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My DBQ stuff.

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  1. 1. WORLD HISTORY SECTION II Note: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era). These labels correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini), which are used in some world history textbooks. Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3 Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-9. (The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the Section II free-response booklet. This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that: • Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. • Uses all of the documents. • Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually. • Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors’ points of view. • Identifies and explains the need for at least one additional type of document. You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents. 1. Using the documents, analyze the effects of the introduction of gunpowder in ancient China and Japan Historical Background: During 850A.D. was the time of invention and the beginnings of technology in ancient China.Leo Brooks Friday, May 6, 2011 10:57:06 AM ET 34:15:9e:1b:ee:98
  2. 2. Document 1 Bentley, Jerry, and Herbert Ziegler. "Technolical and Industrial Development." Gunpowder. 3rd. New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 2006. Print. “Quite apart from improving existing technologies, Tang and Song craftsmen also invented entirely new products, tools, and techniques, most notably gunpowder, printing, and naval technologies. Daoist alchemists discovered how to make gunpowder during the Tang dynasty, as they tested the properties of carious experimental concoction while seeking elixirs to prolong life. They soon learned that it was unwise to mix charcoal, saltpeter, sulphur, and arsenic, because the volatile compound often resulted in singed beards and destroyed buildings. Military officials, however, recognized opportunity in the explosive mixture. By the mid-tenth century they were suing gunpowder in bamboo “fire lances,” a kind of flamethrower, and by the eleventh century they had fashioned primitive bombs.”Leo Brooks Friday, May 6, 2011 10:57:06 AM ET 34:15:9e:1b:ee:98
  3. 3. Document 2 "Firearms and Flamethrowers - Gunpowder Warfare and Weapons." Cultural China. Web. 9 Dec 2010. <>.Leo Brooks Friday, May 6, 2011 10:57:06 AM ET 34:15:9e:1b:ee:98
  4. 4. Document 3 "Gunpowder and Explosives - Gunpowder Warfare and Weapons." Cultural China. Web. 9 Dec 2010. <>.Leo Brooks Friday, May 6, 2011 10:57:06 AM ET 34:15:9e:1b:ee:98
  5. 5. Document 4 Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 2: 700 to 1449. Detroit: Gale, 2001. p342-345. “One of the earliest known uses of rocketry in Chinese warfare dates to the fall of the Chin dynasty during the thirteenth century. The great Mongol leader Khan Ogodei had gained power and was intent on eliminating the Chin and their fierce resistance to his armies. In 1232 the Mongol army held the Chin capital of Pien, also known as Kai-feng, under siege. While the city did eventually fall to the Mongols, its inhabitants were able to defend themselves effectively. Indeed, this was one of the first battles in recorded military history in which firearms were used by both sides. At this stage of development, gunpowder was used primarily in ceramic grenades that were hurled by catapults. Used by the defenders of Pien, the grenades proved deadly to the Mongol warriors and their horses. The defenders of Pien used catapults because, at that point, Chinese cannons, like the early cannons implemented by the Europeans, had only a limited effectiveness. The Chinese defenders of Pien used another weapon—the flamethrower—that, unlike early ceramic grenades, was used primarily by the Chinese and was not widely borrowed by European armies. Medieval Chinese artisans are credited with the invention of a flamethrower, which was referred to as the fire lance. In order to form a fire lance, Chinese inventors pasted together nearly 20 layers of strong yellow paper and shaped these into a pipe over 24 in (60 cm) in length. They then filled this pipe with iron filings, porcelain fragments, and gunpowder, and fastened the pipe to a lance. Soldiers who handled these flamethrowers carried with them onto the battlefield a small iron box containing glowing embers. In battle, the soldiers used these embers to ignite the fire lances. These weapons produced flames over 9.84 ft (3 m) long. Also, the porcelain shards and iron filings that were packed into the tube shot out in a deadly cloud of shrapnel. At the same time that cannons began to appear, the portable handgun was developed by European armies. The advancements that allowed the handgun to dominate warfare were, for the most part, European in origin. Gunpowder and early cannons were imported from China, but the Chinese did not develop or refine their firepower for several centuries. Indeed, by the sixteenth century the Chinese bought the majority of their firearms from the Portuguese. This new style of warfare determined more than the dominant type of sailing vessel. The heavy reliance on the naval cannon also abolished the need for infantry combat between soldiers and sailors on opposing ships. Prior to the development of the naval cannon, ships carried large numbers of armed soldiers who attempted to overwhelm the fighting force of the ships they attacked. The Chinese invention of gunpowder resulted in numerous weapons and applications that transformed battle. While it took a long time for armies to fully realize the potential offered by gunpowder, the new weapons made possible by its invention and availability eventually determined the victors of many important conflicts.”Leo Brooks Friday, May 6, 2011 10:57:06 AM ET 34:15:9e:1b:ee:98
  6. 6. Document 5 Wallace, Robert Daniel. "The Asian Military Revolution." From Gunpowder To The Bomb 45.1 (2010): 8, 173-175. Web. 10 Dec 2010. “Lorges primary thesis contends that modern warfare was created in China in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, aided by the development and use of both gunpowder and combined-arms warfare. Lorge notes that "gunpowders Asian history does not fit comfortably into any European schema of historical progression… [and is] severely truncated or cloaked in the minutiae of purely technical history" (p. 8). Lorge asserts that the Chinese invented gunpowder, citing the mention of this compound in Daoist literature as early as the ninth century AD. He does, however, qualify this by noting that a gunpowder formula did not appear in print until the mid-eleventh century. Primitive guns were invented by harnessing gunpowder in bamboo tubes containing projectiles (also made of wood or stone), and by the time of the eleventh-century Song Dynasty, mass production commenced. Bombs, grenades, and small rockets were developed and used commonly in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, especially in sieges, and by the fifteenth century, gunpowder weapons became an integral and essential part of Asian warfare.”Leo Brooks Friday, May 6, 2011 10:57:06 AM ET 34:15:9e:1b:ee:98