THE EARTH’SENVELOPE OF WATER
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Class Expectations  – You can show respect by…    • Listening when the teacher or others are talking.       – One speake...
• Remember!  – Working hard and earning a strong education    will help you reach your hopes and dreams.                  ...
9.1 The earth’s water supply.9.2 Water in the ground.9.3 Rivers.9.4 Oceans.9.5Waves,Tides and Currents.9.6 The depth of th...
Global Environment Awareness          Lectured by: Leonard Vincent credo                        Presented by: Group 7
Table of Contents1.    Water – The Definition2.    Water Forms and Distribution3.    Types of Water Uses4.    Water Availa...
1. Water – The Definition Water is a marvelous substance which can be beautiful, powerful and destructive.               ...
1.1. Water Physical Attributes      Water is found in three states                   Liquid    Solid                      ...
1.2. Hydrologic Cycle                        22
2. Water Forms and Distribution            About 71% of the earth’s surface is covered                           with wate...
2. Water Forms and DistributionSource: Environmental Science – A Global Concern,        Water Use and Management          ...
2.1. Oceans Is the largest area and volume of water. Contain more than 97% of the earth’s water. Contain an average of ...
2.2. Ice and Snow Contain almost 90% of freshwater. Is as much as 2km thick. Situate mostly in Antarctica (85%), Greenl...
2.3. Groundwater Groundwater is water in the rock and soil layer  beneath Earth’s surface. Absorb excess runoff rain and...
2.4. Lakes Lakes are created from variety of geological events:   Tectonic-basin lake   Volcanic lake   Glacial lake  ...
2.4. Lakes (cont.) Freshwater lakes     Contribute 91,000km3 (about      0.007% of total Earth’s water)     Provide wat...
2.4. Lakes (cont.) Saline lakes     Possess 85,000km3 (about      0.006% of total Earth’s water)     Saline lakes’ wate...
2.5. Rivers and Streams Rivers and streams are bodies of flowing surface  water driven by gravity. Rivers and Streams co...
2.5. Rivers and Streams (cont.)World’s Major Rivers (based on average annual discharge)    Source:   Environmental Science...
2.6. Wetlands and Soil Moisture Wetland are areas of land where water covers the  surface for at least part of the year....
5.7. Atmosphere Atmosphere contains about 0.001% of total Earth’s  water. It is around 4% of air volume in the atmospher...
3. Types of Water Uses Off-Stream Uses       In-Stream Uses     Agriculture         Hydropower     Thermoelectric    ...
3. Types of Water Uses Basic Assumption (by UN Water)           World Water Use           Irrigation    Industry   Domest...
3. Types of Water Uses  China 2008 Water Resource Report                   Ecological         Residential 2%            12...
3.1. Off-Stream Uses Agriculture Thermoelectric Industrial Mining Domestic Commercial                          38
a. Agriculture Irrigation   Crop irrigation consume 2/3 of water withdrawal.   Evaporation and seepage from unlined irr...
a. Agriculture (cont.) Livestock   Watering livestock   Dairy operation   Cooling livestock facilities   Dairy sanita...
a. Agriculture (cont.) Aquaculture   Raising fish.   Raising shellfish.   Raising shrimp and lobster.   Raising other...
b. Thermoelectric Water is used in production of  electrical power. Thermoelectric is one of the  largest uses of water ...
c. Industrial Industries need water to cool down their  machinery to a temperature that allows the manufacturing process ...
c. Industrial (cont.) In 2005, U.S. industrial uses were 83% (15,000 gallons/day) surface water and 17% (3,110 gallons/da...
d. Mining Water is used for the extraction of minerals that can be in forms of:   Solid: coal, iron, gold, sand – etc.  ...
e. Domestic Domestic water use is the consumption for  household purposes – both indoor and outdoor. In Cambodia, domest...
f. Commercial Water is used in businesses such as  hotels, restaurants, marketplaces, and so on. In Phnom Penh, commerci...
3.2. In-Stream UsesHydropower               RecreationNavigation            Ecosystem Support                             ...
4. Water AvailabilitySource:   Environmental Science – A Global Concern,          Water Use and Management                ...
4.1. Earth’s Water                     50
4.2. Water Stress & Water Scarcity Water Stress:     Annual water supplies is      less than 1,700m3 per      person. W...
52
5. Fresh Water Shortage Fresh Water Shortage is due to:   Population growth   Lack of access to clean water   Groundwa...
Strangled by the water policies of its neighbors, Turkeyand Syria, a two-year drought and years of misuse by Iraqand its f...
Leaky canals and wasteful irrigation practicessquandered the water, and poor drainage leftfields so salty from evaporated ...
In the marshes, where the Euphrates nears theend of its 1,730-mile journey and mingles withthe less salty waters of the Ti...
Fishermen in the Hafar Canal, a shallowtributary of the Euphrates River.                                          57
10 year drought in the       Colorado River basin.             20071983                                58
6. Water Use Problems and Conflicts Water Overuse     Overuse in agriculture     Overuse in residence     Overuse in c...
7. Increase Water Supply Water Conservation Reclamation of sewage water Development of groundwater Desalinization Dev...
8. Watershed Management Watershed – the definition     A watershed is a connected series of streams, rivers, and      la...
Tips on How to Save Water Increasing water resources start from all of us! Don’t flush every time you use the toilet. T...
Tips on How to Save Water Don’t dump anything down a storm sewer that you    DOWNLOAD OUR    wouldn’t want to drink.   A...
Prepared by: Leonard Vincent CredoPresented by: Group 7
65
Ground Water• ground water: the water that lies beneath the  ground surface, filling the pore space between  grains in bod...
Porosity and Permeability• porosity: the percentage of rock or sediment  that consists of voids or openings• permeability:...
The Water Table• saturated zone: the subsurface zone in which all  rock openings are filled with water• water table: the u...
The Water Table (cont.)
The Water Table (cont.)• perched water table: the top of a body of ground water separated from the main water table beneat...
The Movement of Ground Water• most ground water moves relatively slowly  through rock underground• because it moves in res...
Movement of Ground Water (cont.)• factors affecting the flow of ground water:  •    the slope of the water table - the ste...
Aquifers• aquifer: a body of saturated rock or sediment  through which water can move easily• good aquifers include  sands...
Aquifers (cont.)• unconfined aquifer: a partially filed aquifer  exposed to the land surface and marked by a  rising and f...
Wells• well: a deep hole, generally cylindrical, that is dug of  drilled into the ground to penetrate an aquifer within  t...
Wells (cont.)• cone of depression: a depression of the water  table formed around a well when water is  pumped out; it is ...
Wells (cont.)• artesian well: a well in which water rises above the aquifer                              Artesian well spo...
Springs and Streams         • spring: a place where water flows naturally from           rock onto the land surface       ...
Springs and Streams (cont.)     • gaining stream: a stream that receives water       from the zone of saturation     • los...
Pollution of Ground Water• pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers: chemicals that are  applied to agricultural crops that can...
Pollution of Ground Water (cont.)• liquid and solid wastes from septic tanks, sewage  plants, and animal feedlots and slau...
Water-table slope is reversed by pumping, changingdirection of the ground-water flow, and polluting the well            Po...
Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge• a local supply of groundwater will last  indefinitely if it is withdrawn for use at a r...
Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge• heavy use of ground water can result in:  •   a regional water table dropping  •   deep...
Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge   (cont.)• to avoid the problems of falling water tables, subsidence, and compaction, ma...
Effects of Ground-Water Action• caves (or caverns): naturally formed  underground chamber• most caves develop when slightl...
Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.)       • stalactites: icicle-like pendants of dripstone         hanging from cave ce...
Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.)Karst topography is marked by underground caves and numerous surface sinkholes. A ma...
Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.)• petrified wood: develops when porous buried wood is  either filled in or replaced ...
Hot Water Underground• hot springs: springs in which the water is  warmer than human body temperature• water can gain heat...
Hot Water Underground • geyser: a type of hot spring that periodically   erupts hot water and stream; the water is  genera...
Geothermal Energy• Electricity can be generated by harnessing  naturally occurring stream and hot water in  areas that are...
Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.) • sinkholes: closed depressions found on land   surfaces underlain by limestone; th...
94
Leonard Vincent B. Credo
This science unit belongs to Ryan PMurphy Copyright 2010                                  Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
• Overview of River Unit  – Watersheds  – Rivers of the United States  – Profile of Rivers –    Headwater, Downriver, Floo...
   Area of Focus: Watersheds                                Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Area of Focus: Watersheds                                Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Watershed: The region draining into a    river.                                     Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Picture of the Mississippi River Watershed.  – This watershed is the largest in the United    States.                   ...
• Picture of the Mississippi River Watershed.  – This watershed is the largest in the United    States.                   ...
• What do you think the Great Basin is?
• What do you think the Great Basin is?
• The Great Basin is a watershed where the  water does not flow to the ocean.  – The Great Salt Lake is in the Great Basin...
