jurusan Teknik Industri semester V akan dapat menjelaskan dasar–dasar Pengendalian dan Penjaminan Mutu dan perkembangan konsep manajemen mutu terakhir minimal 80 % benar minimal 80% benar
“Quality have ranged in scope from narrow definitions such as ‘meetingengineering specifications on the shop floor’ to broad societal-oriented definitions” (Kolarik, 1995)
2 Dimensions of Quality• Fitness for Use - Customer’s Perspective• Fitness to Specification - Specification-based Perspective
Definisi Kualitas• Definisi Kualitas akan tergantung pada sudut pandang konsumen – Fitness for use (Juran, 1989) – Conformance to requirement (Crosby, 1979) – Value perceived by the customer
• Product quality encompasses those characteristics which the product must possess if it is to be used in the intended manner (Mizuno, 1988)• Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs (ISO 9000, 1992)
• Quality is a physical or nonphysical characteristic that constitutes the basic nature of a thing or is one of its distinguishing features (Webster’s New World Dictionary)• Quality is the total composite product and service characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacture and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectations of the customer (Feigenbaum, 1983)
Quality (Deming, 1986) “Quality can be defined only in terms of the agent. Who is the judge of quality? In the mind of the production worker, he produces quality if he can take pride in his work. Poor quality, to him, means loss of business, and perhaps of his job. Good quality, he thinks, will keep the company in business.His job is also, whether he knows it or not, continual improvement of leadership”
...(Deming, 1986)• Quality has many different criteria• And that these criteria change continually• Different people value the various criteria differently it is important to measure consumer preferences and to remeasure them frequently...
Ishikawa’s Definition of Quality“Quality and customer satisfaction are the same thing....” “Quality is a broad concept that goes beyond just product quality, to also include the quality of people, processes, and every aspect of the organization”
So...• Quality involves meeting or exceeding customer expectations• Quality applies to products, services, people, processes and environments• Quality is an ever-changing state (i.e. What is consider quality today may not be good enough to be considered quality tomorrow)
Quality is...– Customer satisfaction and loyalty, that is achieved through 2 dimensions: • Features – Have a major effect on sales income – Features refers to quality of the design • Freedom from deficiencies – Has a major effect on costs through reductions in scrap, rework, complaints and other results of deficiencies – Freedom from deficiencies refers to quality of conformance
Lower Features DeficienciesPrice Share Speed Warranty Waste Income Cost Profit
Two Dimensions of Quality Manufacturing Industries Service Industries FeaturesPerformance AccuracyReliability TimelinesDurability CompletenessEase of Use Friendliness and CourtesyServiceability Anticipating customer needsEsthetics Knowledge of serverAvailability of options and expandability Appearance of facilities and personnelReputation Reputation
Freedon from DeficienciesProduct free of defects and Service free of errors duringerrors at delivery, during use, original and future serviceand during servicing transactionAll processes free of rework All processes free of reworkloops, redundancy and other loops, redundancy and otherwaste waste
Dimensions of Quality (Garvin, 1987)• Performance (will the product do the intended job?)• Reliability (how often does the product fail?)• Durability (how long does the product last?)• Serviceability (how easy is it to repair the product?)• Aesthetics (what does the product look like?)• Features (what does the product do)• Perceived quality (what is the reputation of the company or its product?)• Conformance to standards (is the product made exactly as the designer intended?)
