The JOB ANALYSIS A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. Process of defining a job in terms of its component tasks or duties and the knowledge or skills required to perform themDECISION IS MADE TO CHECK THAT:Whether already existing post is valuable or not.To create a Post.
JOB ANALYSIS•The process of studying In doing job analysis, thepositions, of describing the following can be expected:duties and responsibilities •Duties and responsibilitiesthat goes with the jobs, and and skills that goes with jobof grouping similar positions differsinto job categories •Job titles may or may not•It is looking at what the be able to capture jobwork is, how it is done, why contentthe work is done, the link of •Job descriptions and jobthe work to other jobs, the specifications cannot beskills required, the uniform acrosssupervision and guidance organizationsneeeded and theenvironment under which itis done
What to do??1. Discuss the nature of job analysis, including what it is and how it’s used.2. Use at least three methods of collecting job analysis information, including interviews, questionnaires, and observation.3. Explain job analysis in a “jobless” world, including what it means and how it’s done in practice.
Steps in Job Analysis Process1. Job descriptions—Task requirements – Statement that explains duties working conditions, etc. of a job2. Job specifications—Person requirements – Statement of what a job demands of the incumbent – E.g., knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs) and other characteristics required to perform job
2. Performance standards – What is expected of workers – JA may provide performance standards for job where performance is readily quantified, measurable, etc. – May need to be augmented – e.g., participative goal-setting All of these uses form foundation for various HRM systems
Important Applications of Job Analysis The Job Analysis provides the foundation for almost everything HR is involved in. – Job Descriptions – Employee Selection – Training – Performance Appraisals – Job Classification – Job Evaluation – Job Design and Redesign
Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis Training & Development Staffing Compensation & Benefits Safety and Health Employee andlabor relation ship
METHODS Direct observation Interview of existing post holder Interview of immediate supervisor Questionnaires Previous studies Work dairies
Methods of Job Analysis: Observation Information Source – Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs Advantages – Provides first-hand information – Reduces distortion of information
Observation: Disadvantages: – Time consuming – Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle – Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity – Observer’s Difference of mental disposition. – Analyst’s caliber should match employee’s caliber
Methods of Job Analysis: The Interview Information Sources – Individual employees (existing job holder) – Immediate boss (Supervisors ) with knowledge of the job. Interview formatStructuredUnstructured
The Interviews: Advantages – Quick, direct way to find overlooked information required. Disadvantages – Exaggeration or depreciation of importance of job – In case of supervisor, he may not be interesting in the JD of the subordinates. – Attitude may not be supportive. – Difference in perception, attitude and aptitude of the interviewee. – Lack of communication. – Analyst’s caliber should match employee’s caliber.
Methods of Job Analysis: Questionnaires Information Source: Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities. Questionnaires format:3. Structured checklist.( to identify the task performed)4. Open ended questions
Questionnaires Advantages – Quick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees – Quick and economical to use Disadvantages – Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire. – Becomes less useful where the employees lack verbal skills.
Methods of Job Analysis: Previous studies Information source: Past record of any employee.The analyst keeps the past record of the employees and keeps the previous experiences and issues related to the job analysis process of the organization.
Previous studies Advantages Easy to use this method. Helps to find out that whether it is beneficial or not Disadvantages Wrong assessment of previous post Bad performance of previous employee
Methods of Job Analysis: Work Diaries Information Source – Workers keep a chronological diary/ log of what they do and the time spent on each activity.
Work Diaries Advantages – Produces a more complete picture of the job – Employee participation – Maintained on daily basis. Disadvantages – Distortion of information – Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities
Methods of Job Analysis: Manager trying the job This method is used to check the new post. In this method the manager start a new job to check that whether this job is beneficial or not. It’s a risky step to take because it may cause many fundamental problems.
Advantages and disadvantages Advantages:2. Very fruitful if the manager is an experienced analyst and strategic risk taker. Disadvantages:4. Very expensive5. Risky6. Time consuming
The person who conducts job analysis is interested in gathering data on what is involved in performing a particular job. Types of data collected, that may help in analysis are,( WORK ACTIVITIES,WORK PERFORMANCES,WORK SCHEDULES,PERSONAL REQUIRMENTS).
Human resource expertscannot rely on individual job analysis techniques sonormally all the methods are used collectively.