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Fehlende Diversität und Autorenschwund in der Wikipedia: 
Ausgrenzung durch grenzenlose Organisation?

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Vortrag im Rahmen des "Bergwinters" am 24.03.2016, Universitätszentrum Obergurgl der Universität Innsbruck, Obergurgl, Österreich

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Fehlende Diversität und Autorenschwund in der Wikipedia: 
Ausgrenzung durch grenzenlose Organisation?

  1. 1. Fehlende Diversität und Autorenschwund in der Wikipedia: 
 Ausgrenzung durch grenzenlose Organisation? Leonhard Dobusch Professor für Betriebswirtschaftslehre mit Schwerpunkt Organisation Institut für Organisation und Lernen Bergwinter 2016 Universitätszentrum Obergurgl, 24. März 2016 Dieses Werk steht unter der Lizenz
 Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
  2. 2. Wikipedia... ... setzt auf das Kollektiv und ... ... propagiert Inklusivität als ...
 ... grenzenlose Organisation?
  3. 3. Quelle: http://www.taz.de/!5127514/
  4. 4. Quelle: http://derstandard.at/2000022296889/Studie-Wikipedia-wird-vom-reichen-Westen-dominiert
  5. 5. Quelle: http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/leben/gesellschaft/Der-Schwarm-bei-Wikipedia-schrumpft/story/11486176
  6. 6. Organisationen und ihre Grenzen Wikipedia: Grenzen für Partizipation? Grenzen für organisationale Offenheit
  7. 7. Organisationen und ihre Grenzen
  8. 8. Organisationssysteme sind soziale Systeme, die aus Entscheidungen bestehen und Entscheidungen wechselseitig miteinander verknüpfen. “ Bild: Sonntag, CC-BY-SA-3.0, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Luhmann.png Niklas Luhmann
  9. 9. Grenzen zwischen Organisation und Umwelt als Folge von Entscheidungen
  10. 10. Nils 
 Brunsson & Göran Ahrne organization as
 a decided order“ Bild: http://www.laisumedu.org/DESIN_Ibarra/desin/Brunsson.htm
  11. 11. Mitgliedschaft Wikipedia: 
 Selbstidentifikation und Beitragspraktiken

  12. 12. Wikipedia-Seite im Bearbeitungsmodus
  13. 13. (Selbst-)Beobachtung und Regeln Wikipedia: 
 Peer Review, Relevanzkriterien
  14. 14. Quelle: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Relevanzkriterien
  15. 15. Association of Inclusionist Wikipedians" Inklusionismus
  16. 16. Deletionismus Bild: http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Wikipe-tan_on_the_haystack.png Association of Deletionist Wikipedians
  17. 17. Association of Wikipedians Who Dislike Making Broad Judgments About the Worthiness of a General Category of Article, and Who Are in Favor of the Deletion of Some Particularly Bad Articles, but That Doesn't Mean They Are Deletionists Bild: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AWWDMBJAWGCAWAIFDSPBATDMTAD.svg
  18. 18. Bild: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AWWDMBJAWGCAWAIFDSPBATDMTAD.svg Vereinigung von Wikipedianerinnen und Wikipedianern, die undifferenzierten Urteilen über den enzyklopädischen Wert ganzer Themenbereiche kritisch gegenüberstehen, jedoch die Löschung besonders schlechter Artikel unterstützen, ohne deshalb Deletionisten zu sein
  19. 19. Sanktionen Wikipedia: Löschung, Sperrung
  20. 20. notabilia.net
  21. 21. notabilia.net
  22. 22. notabilia.net
  23. 23. Benutzersperrung auf Wikipedia
  24. 24. Hierarchie Wikipedia: explizit & (in)formal
  25. 25. Kathrin Passig (2016): https://merton-magazin.de/die-hand-am-server-ist-die-hand-die-die-welt-regiert
  26. 26. Bomis
  27. 27. Seit 2004: 
 Wahlen, Abstimmungen, Umfragen
  28. 28. Wahlen zum Wikimedia Stiftungsrat, Schiedsgericht 400 Editierungen, 4 Monate aktiv Wahlen für AdministratorInnen etc. 200 Editierungen 2 Monate aktiv Urabstimmung über Lizenz 25 Editierungen vor dem Stichtag Grenzziehung: willkürlich, aber transparent
  29. 29. alle keine Nutzungsrechte in der englischen Wikipedia
  30. 30. Nutzungsrechte in der deutschen Wikipedia keine alle
  31. 31. [M]it der Bedeutung der Entscheidungen [nimmt] dann auch die Bedeutung von Entscheidern zu - und umgekehrt. Das Entscheidungssystem tendiert ... zum Aufbau einer Hierarchie. “ Bild: Sonntag, CC-BY-SA-3.0, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Luhmann.png Niklas Luhmann
  32. 32. Wikipedia: Grenzen für Partizipation?
  33. 33. Rückgang an Beförderung zu AdminstratorInnen Bild: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/07/3-charts-that-show-how-wikipedia-is-running-out-of-admins/259829/
  34. 34. Stagnation von aktiv Beitragenden Bild: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/07/3-charts-that-show-how-wikipedia-is-running-out-of-admins/259829/
  35. 35. The average Wikipedian on the English Wikipedia is (1) a male, (2) technically inclined, (3) formally educated, (4) an English speaker (native or non-native), (5) aged 15–49, (6) from a majority-Christian country, (7) from a developed nation, (8) from the Northern Hemisphere, and (9) likely employed as a white-collar worker or enrolled as a student rather than being employed as a laborer. “ Wikipedia:Systemic Bias,
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Systemic_bias

