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Copyright and Fair Use: Transnational Troubles


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Talk given at the ESRC Workshop Series 'Digital Policy: Connectivity, Creativity and Rights', November 22, 2012, Vienna

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Copyright and Fair Use: Transnational Troubles


  1. 1. Copyright and Fair Use:Transnational Troubles Leonhard Dobusch Freie Universität Berlin – School of Business & Economics ESRC Workshop Series ‚Digital Policy: Connectivity, Creativity and Rights’ November 22, 2012, Vienna
  2. 2. Using content online: legal or illegal?Fair Use on YouTube and in WikipediaPrivate resolution of public problems?
  3. 3. Using content online: legal or illegal?
  4. 4. 1970s: Violate copyrights!2000s: Don‘t violate copyrights!
  5. 5. “ Forty-four per cent of all internetusers aged 12+ claimed to be either‘not particularly confident’ or ‘not at all’confident in terms of what is legal andwhat isn’t online. ” Online copyright infringement tracker benchmark study, commissioned by the Office of Communications (Ofcom) UK, 2012
  6. 6. Do copyright experts know?
  7. 7. Regulatory Uncertainty: QuestionsOnline usage End-user Intermediarywatching/ Is the source legal? Is Is providing tools forlistening/ watching/listening/reading watching/listening/readingreading from an illegal source legal? legal?linking Is linking to (illegal) Is providing the tools for content legal? linking to content legal?storing/offering Is storing/offering the Is providing tools for content legal? storing/offering (illegal) content legal?interacting/ Is interacting/creating with Is providing tools forcreating online the content online legal? interacting/creating with online content legal?Source: Dobusch, L./Quack, S. (2012): Transnational Copyright: Misalignments between Regulation, Business Models and User Practice.Osgoode CLPE Research Paper Series, 8 (4), Research Paper No. 13, http://ssrn.com/abstract=2116334
  8. 8. Regime Complexity in CopyrightRegime Forums Regulatory OutcomeInternational WTO, UN/WIPO TRIPS treaty, WCT,treaties WPPT, ACTA, TPP(Supra-)nation EU, national legislative EU copyright directives,al law bodies national lawsPrivate Industry networks, Digital Rightsregulation via standard setters Management, Openstandards Content LicensingSource: Dobusch, L./Quack, S. (2012): Transnational Copyright: Misalignments between Regulation, Business Models and User Practice.Osgoode CLPE Research Paper Series, 8 (4), Research Paper No. 13, http://ssrn.com/abstract=2116334
  9. 9. Regulatory Uncertainty: Case LawOnline usage End-user Intermediarywatching/ - RIAA v. Diamond (“Riolistening/ case”, 1998)readinglinking Intellectual Reserve v. A&M Records v. Napster Utah Lighthouse Ministry (2001) (1999) Arista v. Lime Wire (2010) Universal City Studios v. Corley (2001)storing/offering e.g. Warner v. DeWitt Viacom v. YouTube (2007) (2007) or Interscope v. GEMA v. RapidShare Rodriguez (2007) (2010)interacting/ Lenz v. Universal Music Warner Bros.creating online Corp. (2008) Entertainment et al. v. Sapient v. Geller (2008) RDR Books et al. (2008)Source: Dobusch, L./Quack, S. (2012): Transnational Copyright: Misalignments between Regulation, Business Models and User Practice.Osgoode CLPE Research Paper Series, 8 (4), Research Paper No. 13, http://ssrn.com/abstract=2116334
  10. 10. Illegal in spite of substantial proportion of non-infringing practices?A&M Records v. Napster (2001) Arista v. Limewire (2010)
  11. 11. Legal in spite of substantial proportion of infringing practices? Viacom v. YouTube (2007)
  12. 12. Fair Use on YouTube and in Wikipedia
  13. 13. “ Members shall confine limitations andexceptions to exclusive rights to certainspecial cases which do not conflict with anormal exploitation of the work and do notunreasonably prejudice the legitimate ”interests of the rights holder. Article 13, TRIPS Agreement
  14. 14. „Fair Use“General Clause
  15. 15. Exceptions and Limitations to Copyright Closed List
  16. 16. Example: Transformative Consumption
  17. 17. Transformative Werknutzung Im Hintergrund: Prince - Let‘s Go Crazy Video: Holden Lenz Dancinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch? v=N1KfJHFWlhQ
  18. 18. Example: Amateur Art
  19. 19. Video: O Fortuna Misheard Lyricshttp://www.youtube.com/watch? v=nIwrgAnx6Q8
  20. 20. ?
  21. 21. Video: YouTube Copyright Schoolhttp://www.youtube.com/watch? v=InzDjH1-9Ns
  22. 22. Example: Thumbnails in Wikipedia
  23. 23. Private resolution of public problems?
  24. 24. Platforms decide whatto consider as (il)legal
  25. 25. Growing importance of private regulatory layerRegime Forums Regulatory OutcomeInternational WTO, UN/WIPO TRIPS treaty, WCT,treaties WPPT(Supra-)nation EU, national legislative EU copyright directives,al law bodies national lawsPrivate Industry networks, Digital Rightsregulation via standard setters Management, Openstandards Content Licensing
  26. 26. ConclusionsUncertainty in copyright is going to lastEnabling uncertainty of fair usepreferrable to prohibiting certaintyScope of fair use is re-negotiated byregulatory practices of non-state actors
  27. 27. Contact detailsE-Mail:Leonhard.Dobusch@fu-berlin.deTwitter:@leonidobuschHomepages:http://bit.ly/FU_Dobusch (Freie Universität Berlin)http://www.dobusch.netBlog:http://www.governancexborders.com

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