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
The mineral rich water hasnowhere to go.                             Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
The water thenEvaporates.           Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
The GreatSalt Lake          Evaporationbecomesmore salty asthe salt is leftbehind.                           Copyright © 2...
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• Which letters represent places we would  find the largest rivers.
• What are some of the major rivers in the  United States?                                    Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Mur...
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• Activity! Do you remember?  – We will do it again. Plan on contributing if you    haven’t.                        “Oh-no...
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• Activity Worksheet! Please color code  some of the major watersheds in the US.  – Example on next slide.                ...
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MississippiWatershed
All water flowsinto the Gulf /    Atlantic
MississippiWatershed
MississippiWatershed
MississippiWatershed
MississippiWatershed
Mississippi             Watershed  Colorado WatershedNext
Mississippi             Watershed  Colorado WatershedNext
MississippiSacramento                    Watershed        Colorado        Watershed     Next
Columbia                    MississippiSacramento                    Watershed        Colorado        Watershed    Next
Columbia                    MississippiSacramento                    Watershed        Colorado        Watershed    Next
Columbia                    MississippiSacramento                    Watershed        Colorado        Watershed    Next
Columbia                    MississippiSacramento                    Watershed        Colorado        Watershed    Next
Columbia                    MississippiSacramento                    Watershed        Colorado        Watershed    Next
• Where do rivers start?                           Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Most rivers start in the mountains and work  their way downhill.                                      Copyright © 2010 R...
• Most rivers start in the mountains and work  their way downhill.  – Water always travels downhill toward the path    of ...
• Water does not cris-cross in steep valleys  like this…                                      Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Mur...
• Does the river with the yellow line flow into  the river with the blue line?                                       Copyr...
• Answer! No, smaller rivers feed into larger  rivers.
• Which direction is the largest river flowing?  – How do you know?                                      Copyright © 2010 ...
• Answer! The river is flowing to the left.  – You can tell by the following clues.                                       ...
• The clear water is mixing with the cloudier  water in a downriver direction.                                     Copyrig...
• The shallow Islands / sand bars in the  middle are shaped with points facing the  direction of the current.             ...
• The shallow Islands / sand bars in the  middle are shaped with points facing the  direction of the current.             ...
• The shallow Islands / sand bars in the  middle are shaped with points facing the  direction of the current.             ...
• The shallow Islands / sand bars in the  middle are shaped with points facing the  direction of the current.             ...
• The cut bank is on the left and the bar on  the right around the turn.                                     Copyright © 2...
• The cut bank is on the left and the bar on  the right around the turn.Cut-bank                                     Copyr...
• The cut bank is on the left and the bar on  the right around the turn.Cut-bank               Bar                        ...
• The cut bank is on the left and the bar on  the right around the turn.Cut-bank               Bar                        ...
   Parts of a river    -    -    -    -                       Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The headwaters.                    Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Headwaters: Extreme upper reaches of a    stream.                                   Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Downriver.                 Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Downriver: Between headwaters and    floodplain.                                  Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Tributary: A stream or river which flows into a    mainstream.                                            Copyright © ...
• Which letter is the tributary?
• Which letter is the tributary?
• If a friend told you to meet them at the  confluence, where should you go?                                        Copyri...
• If a friend told you to meet them at the  confluence, where should you go?                                        Copyri...
• If a friend told you to meet them at the  confluence, where should you go?                                        Copyri...
   Floodplain.                  Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Floodplain: The relatively flat land adjacent    to a river channel that is underwater when    the river floods.      ...
• The water carries more sediment in the  floodplain.
• The water carries more sediment in the  floodplain.  – More light and nutrients also causes more plant    matter to grow.
• In the headwater streams, light is blocked  by trees making plant life in the streams  scarce.
• In the headwater streams, light is blocked  by trees making plant life in the streams  scarce.  – Also little nutrients ...
• Google Earth Opportunity.  – Use Google Earth to look at the floodplain    section of a local river.  – http://www.googl...
   Mouth / Delta.                     Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Mouth/Delta: An area formed from the    deposition of sediments at the mouth of a    river.                           ...
• Estuary: the area where a river meets the  sea or ocean, where fresh water from the  river meets salt water from the sea...
• Many aquatic species from the ocean can  be found in the mouth / delta as the ocean  water mixes with the freshwater.   ...
   Stream Order: A classification system for    rivers.                                      Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Mur...
• Activity! Please sketch this river in your  journal.
1
11
111
1    1       111
1       1                1                            1       11                   1                                      ...
1       1                    1                                1       11                       1                          ...
1       1                    1                                1       11                       1                          ...
1       1                    1                        2                                1       11                       1 ...
1           1                    1                        2                                    1       11                 ...
1           1                    1                        2                                    1       11                 ...
1           1                    1                        2                                    1       11                 ...
1           1                    1                        2                                    1       11                 ...
1           1                    1                        2                                    1       11                 ...
1           1                    1                        2                                    1       11                 ...
1           1                    1                        2                                    1       11                 ...
1           1                    1Stream Order = 4                        2                                    1       11 ...
• Activity! Try this one on your own.
• Answer: Headwaters11   1    1       11   1                               1                                   1          ...
• When two first order streams meet =11   1     1        11   1                                 1                         ...
• Forms second order stream.11   1     1       11   1                                1                                    ...
11   1   1   11   1                          1                              1     2                1             2
11   1   1   11   1                          1                              1     2                1             2
11   1   1   11   1                          1                              1     2                1             2        ...
• When two second order streams meet?11   1     1       11   1                                1                           ...
• Forms a third order stream.11   1      1        11   1                                  1                               ...
• When a third order meets a second order?11   1     1        11   1                                 1                    ...
• Stays a third order stream..11   1       1       11   1                                  1                              ...
• Answer: Stream Order of 311   1       1       11   1                                  1                                 ...
• Activity! Try this one on your own.
• Answer:1 1 1       1 1         1   1   1 1    2               2           2       1 11                                  ...
• Answer: Stream Order = 41 1 1         1 1          1   1   1 1    2                  2           2       1 11           ...
   Erosion: Process where fragments of soil    and rock are broken off from the surface    and carried away.             ...
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Deposition: Process by which fragments of    rock are deposited in a new location.                                    ...
• Please sketch a river like this in your  journal.                                       Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Cut Bank: High steep banks along the    edge of a channel.
• Where would we find the cut-banks, the  place the water moves quickly and causes  erosion.                              ...
• Answer! Cut banks are on the outside of  curves.Cut-bank                                    Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Mur...
• Answer! Cut banks are on the outside of  curves.  – The water moves more quickly here and    erodes the banks.Cut-bank  ...
• If you are interested in catching large  trout, than always throw your fly…                                        Copyr...
• If you are interested in catching large  trout, than always throw your fly…                                        Copyr...
• Cut-banks will often erode the riverbank  and trees will fall into the river.                                     Copyri...
• These trees are dangerous for boaters and  are called “strainers”.                                    Copyright © 2010 R...
• These trees are dangerous for boaters and  are called “strainers”.  – They are dangerous because they can pin and    hol...
• If you can’t avoid a strainer try to climb up on  top of it, rather than going under it.  – It is a nice thing to breath...
This is a dangeroussituation, gettingcaught under thewater in this straineris certain death.
• Video Link! Moving Water Safety.  – Watch from the 9:30 minute mark to learn    about strainers.  – http://www.youtube.c...
   Riffles: Shallow fast moving section of the    river between meanders.                                       Copyright...
   Riffles: Shallow fast moving section of the    river between meanders.                                       Copyright...
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Pool: Deep section of the river                                      Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
   Point Bar: Shallow part on the inside curve    of a river where the water slows and drops    off its sediment load.   ...
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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A Glossary ofOcean Terms
Categories of Words•Animals    •Bodies of Water       •Landforms          •Ocean Words               •Other               ...
Animal Vocabulary       MammalA mammal is a warm blooded  animal that breathes air.   A whale is a mammal.
Animal Vocabulary               FishA fish is a water animal that breathes               with gills. We saw a fish at the ...
Animal Vocabulary         ShellfishA shellfish is a water animal that                has a   shell for an outer covering.A...
Animal Vocabulary       Bivalve ShellA bivalve shell is a shell that has 2               parts.    A clam has a bivalve sh...
Animal Vocabulary      Univalve ShellA univalve shell is a shell that has 1               part.    A snail has a univalve ...
Bodies of Water Vocabulary            Ocean An ocean is the largest body of              water. There are 4 oceans on the ...
Bodies of Water Vocabulary              Sea   A sea is a part of an ocean.             Mediterranean SeaThe Indian Ocean h...
Bodies of Water Vocabulary             RiverA river is a body of flowing water           within 2 banks.               Pot...
Bodies of Water Vocabulary             CreekA creek is a small body of flowing  water that empties into a river.We took tr...
Bodies of Water Vocabulary                             Lake A lake is a large body of watersurrounded by land on all sides...
Landforms Vocabulary            MountainA mountain is a very high, natural place on                   Earth.It took us 3 h...
Landforms Vocabulary                ValleyA valley is an area between mountains or                  hills.  The family bui...