Why Quality• Competition• The Customer-Focused Organization• Higher Levels of Customer Expectation• Performance Improvement• Changes in Organization Forms• Changing Workforce• Information Revolution• Electronic Commerce• Role of “Quality Department”
Perkembangan Konsep Manajemen KualitasYear Milestone1911 Frederick W. Taylor publishes The Principle of Scientific Management, giving birth to such techniques as time and motion studies1931 Walter A. Shewart of Bell Laboratories introduces statistical quality control in his book Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Products1940 W. Edward Deming assists the U.S. Bureau of the Census in applying statistical sampling techniques1941 W. Edward Deming joins the U.S. War Department to teach quality control techniques1950 W. Edward Deming addresses Japanese scientists, engineers and corporate executives on the subject of quality1951 Joseph M. Juran publishes the Quality Control Handbook
1961 Martin Company (later Martin-Marietta) builds a Pershing missile that has zero deffects1970 Philip Crosby introduces the concept of zero defect1979 Philip Crosby publishes Quality is Free1980 Television documentary If Japan can... Why Can’t We? Airs, giving W. Edwards Deming renewed recognition in the United States1981 Ford Motor Company invites W. Edward Deming to speak to its top executives, whichbegins a rocky but productive relationship between the automaker and the quality expert1982 W. Edward Deming publishes Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position1984 Philip Crosby publishes Quality without Tears: The Art of Hassle-Free Management1987 - U.S. Congress creates the Malcolm Baldrige national Quality Award - Motorola introduces “Six Sigma” Method
1988 - Secretary of Defense Frank Carlucci directs the U.S. Department of Defense to adopt total quality - Tom Peters writes in In Search of Excellence1989 Florida Flower and Light wins Japan’s coveted Deming Prize, the first non- Japanese company to do so1993 The total quality approach is widely taught in U.S. Colleges and universities2000 The ISO 9000 standard is rewritten to incorporate total quality concepts2001 E-commerce (information quality) and mass customization are important considerations
•Kualitas selalu menjadi faktor utama dalam keputusanpembelian•Tuntutan/kesadaran konsumen akan kualitas mengalamipeningkatan dari waktu ke waktu•Tingkat persaingan semakin tinggi pilihan lain jika kecewasemakin banyak Kualitas menjadi hal utama yang diperhatikan oleh perusahaan HAMPIR SEMUA PERUSAHAAN (KHUSUSNYA BIDANG MANUFAKTUR) MEMPUNYAI BAGIAN QUALITY CONTROL atau QUALITY ASSURANCE
Sistem Inspeksi (Tahun 1920-an)• Mensortir (shorting)• Menyelamatkan (salvage)• Tindakan korektif (corrective action)• Mengidentifikasi sumber (source) ketidaksesuaian (non-conformance)
Sistem Pengendalian Kualitas (Tahun 1940-an)• Mengembangkan manual kualitas (develop quality manual)• Data performa proses (process performance data)• Pengetesan produk (testing product)• Perencanaan kualitas dasar (basic quality planning)• Inspeksi mandiri (self-inspection)• Menggunakan statistik dasar (use of basic statistics)
Sistem Penjaminan Kualitas (tahun 1970-an)• Perencanaan kualitas lanjut (advanced quality planning)• Manual kualitas terpadu (comprehensive quality manual)• Menggunakan biaya/ongkos kualitas (use of quality cost)• Melibatkan operasi di luar bagian produksi (involvement of non-production operations)• Pengendalian proses statistik (statistical process control)• Menganalisa penyebab dan akibat (failure mode and effect analysis)• Menerapkan sistem audit
• Quality Assurance is work discipline, a gathering of procedures that document what people are supposed to do. This is intended to organize information for the benefit of building a path for work to follow.
Sistem Manajemen Kualitas Terpadu (Total Quality Management, tahun 1970-an – sekarang)• Menerapkan sistem perbaikan berkelanjutan (aim for continuous improvement)• Keterlibatan semua operasi (involve all operations)• Melibatkan pemasok dan konsumen (involve suppliers & customers)• Kerjasama tim (teamwork)• Melibatkan pekerja (employee involvement)• Pengukuran performa (performance measurement)
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1915)• “The Father of Scientific Management”• Division of work concept• Time and Motion Study• Setiap orang hgarus mempunyai tugas yang jelas dan harus diselesaikan dalam satu hari• Pekerjaan harus memiliki peralatan yang standar untuk menyelesaikan tugas yang menjadi bagiannya• Bonus dan intensif wajar diberikan kepada yang berprestasi maksimal• Penalti yang merupakan kerugian bagi pekerjaan yang tidak mencapai sasaran yang telah ditentukan
Walter A. Shewhart (1891 – 1967) • The father of statistical quality control • Introduce the control chart as a tool for distinguishing between assignable-cause and chance-cause• Stressed that bringing a production process into a state of statistical control, where there is only chance-cause variation, and keeping it in control, is necessary to predict future output and to manage a process economically