  36. 36. [I]t’s being written by middle-aged white guys.“ Sarah Stierch,
 Wikipedian-in-Residence at Smithsonian

  37. 37. Spiegelbild gesellschaftlicher (Geschlechter-)Verhältnisse? Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wikipedia_Zero_1_Mumbai_Guy_on_phone.jpg
  38. 38. Spiegelbild gesellschaftlicher (Geschlechter-)Verhältnisse? https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Being_any_Gender_is_a_drag_-_World_Pride_London_2012_(7527764372).jpg
  39. 39. Hacker-Kultur und Offenheit für »Trolle« Quelle: David Lerner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_troll.jpg, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
  40. 40. Usability: Wiki-Syntax Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Editing_Wikipedia_p_11,_wiki_markup_illustration_1.png
  41. 41. Mehr Edits von Algorithmen (»Bots«): 0 25 50 75 100 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 editcountinpercentperyearineachusergroup Anonymous users Bots Registered users an cr W (c ac th Th na in br fe se ten ed - tAus: Müller-Birn, C./Dobusch, L./Herbsleb, J. D. (2013): Work-to-rule: the emergence of algorithmic governance in Wikipedia. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Communities and Technologies (C&T ’13), ACM, 80–89.
  42. 42. Wikipedia- spezifisch Gesamt- gesellschaftlich Sozial Technisch »Bots« Hackerkultur Trolle Spiegelbild der 
 Geschlechtverhältnisse Usability Gründe 
 für Exklusion 
 in Wikipedia Zugang 
 zum Internet 0 25 50 75 100 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 editcountinpercentperyearineachusergroup Anonymous users Bots Registered users Figure 3: Development of edits per user group (registered user, anonymous user, bot) in the Wikipedia’s administrative names- pace 4. continuously increasing in number. Since bots have shown their usefulness for a wide variety of tasks in the main namespace, their scope has steadily expanded, and more edits have taken place in other namespaces. This contradicts a community guideline that suggests the avoidance of editing activities of bots outside the article namespace. However, in 2012, these “outside” edits accounted for over 40 percent of all bot edits. This emergence of bot activity all over the community project is an indication of the growing importance of these “lit- tle helpers” for the community’s activities. This relates to a study that analyzed the diversification of human edits over the different namespaces. In 2001, about 90 percent of all edits were carried out in the article namespace, but in 2006, this number had already decreased to 70 percent [15]. We assume that the change in the community engagement of bot operators also expanded the reach of bot edits. More interestingly, while human edits slowed down in Wikipedia’s community space, edits carried out by bots increased as shown in Figure 3. In this administrative space, 20 different bots have been active on average (disregarding wikilink-bots). In the next part of our analysis, we specifically look at the types of activities bots carry out. Our interest is twofold: first, we classify tasks executed by bots in order to understand their relatedness to existing social governance mechanisms. Second, we examine our assumption of increasingly algorithmic rule enforcement by bots. We collected task descriptions from bots’ user pages to examine the kinds of activities in which bots are participating in the Wiki- pedia community. In single, doubtful cases we matched edits with their task descriptions to identify discrepancies and exclude those activities. Based on these data, we defined general activity types that are indicated in the first column of the table 1. These general activity types were defined in three steps. During the first round, we coded existing task descriptions collaboratively (around 100) until we had an almost stable set of activities. In the second round, we separately coded the remaining task descriptions. In the third round, we checked the assigned codes and compared them with our own decisions, and collaboratively coded all task descriptions that needed new activity types. In order to create a shared under- standing of existing activity types, the second and third rounds were an iterative process. Newly introduced activity types were always cross-validated over the whole data set. We clustered the manually defined sets of activities in activity types (cf. second column of the table 1) and identified three foci of bot activities (cf. fifth column of the table 1): (1) the content focus, (2) the task focus, and (3) the community focus. The first category contains mainly bots that are active in the article namespace. These bots are created primarily to support the curat- ing activities of their operators (for example, by using Autowiki- browser – a semi-automated MediaWiki editor13 ) or to connect dif- ferent language versions of a page through interwiki-links. The second category