Landforms Vocabulary             VolcanoA volcano is a mountain with a vent. When it erupts lava, ashes, and hot gases com...
Landforms Vocabulary              PlateauA plateau is high land with a mostly flat  top. This is called a guyot when it is...
Landforms Vocabulary               PlainA plain is a large, flat area of land.We traveled across the plains in a covered
Ocean Vocabulary       Ocean FloorThe ocean floor is the bottom of the              ocean. Many animals live on the ocean ...
Ocean Vocabulary             Island   An island is a piece of landcompletely surrounded by water.Hawaii is an island in th...
Ocean Vocabulary               OozeOoze is a covering of dead animals and      plants on the ocean floor.       The octopu...
Ocean Vocabulary         Tidal PoolsA tidal pool is formed in the shallowplaces of the beach after the tide has           ...
Ocean Vocabulary  Shore Beach Coast   All of these words describe the  area where land meets the ocean.We walked along the...
Ocean Vocabulary            Coral Reef     A coral reef is a collection of      living organisms in the ocean.The coral re...
Ocean Vocabulary       Oceanographer          An oceanographer is a     scientist who studies the ocean.I would like to be...
Ocean Vocabulary      Continental Shelf      Continental SlopeThe continental shelf slopes gradually from the shore into t...
Other Vocabulary          Food Chain A food chain is a natural cycle wherecreatures rely on other organisms for           ...
Other Vocabulary             Harbor      A harbor is a place in thewater where boats can dock or anchor. We went to the ha...
Other Vocabulary              Plankton    Plankton are small, microscopic    plants and animals in the ocean.Plankton is t...
Other Vocabulary          Aquarium      An aquarium is a buildingpeople can visit to see marine animals. My class saw a do...
Plants Vocabulary                KelpKelp is a type of seaweed that is usually                  brown.Some fish hide from ...
Plants Vocabulary             Seaweed   Seaweed are plants in the ocean.There are many different kinds of seaweed in
Rivers of the World!
River Nile      The Nile is the longest      river in the world!      The river is about 4,160      miles long and can be ...
River Amazon       The Amazon is the       second longest river in       the world!       The river is 3,912 miles       l...
Mississippi      The Mississippi is the      third longest river in the      world stretching 3,710      miles long!      ...
River Chang Jiang           The river Chang           Jiang is the fourth           longest river in the           world! ...
River Ob     The River Ob is the fifth     longest river in the     world!     The river is 3,459 miles     long!     You ...
Over 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by waterOf that, 95% is salt water – only 5% is fresh water – and part of that ...
All the oceans are really just one body of waterThis is divided into the four named oceans:     Pacific     Atlantic     I...
The oceans are always in motionTides happen twice dailyTides are caused by the pull of gravity by the  moon, and to a less...
There are two type of Ocean Currents:Surface Currents-Surface CirculationThese waters make up about 10% of all the water i...
Deep Water Currents-Thermohaline Circulation These waters make up the other 90% of the ocean These waters move around th...
Ocean Currents are influenced by two types of forces1. Primary Forces--start the water movingThe primary forces are:  Sola...
 2. Secondary Forces--influence where the  currents flow Surface Circulation ◦ Solar heating cause water to expand. Near...
Wind direction
A wind blowing for 10 hours across the ocean will cause the surface waters to flow at about 2% of the wind speed.  Water w...
Mounding
These large mounds of water and the flow around them are called Gyres. The produce large circular currents in all the ocea...
Remember the Coriolis Force move objects to the right in the northern hemisphere, and to the left in the southern hemisphere
MOTION IN THE OCEAN Waves, Tides, and Currents
WavesA disturbance which  moves through or  over the surface of a  fluidMostly caused by winds   (Also  earthquakes,   vol...
Wave CharacteristicsParts of a Wave  Crest = high point  Trough = low point  Height = vertical   distance from crest to   ...
Wave period : time for 2 crests to pass fixed point (T) secWave speed (C) : C = wavelength / T (m/s)Wave steepness : H / w...
Size of Wind Generated WavesDepends on 3 things:  Wind Speed  Wind Duration (length of   time wind blows)  “Fetch” Extent ...
Water Motion in WavesWater travels in vertical circular orbitsWave moves, particles don‟t!
Importance of WavesShaping Coastlines  Erode cliffs  Grind rock into sandEcology  Returns O2 to water  Stir up food for fi...
Types of WavesCHOP – Short period (back bays)SWELL – Long period (boat rolls; seasickness)SWASH – water up beach        BA...
TSUNAMI                   “TIDAL WAVE”Caused by undersea quake or volcano• Wavelength = ~150 mi.           Wave height = 6...
Tsunami Waves
Creation of a Tsunami
TidesThe rhythmic rise and fall of the ocean’s water  High tide = rising, incoming     tide, flow  Low tide = receding, ou...
Tides are very  long, slow waves  They have a wave period   of 12 hours 25 min  Tidal day is 24 hours 50    min  NJ has 2 ...
What Causes Tides?1. Gravitational pull of  sun & moon on Earth• Moon closer, therefore     > effect• Like magnet, pulls w...
2. Centrifugal Forces                           • Bulge on opposite side• Produced by motions of                          ...
Types of Tides•Spring Tide      - Moon and sun are in direct             line with one another      - Results in unusually...
Neap Tide  sun and moon are at    right angles  Pulls cancel each other   out – causes a weak   pull  unusually low tidal ...
Spring vs. Neap Tides
Distance bet. Moon & EarthPerigee Tides  Moon closest to earth, very high tides (causes   flooding)Apogee Tides  Moon fart...
Types of Tides ContinuedDiurnal Tides  1 high & 1 low / day  Parts of Gulf of Mexico and AsiaSemi-Diurnal Tides  2 high & ...
Importance of Tides• Expose & submerge orgs • Circulate water in bays &        estuaries • Circulates food, wastes, etc• T...
Currents• What are currents?  - “Rivers” of circulating water• Causes  - Wind  - Rotating Earth  - Density Changes
Surface Ocean Currents• Broad, slow drifts; never      cross equator• Wind generated; circular      gyres
•   Coriolis Effect- N. Hemis – clockwise; Right    - S. Hemis – counterclockwise; Left
• Gulf Stream     - N. Atlantic   - Brings warm water   from equator north along   east coast of N. A.-Sometimes form eddi...
MIGRATION             NAVIGATION            WEATHER
Localized Surface CurrentsLongshore Current.  Flows parallel to shore; move sediment
RIP CURRENT  - Caused by converging longshore currents  - Very dangerous ; Red Flag  - DO NOT fight rip current; swim para...
Deep Ocean CurrentsFlowbeneath surface; cross     equator Move North to SouthSeparated from surface  currents by boundar...
Importance Of Deep CurrentsUpwelling  Brings deep water to surf.  Circulates nutrients up  Moves plankton & larvae
The Deep Sea
1. The earth has two kinds of crust2. Continents have thick, light, granitic   crust, Oceans have thin, dense, basaltic cr...
The Two-Story Planet1. The earth has two kinds of crust
Earth Has Two Kinds of Crust   2. Continents have thick, light, granitic crust, Oceans have thin, dense, basaltic crust
Continental and Oceanic CrustContinental Crust (Granitic)Residue of Long-Continued Partial MeltingThick and LightAncient: ...
Investigating the Sea Floor   Coring   Deep-Sea Drilling   Sonar   Seismic Refraction   Gravity Surveys   Magnetic 3.Surve...
3. How we probe the sea floorPiston Coring
Deep Sea DrillingProject MoholeOriginal Intent: Drill to Earth’s MantleDrill in Oceans where Crust is ThinnestHidden Agend...
Deep Sea DrillingOriginal Objective AbandonedRenamed Deep Sea Drilling ProgramNow Called Ocean Drilling Program           ...
3. How we probe the sea floor   Sonar
Seismic Refraction     3. How we probe the sea floor
4. Features on the sea floor and edges of            continents are products of plate                        tectonicsMake...
Anatomy of a Mid-Sea Ridge
Continental MarginsShelfSlopeRiseActive: Subduction Zones. Sometimes Called Leading EdgePassive: No Subduction. Sometimes ...
A Continental Margin    4. Features on the sea floor and edges of            continents are products of plate             ...
4. Features on the sea floor and edges of                 continents are products of plate                             tec...
Anatomy of a Passive Margin        4. Features on the sea floor and edges of                continents are products of pla...
Features of the Deep SeaMid-Sea RidgesAbyssal PlainsFracture ZonesSeaic TrenchesSeamountsSubmarine CanyonsSubmarine Fans  ...
Crest ofthe Mid-Atlantic Ridge           4. Features on the sea floor and edges of                   continents are produc...
Sea-FloorSpreading, Mi  d-Atlantic    Ridge          1.   Features on the sea floor and edges               of continents ...
