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Enhancing the Digital Public Domain - With and Without Copyright Reform


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Talk given at the conference "POST-ACTA: How to protect our digital freedom?", European Parliament, Brussels, June 07, 2012

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Enhancing the Digital Public Domain - With and Without Copyright Reform


  1. 1. Enhancing the Digital Public Domain: With and Without Copyright Reform Leonhard Dobusch Freie Universität Berlin – School of Business & Economics June 07, 2012
  2. 2. Digital technology is not the problem.We do have problems with copyrightsAddressing copyright problems
  3. 3. Digital technology is not the problem.
  4. 4. “ Anything that is in the world when you’re born is normal and ordinary and is just a natural part of the way the world works. Anything that’s invented between when you’re fifteen and thirty-five is new and exciting and revolutionary and you can probably get a career in it. Anything invented after you’re thirty-five ” is against the natural order of things. Douglas Adams: „The Salmon of Doubt“
  5. 5. “ A tuneless future is the writing on thewall. If today and tomorrow the musicindustry is not able to solve its economicproblems, the day after tomorrow, in spiteof all the super-technologies, there wouldbe hardly any music left that could becopied. ”
  6. 6. Taken from: DER SPIEGEL, 17/1977
  7. 7. Bild: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Home_taping_is_killing_music.pngAnti-copyright infringement campaign by the British Phonographic Industry in 1980
  8. 8. Video: Copy Kills Musichttp://www.youtube.com/watch? v=sJ5a4484NEo
  9. 9. + 66% + 50% + 30% New feature New music New books films per year albums per year per year (2003-2007) (2000-2007) (2002-2007)Oberholzer-Gee/Strumpf (2010): File-Sharing and Copyright, Online: http://musicbusinessresearch.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/paper-felix-oberholzer-gee.pdf
  10. 10. Bild: http://www.techdirt.com/skyisrising/
  11. 11. Labels (record sales/downloads) les/do wnloads record sa Artists live revenue Collecting societiesUK Musikindustrie, Quelle: Times Online, http://bit.ly/4v8pKl
  12. 12. We do have problems with copyrights
  13. 13. Make a living with writing? 40% Could live from writing alone Need another job to survive 60%Professional writers (>50% oftime to writing) in UK and Germany Kretschmer/Hardwick (2007): Authors‘ Earnings from Copyright and Non-Copyright Sources: A Survey of 25,000 British and German Writers, Online: http://www.cippm.org.uk/alcs_study.html
  14. 14. Unequal distribution of income(1 = one person earns everything) 1,00 Importance of copyright for income 0,78 0,75 UK 0,67 Germany 0,63 0,52 0,50 0,47 0,43 0,33 0,31 0,25 0 ALCS/VG Wort Writing income Total income of writers All employeesEqual distribution of income(0 = all earn the same) Kretschmer/Hardwick (2007): Authors‘ Earnings from Copyright and Non-Copyright Sources: A Survey of 25,000 British and German Writers, Online: http://www.cippm.org.uk/alcs_study.html
  15. 15. “ [T]he more copyright related the incomestream, the more extreme is the distributionof income.A small number of very high earners earn adisproportionate share of total income. ” Kretschmer/Hardwick (2007): Authors‘ Earnings from Copyright and Non-Copyright Sources: A Survey of 25,000 British and German Writers, Online: http://www.cippm.org.uk/alcs_study.html, p. 64
  16. 16. Problems beyond distribution and income?
  17. 17. 1970s: Violate copyrights!2000s: Don‘t violate copyrights!
  18. 18. Example: Transformative Consumption
  19. 19. Transformative Werknutzung Im Hintergrund: Prince - Let‘s Go Crazy Video: Holden Lenz Dancinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch? v=N1KfJHFWlhQ
  20. 20. Example: Amateur Art
  21. 21. Video: O Fortuna Misheard Lyricshttp://www.youtube.com/watch? v=nIwrgAnx6Q8
  22. 22. >70 Millionen Views auf YouTube Video: JK‘s Wedding Entrance Dance http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=4-94JhLEiN0Song „Forever“ von Chris Brown:Durch Video Wiedereinstieg in die Charts
  23. 23. Example: Orphan Works
  24. 24. After ten years the huge majority of works is no longer commercially exploitable. 100% of works are still protected by copyright for decades to come.Bild: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Old_book_-_Basking_Ridge_Historical_Society_(1).jpg
  25. 25. The Missing 20th Century New Books from Amazon by Decade (Random sample of 2.500 books)Quelle:http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/03/the-missing-20th-century-how-copyright-protection-makes-books-vanish/255282/
  26. 26. Orphan (documentary) filmsrot in archives. Bild: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ektachrome- _and_Bell_%26_Howell-brand_film_reel_canisters.jpg
  27. 27. Addressing copyright problems
  28. 28. (1) Copyright Reform
  29. 29. USA: remix & transformativeconsumption are mostly legal „Fair Use“
  30. 30. Europe:list of exceptions and limitations Open up this list!
  31. 31. Work register on the European level with a use-it-or-lose-it-clause Bild: http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Datei:Schlagwortkatalog.jpg
  32. 32. (2) Without Copyright Reform
  33. 33. Support & Demand
  34. 34. Copyright Creative Commons ©All rights reserved Some rights reserved
  35. 35. CREATIVE COMMONSAttribution ShareAlike NonCommercial No Derivatives Share & remix without asking
  36. 36. Support:New guidelines for (cultural) subsidies +10% CC Bonus
  37. 37. Support:New business models Funding in 2012: $ 150 million
  38. 38. Demand:Open Access in Science
  39. 39. Demand:Open Educational Resources
  40. 40. Open AccessOpen OpenFormats Licenses
  41. 41. “Imagine a world in which every single human being can freely share in the sum of all knowledge.”
  42. 42. Further Reading (Online & Offline):§ Aigrain (2012): Sharing: Culture and the Economy in the Internet Age.Amsterdam University Press, online: http://www.sharing-thebook.com§ Dobusch (2010): Bad for Artists? On Digitization, Remuneration andCopyright, online: http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2011-07-01-dobusch-en.html§ Benkler (2006): The Wealth of Networks. Yale University Press,online: http://www.benkler.org/Benkler_Wealth_Of_Networks.pdf§ Lessig (2003): Free Culture. Penguin,online: http://www.free-culture.cc/freeculture.pdf
  43. 43. Contact detailsE-Mail:Leonhard.Dobusch@fu-berlin.deTwitter:@leonidobuschHomepages:http://bit.ly/FU-Dobusch (Freie Universität Berlin)http://www.dobusch.netBlog:http://www.governancexborders.com

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