comprises bots that are used to support the main- tenance work of editors by compiling working lists or by informing editors about existing status changes on articles. The third category - the community focus - refers to activities that are rather unrelated to encyclopedic articles; they are more related to community rules and their enforcement. Four bots have a community focus: the CopperBot, GiftBot, Items- bot and xqbot. The CopperBot is the German equivalent to the HagermanBot of the English Wikipedia [8] that is responsible for signing unsigned comments on discussion pages. The main task of the Itemsbot was welcoming new users to the German Wikipedia by leaving a message on their personal discussion pages. Probably because of the aforementioned community consensus against bot welcome messages, the bot stopped working within two months. In 2008 and 2009, the operator of the Giftbot requested a bot flag for her bot in order to correct spelling mistakes. In both cases, the request was denied. In July 2010, the third request was successful. This time, the bot tasks included the removal of processed flagged revision requests, the dissemination of a newsletter that contains information on new edits on pages such as polls, and requests for banning users as well. All these activities were much more fo- cused on specific community needs. We assume that the operator of Giftbot learned much more about existing rules and guidelines over time and was therefore much better able to meet the needs of her fellows. The last of the four community bots is introduced in more detail in the next section. We show in an exemplary way how the activity set employed by this bot changes over time. 5.3.1 Example: xqbot In October 2008, the editor applied for a bot flag for her xqbot in order to request speedy deletions of orphan pages14 or remains of moved pages. In November 2008, the bot flag was assigned and the bot started working. Soon after this, the bot activities included over ten different tasks such as correcting double redirects, fixing links on disambiguation pages, adding missing references tags in articles, and the setting of interwiki-links. All these tasks were mainly focused on quality improvements to encyclopedic articles. In 2010, the focus changed in terms of additional tasks. This was motivated mainly by a procedural problem that occurred during an administrator re-election. In January 2010, one participant initiated a discussion by question- ing the procedure to take care of obsolete votes [31], [32]. The 13 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:AutoWikiBrowse 14 Orphan pages on Wikipedia are articles that have no or very few incoming links.
  43. 43. »Objective Revision Evaluation Service« Quelle: https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Objective_Revision_Evaluation_Service_logo.svg
  44. 44. Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ORES_edit_quality_flow.svg
  45. 45. Grenzen für organisationale Offenheit
  46. 46. Wikipedia- spezifisch Gesamt- gesellschaftlich Sozial Technisch Pfadabhängigkeit »Bots« Hackerkultur Trolle Spiegelbild der 
 Geschlechtverhältnisse Usability Gründe 
 für Exklusion 
 in Wikipedia ? 0 25 50 75 100 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 editcountinpercentperyearineachusergroup Anonymous users Bots Registered users Figure 3: Development of edits per user group (registered user, anonymous user, bot) in the Wikipedia’s administrative names- pace 4. continuously increasing in number. Since bots have shown their usefulness for a wide variety of tasks in the main namespace, their scope has steadily expanded, and more edits have taken place in other namespaces. This contradicts a community guideline that suggests the avoidance of editing activities of bots outside the article namespace. However, in 2012, these “outside” edits accounted for over 40 percent of all bot edits. This emergence of bot activity all over the community project is an indication of the growing importance of these “lit- tle helpers” for the community’s activities. This relates to a study that analyzed the diversification of human edits over the different namespaces. In 2001, about 90 percent of all edits were carried out in the article namespace, but in 2006, this number had already decreased to 70 percent [15]. We assume that the change in the community engagement of bot operators also expanded the reach of bot edits. More interestingly, while human edits slowed down in Wikipedia’s community space, edits carried out by bots increased as shown in Figure 3. In this administrative space, 20 different bots have been active on average (disregarding wikilink-bots). In the next part of our analysis, we specifically look at the types of activities bots carry out. Our interest is twofold: first, we classify tasks executed by bots in order to understand their relatedness to existing social governance mechanisms. Second, we examine