“It seems reasonable to believe that there is an objective state of control, making possible the prediction of quality within limits even though the causes of variability are unknown... It has been pointed out that by securing this state of control, we can secure the following advantages: – Reduction in the cost of inspection – Reduction in the cost of rejection – Attainment of maximum benefits from quantity production – Attainment of uniform quality even though the inspection test is destructive – Reduction in tolerance limits where quality measurement is indirect”
William Edwards Deming (1900 – 1993) • “Quality” Guru • His business philosophy is summarized in his famous “14 Points” that rest on a system of profound knowledge that has 4 parts: the system approach, understanding of statistical variation, the nature and scope of knowledge and psychology to understand human behaviour• The quality master who develop Japan’s “road map” to quality• Quality required a reorientation of priorities toward customer satisfaction, statistical quality control, learning, respect for workers and workmanship and long-term commitment to true leadership
“ Is it sufficient to have happy customers?“The customer never invented anything. The customer generates nothing. He takes what he gets”
“Innovation comes from freedom. Itcomes from those who are obligatedto no one. It comes from people who are responsible only to themselves”
“Competition is bad. Competition in and between organizations, whether they bemanufacturers, govenrment or education, is the worst thing that can happen to an organization. Infighting between differentparts of organizations for resources is one of the most destructive forces in modern organizations. ““I credit Japan’s lack of competition for its phenomenal success”
“How utterly futile it is to blameworkers for system problems that are beyond their control”
“If you dont have a theory, you dont have an experience. Without theory there is no observation; than there is no experience” “ISO 9000 shows a lack of brains” “Zero defects down the tubes we go” “Benchmarking is the last stage of civilization”
“Supervisor has two resposibilities:To assist those who need special help And To improve the system”
Deming 14 Points1. Create and publish to all employees a statement of the aims and purposes of the company or other organization. The management must demonstrate constantly their commitment to this statement.2. Learn the new philosophy, top management and everybody.3. Understand the purpose of inspection, for improvement of processes and reduction of cost.4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone.5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service.6. Institute training.7. Teach and institute leadership.8. Drive out fear. Create trust. Create a climate for innovation.9. Optimize toward the aims and purposes of the company the efforts of teams, groups, staff areas.10. Eliminate exhortations for the work force.11. Eliminate numerical quotas for production. Instead, learn and institute methods for improvement.11. Eliminate MBO. Instead, learn the capabilities of processes, and how to improve them.12. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship.13. Encourage education and self-improvement for everyone.14. Take Action to accomplish the transformation
Demings 14 Points1. Constancy of purpose 2. The new philosophy Create constancy of Adopt the new philosophy. purpose for continual We are in a new economic improvement of products age, created in Japan. We and service to society, can no longer live with allocating resources to commonly accepted levels provide for long range of delays, mistakes, needs rather than only defective materials, and short term profitability, defective workmanship. with a plan to become Transformation of Western competitive, to stay in management style is business, and to provide necessary to halt the jobs. continued decline of business and industry
3. Cease dependence on mass 4. End lowest tender contracts inspection End the practice of awarding Eliminate the need for mass business solely on the basis of price inspection as the way of life to tag. Instead require meaningful achieve quality by building quality measures of quality along with into the product in the first place. price. Reduce the number of Require statistical evidence of built suppliers for the same item by in quality in both manufacturing eliminating those that do not and purchasing functions. qualify with statistical and other evidence of quality. The aim is to minimize total cost, not merely initial cost, by minimizing variation. This may be achieved by moving toward a single supplier for any one item, on a long term relationship of loyalty and trust. Purchasing managers have a new job, and must learn it.
5. Improve every process 6. Institute training on the job Improve constantly and forever Institute modern methods of every process for training on the job for all, including planning, production, and service. management, to make better use of Search continually for problems in every employee. New skills are order to improve every activity in required to keep up with changes in the company, to improve quality materials, methods, product and and productivity, and thus to service design, machinery, constantly decrease costs. Institute techniques, and service. innovation and constant improvement of product, service, and process. It is managements job to work continually on the system (design, incoming materials, maintenance, improvem ent of machines, supervision, training, retr aining).