5. Submarine landslides are important on                     continental marginsTurbidity Flows – Grand Banks, 1929
6. Deep Sea sediment comes from the           continents and marine organismsWhere Sediment Comes From
Atlantic Sediments
6. Deep Sea sediment comes from the       continents and marine organismsDeep Sea Sediments
1. The earth has two kinds of crust2. Continents have thick, light, granitic   crust, Seas have thin, dense, basaltic crus...
Modern Day Exploration
Slide 2 Station A: Deep Sea              Exploration                                 A ship Using SONARDeep sea exploratio...
Deep Sea Slide 3Another important invention for  deep sea exploration was  deep diving submarines. Alvin  is the name of o...
Slide 4Alvin collects samples of                 hydrothermal  soil, plant, and animal life on         vent site on  the o...
Slide 5To be a deep sea explorer you  must overcome some major  challenges. For one the  voyage to the ocean floor is a  c...
Slide 6Once Alvin gets to the ocean  floor, the hydrothermal vent  sites have super hot, mineral  rich water which can be ...
Station B Slide 8 : Exploring              AntarcticaSerious exploration of Antarctica  began with the invention of  the a...
Slide 9                                     The Newest scientific laboratory in                                     Antarc...
Slide 10There have been many challenges Early Explorer of Antarctica  past and present for Antarctic  explorers. Early exp...
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1.water resources

  1. 1. THE EARTH’SENVELOPE OF WATER
  2. 2. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conservations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  3. 3. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conservations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  4. 4. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conservations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  5. 5. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conservations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  6. 6. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conversations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  7. 7. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conversations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  8. 8. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conversations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  9. 9. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conversations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  10. 10. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conversations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  11. 11. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conversations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  12. 12. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conversations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  13. 13. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conversations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  14. 14. • Class Expectations – You can show respect by… • Listening when the teacher or others are talking. – One speaker at a time, please raise your hand. • Please no cross-room conversations during work time. – You can be responsible by… • Staying organized and avoiding distraction. • Staying focused on task completion. – You can make good choices by… • Attending class regularly • Doing your best and never giving up. – Be Safe! • First, last, and always. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  15. 15. • Remember! – Working hard and earning a strong education will help you reach your hopes and dreams. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  16. 16. 9.1 The earth’s water supply.9.2 Water in the ground.9.3 Rivers.9.4 Oceans.9.5Waves,Tides and Currents.9.6 The depth of the sea.9.7 Deep-sea exploration.
  17. 17. Global Environment Awareness Lectured by: Leonard Vincent credo Presented by: Group 7
  18. 18. Table of Contents1. Water – The Definition2. Water Forms and Distribution3. Types of Water Uses4. Water Availability5. Fresh Water Shortage6. Water Use Problems and Conflicts7. Increase Water Supply8. Watershed Management9. Multipurpose Water Resource Management10. Conclusion and Recommendation 19
  19. 19. 1. Water – The Definition Water is a marvelous substance which can be beautiful, powerful and destructive. 20
  20. 20. 1.1. Water Physical Attributes Water is found in three states Liquid Solid Gas 21
  21. 21. 1.2. Hydrologic Cycle 22
  22. 22. 2. Water Forms and Distribution About 71% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. 23
  23. 23. 2. Water Forms and DistributionSource: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management 24
  24. 24. 2.1. Oceans Is the largest area and volume of water. Contain more than 97% of the earth’s water. Contain an average of 35g salt per liter. Can be used after being desalinated. 25
  25. 25. 2.2. Ice and Snow Contain almost 90% of freshwater. Is as much as 2km thick. Situate mostly in Antarctica (85%), Greenland (10%), and other snow mountain (5%). 26
  26. 26. 2.3. Groundwater Groundwater is water in the rock and soil layer beneath Earth’s surface. Absorb excess runoff rain and snow on ground. Return to lakes, streams, rivers and/or marshes. Is readily available for use and drinking. 27
  27. 27. 2.4. Lakes Lakes are created from variety of geological events:  Tectonic-basin lake  Volcanic lake  Glacial lake  Groundwater-discharge lake Lakes generate water from:  Collection of water in low areas  Natural or man-made dam(s)  Rivers and streams  Groundwater 28
  28. 28. 2.4. Lakes (cont.) Freshwater lakes  Contribute 91,000km3 (about 0.007% of total Earth’s water)  Provide water for agricultural irrigation, industrial processes, municipal uses and residential water supplies.  Major freshwater lakes: Caspian Sea (Central Asia), Baikal Lake (Russia), Tanganyika Lake (Eastern Africa), Lake Superior (U.S), and Malawi Lake (Eastern Africa) 29
  29. 29. 2.4. Lakes (cont.) Saline lakes  Possess 85,000km3 (about 0.006% of total Earth’s water)  Saline lakes’ water cannot be used due to high salinity. The Great Salt Lake  Major saline lakes: Caspian Sea (Central Asia), The Great Salt Lake (U.S.), The Dead Sea (between Jordan & Israel), and Aral Sea (between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). The Dead Sea 30
  30. 30. 2.5. Rivers and Streams Rivers and streams are bodies of flowing surface water driven by gravity. Rivers and Streams contain only 2,120km3 (about 0.6% of liquid fresh water surface and around 0.0002% of the Earth’s water.) 31
  31. 31. 2.5. Rivers and Streams (cont.)World’s Major Rivers (based on average annual discharge) Source: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management 32
  32. 32. 2.6. Wetlands and Soil Moisture Wetland are areas of land where water covers the surface for at least part of the year. They are not as important as lakes and rivers for water storage. However, they play vital roles in:  Erosion protection  Flood reduction  Groundwater replenishment  Trapping nutrient and sediment  Water purification  Providing fish and wildlife habitat 33
  33. 33. 5.7. Atmosphere Atmosphere contains about 0.001% of total Earth’s water. It is around 4% of air volume in the atmosphere. Movement of water through atmosphere provide mechanism for distributing freshwater to terrestrial reservoir (in form of rain, snow, hail…). 34
  34. 34. 3. Types of Water Uses Off-Stream Uses  In-Stream Uses  Agriculture  Hydropower  Thermoelectric  Navigation  Industrial  Recreation  Mining  Ecosystem Support  Domestic  Commercial 35
  35. 35. 3. Types of Water Uses Basic Assumption (by UN Water) World Water Use Irrigation Industry Domestic 8% 22% 70% Source: World Water Assessment Source: Food and Agriculture Program (WWAP) Organization (FAO) 36
  36. 36. 3. Types of Water Uses China 2008 Water Resource Report Ecological Residential 2% 12% Source: China 2008 Water Industry Resources Report 24% Agriculture 62% Cambodia 2010 Water Use Others Industry 10% 4% Domestic Source: Cambodian Ministry 17% Agriculture of Environment 56% Livestock 13% 37
  37. 37. 3.1. Off-Stream Uses Agriculture Thermoelectric Industrial Mining Domestic Commercial 38
  38. 38. a. Agriculture Irrigation  Crop irrigation consume 2/3 of water withdrawal.  Evaporation and seepage from unlined irrigation systems are the principal water losses.  There are three types of irrigation systems: Flood Irrigation Sprinkler Irrigation Drip Irrigation 39
  39. 39. a. Agriculture (cont.) Livestock  Watering livestock  Dairy operation  Cooling livestock facilities  Dairy sanitation and clean-up  Animal waste disposal 40
  40. 40. a. Agriculture (cont.) Aquaculture  Raising fish.  Raising shellfish.  Raising shrimp and lobster.  Raising other creatures living in water. 41
  41. 41. b. Thermoelectric Water is used in production of electrical power. Thermoelectric is one of the largest uses of water in U.S.  In 2005, it consumed about 201,000 million gallons of water each day.  Thermoelectric occupied 49% of total water use in U.S.  Both freshwater and saline water are used in thermoelectric. 42
  42. 42. c. Industrial Industries need water to cool down their machinery to a temperature that allows the manufacturing process to keep going. Water is also needed to clean machinery, products, and buildings. 43
  43. 43. c. Industrial (cont.) In 2005, U.S. industrial uses were 83% (15,000 gallons/day) surface water and 17% (3,110 gallons/day) groundwater. In Cambodia, rough estimation by Water Environment Partnership in Asia showed:  Major industry consumed: 1,000-2,000 m3/day  Large industry consumed: 100-500 m3/day  Medium & small industry: 50 m3/day 44
  44. 44. d. Mining Water is used for the extraction of minerals that can be in forms of:  Solid: coal, iron, gold, sand – etc.  Liquid: crude oil.  Gas: natural gases. 45
  45. 45. e. Domestic Domestic water use is the consumption for household purposes – both indoor and outdoor. In Cambodia, domestic water use was around 136 million m3 (17% of total consumption). Only people in Phnom Penh can access to piped water. 85% of piped water was consumed. 46
  46. 46. f. Commercial Water is used in businesses such as hotels, restaurants, marketplaces, and so on. In Phnom Penh, commercial use was 14% of total piped water consumption (about 11,480 m3 per day). 47
  47. 47. 3.2. In-Stream UsesHydropower RecreationNavigation Ecosystem Support 48
  48. 48. 4. Water AvailabilitySource: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management 49
  49. 49. 4.1. Earth’s Water 50