our assumption of increasingly algorithmic rule enforcement by bots. We collected task descriptions from bots’ user pages to examine the kinds of activities in which bots are participating in the Wiki- pedia community. In single, doubtful cases we matched edits with their task descriptions to identify discrepancies and exclude those activities. Based on these data, we defined general activity types that are indicated in the first column of the table 1. These general activity types were defined in three steps. During the first round, we coded existing task descriptions collaboratively (around 100) until we had an almost stable set of activities. In the second round, we separately coded the remaining task descriptions. In the third round, we checked the assigned codes and compared them with our own decisions, and collaboratively coded all task descriptions that needed new activity types. In order to create a shared under- standing of existing activity types, the second and third rounds were an iterative process. Newly introduced activity types were always cross-validated over the whole data set. We clustered the manually defined sets of activities in activity types (cf. second column of the table 1) and identified three foci of bot activities (cf. fifth column of the table 1): (1) the content focus, (2) the task focus, and (3) the community focus. The first category contains mainly bots that are active in the article namespace. These bots are created primarily to support the curat- ing activities of their operators (for example, by using Autowiki- browser – a semi-automated MediaWiki editor13 ) or to connect dif- ferent language versions of a page through interwiki-links. The second category comprises bots that are used to support the main- tenance work of editors by compiling working lists or by informing editors about existing status changes on articles. The third category - the community focus - refers to activities that are rather unrelated to encyclopedic articles; they are more related to community rules and their enforcement. Four bots have a community focus: the CopperBot, GiftBot, Items- bot and xqbot. The CopperBot is the German equivalent to the HagermanBot of the English Wikipedia [8] that is responsible for signing unsigned comments on discussion pages. The main task of the Itemsbot was welcoming new users to the German Wikipedia by leaving a message on their personal discussion pages. Probably because of the aforementioned community consensus against bot welcome messages, the bot stopped working within two months. In 2008 and 2009, the operator of the Giftbot requested a bot flag for her bot in order to correct spelling mistakes. In both cases, the request was denied. In July 2010, the third request was successful. This time, the bot tasks included the removal of processed flagged revision requests, the dissemination of a newsletter that contains information on new edits on pages such as polls, and requests for banning users as well. All these activities were much more fo- cused on specific community needs. We assume that the operator of Giftbot learned much more about existing rules and guidelines over time and was therefore much better able to meet the needs of her fellows. The last of the four community bots is introduced in more detail in the next section. We show in an exemplary way how the activity set employed by this bot changes over time. 5.3.1 Example: xqbot In October 2008, the editor applied for a bot flag for her xqbot in order to request speedy deletions of orphan pages14 or remains of moved pages. In November 2008, the bot flag was assigned and the bot started working. Soon after this, the bot activities included over ten different tasks such as correcting double redirects, fixing links on disambiguation pages, adding missing references tags in articles, and the setting of interwiki-links. All these tasks were mainly focused on quality improvements to encyclopedic articles. In 2010, the focus changed in terms of additional tasks. This was motivated mainly by a procedural problem that occurred during an administrator re-election. In January 2010, one participant initiated a discussion by question- ing the procedure to take care of obsolete votes [31], [32]. The 13 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:AutoWikiBrowse 14 Orphan pages on Wikipedia are articles that have no or very few incoming links. Zugang 
 zum Internet
  47. 47. Bomis
  48. 48. Bomis
  49. 49. Comunity- ManagerInnen?
  50. 50. Fazit Es gibt keine grenzenlosen Organisationen
 Informale Grenzen können undurchlässiger als formale sein
 Gerade Offenheit erfordert organisationale Grenzziehung
  51. 51. Kontakt E-Mail: 
 Leonhard.Dobusch@uibk.ac.at " Twitter: @leonidobusch " Homepages:
 http://bit.ly/LD_UIBK (Universität Innsbruck)
 http://www.dobusch.net " Forschungsblog:
 http://www.governancexborders.com

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