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Open Strategy-making Between Crowd and Community

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Conference “Organizing Crowds & Innovation“ , Saïd Business School & Nuffield College, University of Oxford , October 30-31, 2015

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Open Strategy-making Between Crowd and Community

  1. 1. Open Strategy-making Between Crowd and Community Lessons from Wikimedia and Creative Commons Conference “Organizing Crowds & Innovation“ Saïd Business School & Nuffield College, University of Oxford October 30-31, 2015 Leonhard Dobusch Freie Universität Berlin Jakob Kapeller Johannes Kepler University Linz
  2. 2. From Open Innovation… §  Organizations increasingly rely on contributions by external actors in innovation and beyond (e.g. Baldwin & von Hippel, 2011; Dell’Era & Verganti, 2010; O’Mahony & Ferraro, 2007) §  Open innovation is an ‘open strategy’but not open strategy-making (Chesbrough & Appleyard, 2007; Whittington et al. 2011) >> strategically relevant ideas from external actors in open innovation processes (e.g. Bayus 2013; Yoo et al. 2012) Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller
  3. 3. …to Open Strategy-making §  Organizations invite external actors to participate in strategy-making processes (Doz & Kosonen, 2008; Matzler et al. 2014) §  Particularly important for organizations that already rely on external crowds and communities >> open strategy-making with different types of external actors Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller
  4. 4. Crowd! Community! Public tasks of surveying and classify craters on Mars. Kanefsky et al., 2001" Community structure of modules in the apache project González-Barahona et al., 2004" Examples from: Müller-Birn, C.: How applicable are conditions for success in online peer-production communities for scientific communities? Invited Talk. Institute for Research Information and Quality Assurance, 11/2012 Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller Members interact and self-identify as members (Jarvenpaa & Lang, 2011; O’Mahony, 2007; O’Mahony & Lakhani, 2012) Members share a common practice in isolation (Bonabeau, 2009; Jeppesen & Lakhani, 2010; Surowiecki, 2004)
  5. 5. Research Question How do organizations that rely on contributions by crowds and communities perform open strategy-making? Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller
  6. 6. §  U.S. Non-Profit with network of 100+ affiliate organizations §  Provides set of alternative copyright licenses §  Community of copyright lawyers §  Crowd of Creative Commons license users §  U.S. charitable organization with network of 40+ chapter associations §  Provides infrastructure for Wikipedia, Wiktionary, etc. §  Community of volunteer contributors („Wikipedians“) §  Crowd of Wikipedia readers Case Comparison Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller Data: ~100 semi-structured interviews, mailing-lists, wikis and websites
  7. 7. Community of Wikipedians Wikimedia Crowd of Creative Commons license users Creative Commons formal organization community Crowd of Wikipedia readers crowd Community of copyright lawyers Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller
  8. 8. Open Strategy Initiatives Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 20102009 Initiative CC#2: Defining NCInitiative CC#1: Explaining NC 2004 2011 Initiative CC#3: Versioning NC 2012 Initiative WM#2: Strategy Process Initiative WM#1: Relicensing Initiative WM#3: SOPA/PIPA Protest Foundation of Creative Commons Foundation of Wikipedia Foundation of Wikimedia Launch of CC licenses 1.0
  9. 9. Data set CC1: 52 interviews Strategy initiative CC#1: Explaining NC Case Selection Categorization Data Sets Strategy Practices Data set CC2: 2 mailing-lists Strategy initiative CC#2: Defining NC Reporting practices -  Collecting opinions from external actors -  Collecting suggestions Democratic practices -  Registering voters -  Voting Exclusive practices -  Condensing suggestions and communicating decisions Data set CC3: website/wiki pages Strategy initiative CC#3: Versioning NC Data set WM1: 47 interviews Strategy initiative WM#1: Re-licensing Strategy initiative WM#2: Strategy process Data set WM3: website/wiki pages Strategy initiative WM#3: SOPA/PIPA protest CreativeCommonsWikimedia Data set WM2: 1 mailing-list Reviewing practices -  Reporting of and exchange on different interpretations and applications -  Negotiating interpretations and objectives -  Discussing suggestions -  Petitioning
  10. 10. Open Strategy-making Practices Emerging open strategy-making practices Practice category Description Degree of Openness -- Condensing suggestions and communicating decisions Exclusive practices Centralized strategizing very low -- Collecting opinions from external actors -- Collecting suggestions Reporting practices unidirectional provision of inputs -- Reporting of and exchange on different interpretations and applications -- Negotiating interpretations and objectives -- Discussing suggestions -- Petitioning Reviewing practices interactive discourse on strategy-making -- Registering voters -- Voting Democratic practices transfer of decision power to external actors Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller very high
  11. 11. Example WM#3: SOPA/PIPA Protests Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller §  Reporting: proposals for protest activities §  Reviewing: discussions on Wikipedia §  Democratic: publicly support or oppose §  Exclusive: definite decision made by HQ
  12. 12. Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller Crowds and Communities in a Continuum of Openness in Strategy-making
  13. 13. Discussion & Conclusion Greater variety of strategy-making practices: §  Intensified interaction but also loss of control §  Different practices with crowds and communities Variants of closure in open strategy-making: §  Mostly: exclusive practices for decision-making… §  …but also: democratic practices as alternatives Communities actively seek participation: §  Interlinking actors to transform crowds in communities? Leonhard Dobusch & Jakob Kapeller
  14. 14. Thank you.

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