  50. 50. 4.2. Water Stress & Water Scarcity Water Stress:  Annual water supplies is less than 1,700m3 per person. Water Scarcity:  Annual water supplies is less than 1,000m3 per person. Absolute scarcity:  Annual water supplies is less than 500m3 per person. 51
  51. 51. 52
  52. 52. 5. Fresh Water Shortage Fresh Water Shortage is due to:  Population growth  Lack of access to clean water  Groundwater is being depleted  Climate change / global warming  Rivers and lakes are shrinking 53
  53. 53. Strangled by the water policies of its neighbors, Turkeyand Syria, a two-year drought and years of misuse by Iraqand its farmers, the Euphrates River is significantlysmaller than it was just a few years ago, and some officialsworry that it could soon be half of what it is now. 54
  54. 54. Leaky canals and wasteful irrigation practicessquandered the water, and poor drainage leftfields so salty from evaporated water. 55
  55. 55. In the marshes, where the Euphrates nears theend of its 1,730-mile journey and mingles withthe less salty waters of the Tigris before emptyinginto the Persian Gulf, the situation is grave. 56
  56. 56. Fishermen in the Hafar Canal, a shallowtributary of the Euphrates River. 57
  57. 57. 10 year drought in the Colorado River basin. 20071983 58
  58. 58. 6. Water Use Problems and Conflicts Water Overuse  Overuse in agriculture  Overuse in residence  Overuse in community Some interesting facts: Water needed to produce our daily food:  40 liters to produce 1 slice of white bread.  70 liters to produce 1 apple.  1,300 liters to produce 1kg of wheat.  3,400 liters to produce 1kg of rice.  3,900 liters to produce 1kg of chicken meat.  15,500 liters to produce 1kg of beef. 59
  59. 59. 7. Increase Water Supply Water Conservation Reclamation of sewage water Development of groundwater Desalinization Developing salt-resistant crops Developing drought-resistant crops Rainmaking Harvesting iceberg Long distance water transport Improve integration of water use 60
  60. 60. 8. Watershed Management Watershed – the definition  A watershed is a connected series of streams, rivers, and lakes that collects water from a specific area of land.  Watersheds are important habitats for animals and plants, and offer a source of drinking and recreational water for many communities. 61
  61. 61. Tips on How to Save Water Increasing water resources start from all of us! Don’t flush every time you use the toilet. Take shorter showers Don’t wash your car so often. Don’t let the faucet run while washing hands, dishes, food, or brushing your teeth. Don’t run the dishwasher when half full. Dispose of used motor oil, household hazardous waste, batteries, etc., responsibly. 62
  62. 62. Tips on How to Save Water Don’t dump anything down a storm sewer that you DOWNLOAD OUR wouldn’t want to drink. Avoid using toxic or hazardous chemicals for simple PRESENTATION AT cleaning or plumbing jobs. If you have a lawn, use water sparingly. Water your grass www.leonpower.com.ph and garden at night, not in the middle of the day. Use water-conserving appliances: low-flow showers, low- flush toilets, and aerated faucets. Use recycled (gray) water for lawns, house plants, car washing. Check your toilet for leaks. 63
  63. 63. Prepared by: Leonard Vincent CredoPresented by: Group 7
  64. 64. 65
  65. 65. Ground Water• ground water: the water that lies beneath the ground surface, filling the pore space between grains in bodies of sediment and clastic sedimentary rock, and filling cracks and crevices in all types of rock• ground water is a major economic resource, particularly in the dry western areas of the US and Canada• source of ground water is rain and snow that falls to the ground a portion of which percolates down into the ground to become ground water
  66. 66. Porosity and Permeability• porosity: the percentage of rock or sediment that consists of voids or openings• permeability: the capacity of a rock to transmit a fluid such as water or petroleum through pores and fractures• porous: a rock that holds much water• permeable: a rock that allows water to flow easily through it• impermeable: a rock that does not allow water to flow through it easily
  67. 67. The Water Table• saturated zone: the subsurface zone in which all rock openings are filled with water• water table: the upper surface of the zone of saturation• vadose zone: a subsurface zone in which rock openings are generally unsaturated and filled partly with air and partly with water; above the saturated zone• capillary fringe: a transition zone with higher moisture content at the base of the vadose zone just above the water table
  68. 68. The Water Table (cont.)
  69. 69. The Water Table (cont.)• perched water table: the top of a body of ground water separated from the main water table beneath it by a zone that is not saturated
  70. 70. The Movement of Ground Water• most ground water moves relatively slowly through rock underground• because it moves in response to differences in water pressure and elevation, water within the upper part of the saturated zone tends to move downward following the slope of the water table Movement of ground water beneath a sloping water table in uniformly permeable rock. Near the surface the ground water tends to flow parallel to the sloping water table
  71. 71. Movement of Ground Water (cont.)• factors affecting the flow of ground water: • the slope of the water table - the steeper the water table, the faster ground water moves • permeability - if rock pores are small and poorly connected, water moves slowly; when openings are large and well connected, the flow of water is more rapid
  72. 72. Aquifers• aquifer: a body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move easily• good aquifers include sandstone, conglomerate, well-joined limestone, bodies of sand and gravel, and some fragmental or fractured volcanic rocks such as columnar basalt• aquitards: when the porosity of a rock is 1% or less and therefore retards the flow of ground water
  73. 73. Aquifers (cont.)• unconfined aquifer: a partially filed aquifer exposed to the land surface and marked by a rising and falling water table• confined aquifer (artesian aquifer): an aquifer completely filled with pressurized water and separated from the land surface by a relatively impermeable confining bed, such as shale
  74. 74. Wells• well: a deep hole, generally cylindrical, that is dug of drilled into the ground to penetrate an aquifer within the saturated zone• recharge: the addition of new water to the saturated zone• the water table in an unconfined aquifer rises in wet seasons and falls in dry seasons as water drains out of the saturated zone into rivers Wet season: water table and rivers are high; Dry season: water table and rivers are low; springs and wells flow readily some springs and wells dry up
  75. 75. Wells (cont.)• cone of depression: a depression of the water table formed around a well when water is pumped out; it is shaped like an inverted cone• drawdown: the lowering of the water table near a pumped well Pumping well lowers the water table into a cone of depression
  76. 76. Wells (cont.)• artesian well: a well in which water rises above the aquifer Artesian well spouts water above land surface in South Dakota, early 1900s. Heave use of this aquifer has reduced water pressure so much that spouts do not occur today
  77. 77. Springs and Streams • spring: a place where water flows naturally from rock onto the land surface • some springs discharge where the water tableSprings can form along faultswhen permeable rock has been the land surface, but they also occur intersectsmoved against less permeable rock. where water flows out from caverns or alongArrows show relative motionalong fault fractures, faults, or rock contacts that come to the surfaceSprings form at the contact betweena permeable rock such as sandstoneand an underlying less permeablerocksuch as shaleWater enters caves along joints in limestone and exits as springs at the mouths of cavesWater moves along fractures incrystalline rock and forms springs where the fractures intersect theland surface
  78. 78. Springs and Streams (cont.) • gaining stream: a stream that receives water from the zone of saturation • losing stream: a stream that looses water to the zone of saturationStream gaining water from saturated zone Water table can be close to the land surface beneath a dry stream bed Stream losing water through stream bed to saturated zone
  79. 79. Pollution of Ground Water• pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers: chemicals that are applied to agricultural crops that can find their way into ground water when rain or irrigation water leaches the poisons downward into the soil• rain can also leach pollutants from city dumps into ground-water supplies• Heavy metals such as mercury, lead, chromium, copper, and cadmium, together with household chemicals and poisons, can all be concentrated in ground-water supplies beneath dumps
  80. 80. Pollution of Ground Water (cont.)• liquid and solid wastes from septic tanks, sewage plants, and animal feedlots and slaughterhouses may contain bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can contaminate ground water• acid mine drainage from coal and metal mines can contaminate both surface and ground water• radioactive waste can cause the pollution of ground water due to the shallow burial of low-level solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the nuclear power industry
  81. 81. Water-table slope is reversed by pumping, changingdirection of the ground-water flow, and polluting the well Pollution of Ground Watersteepens near drawing pollutants intoveloci Water table (cont.) increasing the a well of ground-water flow and a dump, • pumping wells can cause or aggravate ground- water pollution
  82. 82. Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge• a local supply of groundwater will last indefinitely if it is withdrawn for use at a rate equal to or less than the rate of recharge to the aquifer• if ground water is withdrawn faster than it is being recharged, however, the supply is being reduced and will one day be gone
  83. 83. Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge• heavy use of ground water can result in: • a regional water table dropping • deepening of a well which means more electricity is needed to pump the water to the surface • the ground surface settling because the water no longer supports the rock and sediment Subsidence of the land surface caused by the extraction of ground water, near Mendota, San Joaquin Valley, CA. Signs on the pole indicate the positions of the land surface in 1925, 1955, and 1977. The land sank 30 feet in 52 years.