7. Institute leadership 8. Drive out fear Adopt and institute leadership Encourage effective two way aimed at helping people do a communication and other better job. The responsibility of means to drive out fear managers and supervisors must throughout the organization so be changed from sheer that everybody may work numbers to quality. effectively and more Improvement of quality will productively for the company. automatically improve productivity. Management must ensure that immediate action is taken on reports of inherited defects, maintenance requirements, poor tools, fuzzy operational definitions, and all conditions detrimental to quality
9. Break down barriers 10. Eliminate exhortations Break down barriers Eliminate the use of between departments and slogans, posters and staff areas. People in exhortations for the work different areas, such as force, demanding Zero Defects Leasing, Maintenance, and new levels of Administration, must work in productivity, without providing teams to tackle problems methods. Such exhortations that may be encountered only create adversarial with products or service. relationships; the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system, and thus lie beyond the power of the work force.
11. Eliminate arbitrary numerical 12. Permit pride of workmanship targets Remove the barriers that rob Eliminate work standards that hourly workers, and people in prescribe quotas for the work management, of their right to force and numerical goals for pride of workmanship. This people in management. implies, among other things, Substitute aids and helpful abolition of the annual merit leadership in order to achieve rating (appraisal of continual improvement of performance) and of quality and productivity Management by Objective. Again, the responsibility of managers, supervisors, foremen must be changed from sheer numbers to quality.
13. Encourage education 14. Top management commitment and action Institute a vigorous program of education, and encourage self Clearly define top managements improvement for everyone. What permanent commitment to ever an organization needs is not just improving quality and productivity, good people; it needs people that and their obligation to implement all are improving with education. of these principles. Indeed, it is not Advances in competitive position enough that top management will have their roots in knowledge. commit themselves for life to quality and productivity. They must know what it is that they are committed to—that is, what they must do. Create a structure in top management that will push every day on the preceding 13 Points, and take action in order to accomplish the transformation. Support is not enough: action is required!
Joseph M. Juran (1904 – 2008) • The “father” of quality • Contributions: – Pareto Principle (the vital few and the trivial many) – The Juran Trilogy Quality Planning, Quality Control and Quality Improvement• Emphasizes the importance of a balanced approach using managerial, statistical and technological concept of quality• Management Theory of Quality – widely credited for adding the human dimension to quality management – pushed for the education and training of managers• Resistance to change (cultural resistance) was the root cause of quality issues• Juran’s vision of quality management extended well outside the walls of the factory to encompass non-manufacturing processes, especially those that might be thought of as service related
An Operational Framework of Three Quality Process Project by Project Quality Improvement Breakthrough Pareto Analysisi Quality Quality Control Planning Holding the Gains
Managing for Quality Quality Planning Quality Control Quality ImprovementDetermines who the Evaluate actual product Establish the infrastucturecustomers are performanceDetermines the needs of Compare actual Identify the improvementthe customers performance to product projects goalDevelop produc features Act on the difference Establish project teamthat respond to customer’sneedsDevelop processes able to Provide the teams withproduce the product resources; training, andfeatures motivation to:Transfer the plans to the •Diagnose the causesoperating forces •Stimulate remedies •Establish controls to hold the gains
Philip B. Crosby• “Quality is Free” and “Zero Defects”• Quality is conformance to requirements• The system of quality is prevention• The performance standard is zero defect• The measurement of quality is the price of non- conformance
Armand V Feigenbaum (Born 1922)• The originator of “Total Quality Control”• Three steps to Quality – Quality Leadership – Modern Quality Technology – Organisational Commitment
Kaoru Ishikawa• Ishikawa developed the concept of true and of substitute quality characteristics• The degree of match between true and substitute quality characteristics ultimately determines customer satisfaction• 7 tools of quality: – Cause effect diagram (ishikawa diagram) – Stratification – Check sheet – Histogram – Scatter diagram – Pareto chart (vital few, trivial many) – Graph and statistical control charts
• 1920 – The quality of the end or finished product – Tool used were from the Bell System of acceptance sampling, inspection plans and control charts – The ideas of Frederick Winslow Taylor dominated
• Frederick W. Taylor• Walter A. Shewhart• Edward Deming• Joseph M. Juran• Philip B. Crosby – Quality is free• AV Feigenbaum – three steps to quality• Kaoru Ishikawa• Genichi Taguchi• Shigeo Shingo