  84. 84. Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge (cont.)• to avoid the problems of falling water tables, subsidence, and compaction, many towns use artificial recharge to increase recharge; natural floodwaters or treated industrial or domestic wastewaters are stored in infiltration ponds in the surface to increase the rate of water percolation into the ground
  85. 85. Effects of Ground-Water Action• caves (or caverns): naturally formed underground chamber• most caves develop when slightly acidic ground water dissolves limestone along joints and bedding planes, opening up cavern systems as calcite is carried away in solution• most caves probably are formed by ground water circulating below the water table H2O + CO2 + CaCO3 Ca++ + 2HCO3- water carbon calcite in calcium bicarbonate dioxide limestone ion ion development of caves (solution) development of flowstone and dripstone (precipitation)
  86. 86. Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.) • stalactites: icicle-like pendants of dripstone hanging from cave ceilings, generally slender and are commonly aligned along cracks in the ceiling, which act as conduits for ground water • stalagmites: cone-shaped masses of drip-stone formed on cave floors, generally directly below stalactitesWater moves along fractures and bedding planes in Falling water table allows cave system, now greatlylimestone, dissolving the limestone to form caves enlarged, to fill with air. Calcite precipitation formsbelow the water table stalactites, stalagmites, and columns above the water tab
  87. 87. Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.)Karst topography is marked by underground caves and numerous surface sinkholes. A major river maycross the region, but small surface streams generally disappear down sinkholes • karst topography: an area with many sinkholes and with cave systems beneath the land surface
  88. 88. Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.)• petrified wood: develops when porous buried wood is either filled in or replaced by inorganic silica carried in by ground water• concentration: a hard, round mass that develops when a considerable amount of cementing material precipitates locally in a rock, often around an organic nucleus• geodes: partly hollow, globe-shaped bodies found in some limestones and locally in other rocks Petrified log Concretions that have weathered out of shale Geodes
  89. 89. Hot Water Underground• hot springs: springs in which the water is warmer than human body temperature• water can gain heat in two ways while underground: • ground water may circulate near a magma chamber or a body of cooling igneous rock • ground water may circulate unusually deep in the earth
  90. 90. Hot Water Underground • geyser: a type of hot spring that periodically erupts hot water and stream; the water is generally near boiling (100oC) 1 3 2 4
  91. 91. Geothermal Energy• Electricity can be generated by harnessing naturally occurring stream and hot water in areas that are exceptionally hot underground (geothermal areas);• nonelectric uses of geothermal energy include space heating, as well as paper manufacturing, ore processing, and food preparation
  92. 92. Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.) • sinkholes: closed depressions found on land surfaces underlain by limestone; they form either by the collapse of a cave roof or by solution as descending water enlarges a crack in limestone Trees grow in a sinkhole formed in limestone near Mammoth Cave, Kentucky A collapse sinkhole that formed suddenly in Winter Park, Florida, in 1981
  93. 93. 94
  94. 94. Leonard Vincent B. Credo
  95. 95. This science unit belongs to Ryan PMurphy Copyright 2010 Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  96. 96. Bar
  97. 97. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  98. 98. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  99. 99. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  100. 100. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  101. 101. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  102. 102. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  103. 103. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  104. 104. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  105. 105. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  106. 106. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  107. 107. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  108. 108. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  109. 109. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  110. 110. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  111. 111. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  112. 112. • Overview of River Unit – Watersheds – Rivers of the United States – Profile of Rivers – Headwater, Downriver, Floodplain, Delta – Stream Order – Stream Table – Features of the river – Water Quality Assessment (EPT’s) – Vernal Pools – Rivers and Flooding – Levees – Dams – Salmon Simulation – Fish – Lake Turnover – Much more… Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  113. 113.  Area of Focus: Watersheds Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  114. 114.  Area of Focus: Watersheds Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  115. 115.  Watershed: The region draining into a river. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  116. 116. • Picture of the Mississippi River Watershed. – This watershed is the largest in the United States. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  117. 117. • Picture of the Mississippi River Watershed. – This watershed is the largest in the United States. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  118. 118. • What do you think the Great Basin is?
  119. 119. • What do you think the Great Basin is?
  120. 120. • The Great Basin is a watershed where the water does not flow to the ocean. – The Great Salt Lake is in the Great Basin. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  121. 121. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  122. 122. The mineral rich water hasnowhere to go. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  123. 123. The water thenEvaporates. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  124. 124. The GreatSalt Lake Evaporationbecomesmore salty asthe salt is leftbehind. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  125. 125. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  126. 126. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  127. 127. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  128. 128. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  129. 129. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  130. 130. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  131. 131. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  132. 132. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  133. 133. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  134. 134. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  135. 135. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  136. 136. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  137. 137. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  138. 138. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  139. 139. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  140. 140. • Which letters represent places we would find the largest rivers.
  141. 141. • What are some of the major rivers in the United States? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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  146. 146. • Activity! Do you remember? – We will do it again. Plan on contributing if you haven’t. “Oh-no!” Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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  151. 151. • Activity Worksheet! Please color code some of the major watersheds in the US. – Example on next slide. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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  163. 163. MississippiWatershed
  164. 164. All water flowsinto the Gulf / Atlantic
  165. 165. MississippiWatershed
  166. 166. MississippiWatershed
  167. 167. MississippiWatershed
  168. 168. MississippiWatershed
  169. 169. Mississippi Watershed Colorado WatershedNext
  170. 170. Mississippi Watershed Colorado WatershedNext
  171. 171. MississippiSacramento Watershed Colorado Watershed Next
  172. 172. Columbia MississippiSacramento Watershed Colorado Watershed Next
  173. 173. Columbia MississippiSacramento Watershed Colorado Watershed Next
  174. 174. Columbia MississippiSacramento Watershed Colorado Watershed Next
  175. 175. Columbia MississippiSacramento Watershed Colorado Watershed Next
  176. 176. Columbia MississippiSacramento Watershed Colorado Watershed Next
  177. 177. • Where do rivers start? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  178. 178. • Most rivers start in the mountains and work their way downhill. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  179. 179. • Most rivers start in the mountains and work their way downhill. – Water always travels downhill toward the path of least resistance. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  180. 180. • Water does not cris-cross in steep valleys like this… Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  181. 181. • Does the river with the yellow line flow into the river with the blue line? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  182. 182. • Answer! No, smaller rivers feed into larger rivers.
  183. 183. • Which direction is the largest river flowing? – How do you know? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  184. 184. • Answer! The river is flowing to the left. – You can tell by the following clues. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  185. 185. • The clear water is mixing with the cloudier water in a downriver direction. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  186. 186. • The shallow Islands / sand bars in the middle are shaped with points facing the direction of the current. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  187. 187. • The shallow Islands / sand bars in the middle are shaped with points facing the direction of the current. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  188. 188. • The shallow Islands / sand bars in the middle are shaped with points facing the direction of the current. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  189. 189. • The shallow Islands / sand bars in the middle are shaped with points facing the direction of the current. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  190. 190. • The cut bank is on the left and the bar on the right around the turn. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  191. 191. • The cut bank is on the left and the bar on the right around the turn.Cut-bank Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  192. 192. • The cut bank is on the left and the bar on the right around the turn.Cut-bank Bar Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  193. 193. • The cut bank is on the left and the bar on the right around the turn.Cut-bank Bar Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  194. 194.  Parts of a river - - - - Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  195. 195. • The headwaters. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  196. 196.  Headwaters: Extreme upper reaches of a stream. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  197. 197.  Downriver. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  198. 198.  Downriver: Between headwaters and floodplain. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  199. 199.  Tributary: A stream or river which flows into a mainstream. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  200. 200. • Which letter is the tributary?
  201. 201. • Which letter is the tributary?
  202. 202. • If a friend told you to meet them at the confluence, where should you go? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  203. 203. • If a friend told you to meet them at the confluence, where should you go? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  204. 204. • If a friend told you to meet them at the confluence, where should you go? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  205. 205.  Floodplain. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  206. 206.  Floodplain: The relatively flat land adjacent to a river channel that is underwater when the river floods. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  207. 207. • The water carries more sediment in the floodplain.
  208. 208. • The water carries more sediment in the floodplain. – More light and nutrients also causes more plant matter to grow.
  209. 209. • In the headwater streams, light is blocked by trees making plant life in the streams scarce.
  210. 210. • In the headwater streams, light is blocked by trees making plant life in the streams scarce. – Also little nutrients available.
  211. 211. • Google Earth Opportunity. – Use Google Earth to look at the floodplain section of a local river. – http://www.google.com/earth/index.html Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  212. 212.  Mouth / Delta. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  213. 213.  Mouth/Delta: An area formed from the deposition of sediments at the mouth of a river. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  214. 214. • Estuary: the area where a river meets the sea or ocean, where fresh water from the river meets salt water from the sea (tidal) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  215. 215. • Many aquatic species from the ocean can be found in the mouth / delta as the ocean water mixes with the freshwater. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  216. 216.  Stream Order: A classification system for rivers. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  217. 217. • Activity! Please sketch this river in your journal.
  218. 218. 1
  219. 219. 11
  220. 220. 111
  221. 221. 1 1 111
  222. 222. 1 1 1 1 11 1 11 1 1 1 1
  223. 223. 1 1 1 1 11 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  224. 224. 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  225. 225. 1 1 1 2 1 11 1 1 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  226. 226. 1 1 1 2 1 11 1 1 2 2 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  227. 227. 1 1 1 2 1 11 1 1 2 2 2 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  228. 228. 1 1 1 2 1 11 1 1 2 2 2 21 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
  229. 229. 1 1 1 2 1 11 1 1 2 2 2 21 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
  230. 230. 1 1 1 2 1 11 1 1 2 2 2 21 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
  231. 231. 1 1 1 2 1 11 1 1 2 2 2 21 3 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
  232. 232. 1 1 1 2 1 11 1 1 2 2 2 21 3 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1
  233. 233. 1 1 1Stream Order = 4 2 1 11 1 1 2 2 2 21 3 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1
  234. 234. • Activity! Try this one on your own.
  235. 235. • Answer: Headwaters11 1 1 11 1 1 1 1
  236. 236. • When two first order streams meet =11 1 1 11 1 1 1 1
  237. 237. • Forms second order stream.11 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 1
  238. 238. 11 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 1 2
  239. 239. 11 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 1 2
  240. 240. 11 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 1 2 2
  241. 241. • When two second order streams meet?11 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 1 2 2
  242. 242. • Forms a third order stream.11 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 3
  243. 243. • When a third order meets a second order?11 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 3
  244. 244. • Stays a third order stream..11 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 3
  245. 245. • Answer: Stream Order of 311 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 Stream Order = 3 3
  246. 246. • Activity! Try this one on your own.
  247. 247. • Answer:1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 11 2 12 3 3 11 1 4 1 1
  248. 248. • Answer: Stream Order = 41 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 11 2 12 3 3 11 1 4 1 1Stream Order =4
  249. 249.  Erosion: Process where fragments of soil and rock are broken off from the surface and carried away. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  250. 250. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  251. 251.  Deposition: Process by which fragments of rock are deposited in a new location. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  252. 252. • Please sketch a river like this in your journal. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  253. 253.  Cut Bank: High steep banks along the edge of a channel.
  254. 254. • Where would we find the cut-banks, the place the water moves quickly and causes erosion. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  255. 255. • Answer! Cut banks are on the outside of curves.Cut-bank Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  256. 256. • Answer! Cut banks are on the outside of curves. – The water moves more quickly here and erodes the banks.Cut-bank Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  257. 257. • If you are interested in catching large trout, than always throw your fly… Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  258. 258. • If you are interested in catching large trout, than always throw your fly… Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  259. 259. • Cut-banks will often erode the riverbank and trees will fall into the river. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  260. 260. • These trees are dangerous for boaters and are called “strainers”. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  261. 261. • These trees are dangerous for boaters and are called “strainers”. – They are dangerous because they can pin and hold you under that water like pasta in a strainer. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  262. 262. • If you can’t avoid a strainer try to climb up on top of it, rather than going under it. – It is a nice thing to breathe while you wait for help. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  263. 263. This is a dangeroussituation, gettingcaught under thewater in this straineris certain death.
  264. 264. • Video Link! Moving Water Safety. – Watch from the 9:30 minute mark to learn about strainers. – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xE8EOVU Z3I
  265. 265.  Riffles: Shallow fast moving section of the river between meanders. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  266. 266.  Riffles: Shallow fast moving section of the river between meanders. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  267. 267. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  268. 268.  Pool: Deep section of the river Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  269. 269. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  270. 270.  Point Bar: Shallow part on the inside curve of a river where the water slows and drops off its sediment load. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  271. 271. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  272. 272. Bar
  273. 273. A Glossary ofOcean Terms
  274. 274. Categories of Words•Animals •Bodies of Water •Landforms •Ocean Words •Other •Plants
  275. 275. Animal Vocabulary MammalA mammal is a warm blooded animal that breathes air. A whale is a mammal.
  276. 276. Animal Vocabulary FishA fish is a water animal that breathes with gills. We saw a fish at the aquarium.
  277. 277. Animal Vocabulary ShellfishA shellfish is a water animal that has a shell for an outer covering.A clam is an example of a shellfish.
  278. 278. Animal Vocabulary Bivalve ShellA bivalve shell is a shell that has 2 parts. A clam has a bivalve shell.
  279. 279. Animal Vocabulary Univalve ShellA univalve shell is a shell that has 1 part. A snail has a univalve shell.
  280. 280. Bodies of Water Vocabulary Ocean An ocean is the largest body of water. There are 4 oceans on the Earth.
  281. 281. Bodies of Water Vocabulary Sea A sea is a part of an ocean. Mediterranean SeaThe Indian Ocean has several seas.
  282. 282. Bodies of Water Vocabulary RiverA river is a body of flowing water within 2 banks. Potomac RiverMy family likes to go boating on the
  283. 283. Bodies of Water Vocabulary CreekA creek is a small body of flowing water that empties into a river.We took trash out of the creek behind
  284. 284. Bodies of Water Vocabulary Lake A lake is a large body of watersurrounded by land on all sides. Lake Gordon at Rocky GapMy family likes to go swimming at the lake at
  285. 285. Landforms Vocabulary MountainA mountain is a very high, natural place on Earth.It took us 3 hours to climb to the top of the
  286. 286. Landforms Vocabulary ValleyA valley is an area between mountains or hills. The family built their home in the valley.
  287. 287. Landforms Vocabulary VolcanoA volcano is a mountain with a vent. When it erupts lava, ashes, and hot gases come out. There was smoke coming from the volcano.
  288. 288. Landforms Vocabulary PlateauA plateau is high land with a mostly flat top. This is called a guyot when it is found in the ocean. The Indians made their camp on the plateau.
  289. 289. Landforms Vocabulary PlainA plain is a large, flat area of land.We traveled across the plains in a covered
  290. 290. Ocean Vocabulary Ocean FloorThe ocean floor is the bottom of the ocean. Many animals live on the ocean floor.
  291. 291. Ocean Vocabulary Island An island is a piece of landcompletely surrounded by water.Hawaii is an island in the Pacific Ocean.
  292. 292. Ocean Vocabulary OozeOoze is a covering of dead animals and plants on the ocean floor. The octopus hid in the ooze.
  293. 293. Ocean Vocabulary Tidal PoolsA tidal pool is formed in the shallowplaces of the beach after the tide has gone down. Tidal pools are filled with ocean life.
  294. 294. Ocean Vocabulary Shore Beach Coast All of these words describe the area where land meets the ocean.We walked along the shore and watched the
  295. 295. Ocean Vocabulary Coral Reef A coral reef is a collection of living organisms in the ocean.The coral reef near Australia is the largest in
  296. 296. Ocean Vocabulary Oceanographer An oceanographer is a scientist who studies the ocean.I would like to be an oceanographer when I get
  297. 297. Ocean Vocabulary Continental Shelf Continental SlopeThe continental shelf slopes gradually from the shore into the ocean. The continental slope drops suddenly at the end of the shelf.
  298. 298. Other Vocabulary Food Chain A food chain is a natural cycle wherecreatures rely on other organisms for food.A food chain makes it possible for animals to
  299. 299. Other Vocabulary Harbor A harbor is a place in thewater where boats can dock or anchor. We went to the harbor to meet the boat.
  300. 300. Other Vocabulary Plankton Plankton are small, microscopic plants and animals in the ocean.Plankton is the first part of a food chain for many
  301. 301. Other Vocabulary Aquarium An aquarium is a buildingpeople can visit to see marine animals. My class saw a dolphin at the aquarium.
  302. 302. Plants Vocabulary KelpKelp is a type of seaweed that is usually brown.Some fish hide from their predators in kelp
  303. 303. Plants Vocabulary Seaweed Seaweed are plants in the ocean.There are many different kinds of seaweed in
  304. 304. Rivers of the World!
  305. 305. River Nile The Nile is the longest river in the world! The river is about 4,160 miles long and can be found in Africa Although the Nile is usually associated with Egypt Only 22% of the river runs through Egypt!
  306. 306. River Amazon The Amazon is the second longest river in the world! The river is 3,912 miles long! It can be found in South America! No bridge crosses the river along the entire length!
  307. 307. Mississippi The Mississippi is the third longest river in the world stretching 3,710 miles long! You can find it in the United States! Many of Mark Twain‟s famous stories including „Adventures of Huckleberry Finn‟ tool place near the Mississippi!
  308. 308. River Chang Jiang The river Chang Jiang is the fourth longest river in the world! The river is 3,602 miles long! You can find it in China! The river Chang Jiang is also known asYangtze.
  309. 309. River Ob The River Ob is the fifth longest river in the world! The river is 3,459 miles long! You can find it in Russia! The Ob contains over 50 species of fish!
  310. 310. Over 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by waterOf that, 95% is salt water – only 5% is fresh water – and part of that is ice Oceans
  311. 311. All the oceans are really just one body of waterThis is divided into the four named oceans: Pacific Atlantic Indian Arctic Ocean names
  312. 312. The oceans are always in motionTides happen twice dailyTides are caused by the pull of gravity by the moon, and to a lesser degree by the sunWhy do you think the sun would pull less than the moon? Tides
  313. 313. There are two type of Ocean Currents:Surface Currents-Surface CirculationThese waters make up about 10% of all the water in the ocean.These waters are the upper 400 meters of the ocean. Currents
  314. 314. Deep Water Currents-Thermohaline Circulation These waters make up the other 90% of the ocean These waters move around the ocean basins by density driven forces and gravity The density difference is caused by different temperatures and salinity These deep waters sink into the deep ocean basins at high latitudes where the temperatures are cold enough to cause the density to increase. Currents
  315. 315. Ocean Currents are influenced by two types of forces1. Primary Forces--start the water movingThe primary forces are: Solar Heating Winds Gravity Coriolis effect Forces
  316. 316.  2. Secondary Forces--influence where the currents flow Surface Circulation ◦ Solar heating cause water to expand. Near the equator the water is about 8 centimeters high than in middle latitudes. This cause a very slight slope and water wants to flow down the slope. ◦ Winds blowing on the surface of the ocean push the water. Friction occurs between the wind and the waters surface. Forces
  317. 317. Wind direction
  318. 318. A wind blowing for 10 hours across the ocean will cause the surface waters to flow at about 2% of the wind speed. Water will pile up in the direction the wind is blowing. Gravity will pull the water down the "hill" or pile of water. But the Coriolis Force causes the water to move to the right (in the northern hemisphere) around the mound of water. Wind
  319. 319. Mounding
  320. 320. These large mounds of water and the flow around them are called Gyres. The produce large circular currents in all the ocean basins. Gyres
  321. 321. Remember the Coriolis Force move objects to the right in the northern hemisphere, and to the left in the southern hemisphere
  322. 322. MOTION IN THE OCEAN Waves, Tides, and Currents
  323. 323. WavesA disturbance which moves through or over the surface of a fluidMostly caused by winds (Also earthquakes, volcanoes, grav. pull)Form of great energy
  324. 324. Wave CharacteristicsParts of a Wave Crest = high point Trough = low point Height = vertical distance from crest to trough Wavelength = Horizontal distance between crest to crest or trough to
  325. 325. Wave period : time for 2 crests to pass fixed point (T) secWave speed (C) : C = wavelength / T (m/s)Wave steepness : H / wavelength When H / wavelength = 1/7 or angle at crest 120 or less = Breaker
  326. 326. Size of Wind Generated WavesDepends on 3 things: Wind Speed Wind Duration (length of time wind blows) “Fetch” Extent of open water across which the wind can blow
  327. 327. Water Motion in WavesWater travels in vertical circular orbitsWave moves, particles don‟t!
  328. 328. Importance of WavesShaping Coastlines Erode cliffs Grind rock into sandEcology Returns O2 to water Stir up food for filter feeders
  329. 329. Types of WavesCHOP – Short period (back bays)SWELL – Long period (boat rolls; seasickness)SWASH – water up beach BACKWASH – back down
  330. 330. TSUNAMI “TIDAL WAVE”Caused by undersea quake or volcano• Wavelength = ~150 mi. Wave height = 6” – 1’ Can NOT perceive in boat Speed > 500 mphSlows down to ~25 mph at shore; water builds up to ~65+ ft
  331. 331. Tsunami Waves
  332. 332. Creation of a Tsunami
  333. 333. TidesThe rhythmic rise and fall of the ocean’s water High tide = rising, incoming tide, flow Low tide = receding, outgoing tide, ebb Slack tide = vertical movement stops
  334. 334. Tides are very long, slow waves They have a wave period of 12 hours 25 min Tidal day is 24 hours 50 min NJ has 2 high and 2 low tides daily
  335. 335. What Causes Tides?1. Gravitational pull of sun & moon on Earth• Moon closer, therefore > effect• Like magnet, pulls water away from surface = TIDAL BULGE
  336. 336. 2. Centrifugal Forces • Bulge on opposite side• Produced by motions of because centr. force Earth, sun, & moon > pull of moon
  337. 337. Types of Tides•Spring Tide - Moon and sun are in direct line with one another - Results in unusually high tidal range -Tidal Range = vertical distance between high & low tides 2x’s/month
  338. 338. Neap Tide sun and moon are at right angles Pulls cancel each other out – causes a weak pull unusually low tidal range 2 x’s / month
  339. 339. Spring vs. Neap Tides
  340. 340. Distance bet. Moon & EarthPerigee Tides Moon closest to earth, very high tides (causes flooding)Apogee Tides Moon farthest away from earth, very low tides
  341. 341. Types of Tides ContinuedDiurnal Tides 1 high & 1 low / day Parts of Gulf of Mexico and AsiaSemi-Diurnal Tides 2 high & 2 low / day Atlantic coasts of North America and EuropeMixed 2 high & 2 low / day (height varies)
  342. 342. Importance of Tides• Expose & submerge orgs • Circulate water in bays & estuaries • Circulates food, wastes, etc• Trigger spawning (grunion, horseshoe crab)
  343. 343. Currents• What are currents? - “Rivers” of circulating water• Causes - Wind - Rotating Earth - Density Changes
  344. 344. Surface Ocean Currents• Broad, slow drifts; never cross equator• Wind generated; circular gyres
  345. 345. • Coriolis Effect- N. Hemis – clockwise; Right - S. Hemis – counterclockwise; Left
  346. 346. • Gulf Stream - N. Atlantic - Brings warm water from equator north along east coast of N. A.-Sometimes form eddies – circulating water that pinches off from the current
  347. 347. MIGRATION NAVIGATION WEATHER
  348. 348. Localized Surface CurrentsLongshore Current. Flows parallel to shore; move sediment
  349. 349. RIP CURRENT - Caused by converging longshore currents - Very dangerous ; Red Flag - DO NOT fight rip current; swim parallel to shore to get out of channel
  350. 350. Deep Ocean CurrentsFlowbeneath surface; cross equator Move North to SouthSeparated from surface currents by boundary called a “Thermohaline” (diff in densities)
  351. 351. Importance Of Deep CurrentsUpwelling Brings deep water to surf. Circulates nutrients up Moves plankton & larvae
  352. 352. The Deep Sea
  353. 353. 1. The earth has two kinds of crust2. Continents have thick, light, granitic crust, Oceans have thin, dense, basaltic crust3. How we probe the sea floor4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics5. Submarine landslides are important on continental margins6. Deep ocean sediment comes from the continents and marine organisms Take-Away Points
  354. 354. The Two-Story Planet1. The earth has two kinds of crust
  355. 355. Earth Has Two Kinds of Crust 2. Continents have thick, light, granitic crust, Oceans have thin, dense, basaltic crust
  356. 356. Continental and Oceanic CrustContinental Crust (Granitic)Residue of Long-Continued Partial MeltingThick and LightAncient: > 2.5 b.y.Oceanic Crust (Basaltic)Derived Directly From MantleThin and Dense 2. Continents have thick, light, granitic crust, Oceans haveYoung: < 200 m.y. thin, dense, basaltic crust
  357. 357. Investigating the Sea Floor Coring Deep-Sea Drilling Sonar Seismic Refraction Gravity Surveys Magnetic 3.Surveys sea floor How we probe the
  358. 358. 3. How we probe the sea floorPiston Coring
  359. 359. Deep Sea DrillingProject MoholeOriginal Intent: Drill to Earth’s MantleDrill in Oceans where Crust is ThinnestHidden Agenda: Complete History of OceansChallenge: Replacing Drill Bits in 5 km of WaterPlate Tectonics Showed that Mantle is Exposed in 3. How we probe the sea floor a Number of Places
  360. 360. Deep Sea DrillingOriginal Objective AbandonedRenamed Deep Sea Drilling ProgramNow Called Ocean Drilling Program 3. How we probe the sea floor
  361. 361. 3. How we probe the sea floor Sonar
  362. 362. Seismic Refraction 3. How we probe the sea floor
  363. 363. 4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonicsMakeup of Sea Crust
  364. 364. Anatomy of a Mid-Sea Ridge
  365. 365. Continental MarginsShelfSlopeRiseActive: Subduction Zones. Sometimes Called Leading EdgePassive: No Subduction. Sometimes Called Rifted or Trailing Edge Features on the sea floor and edges of 4. continents are products of plate tectonics
  366. 366. A Continental Margin 4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics
  367. 367. 4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonicsEvolution of a Passive Margin
  368. 368. Anatomy of a Passive Margin 4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics
  369. 369. Features of the Deep SeaMid-Sea RidgesAbyssal PlainsFracture ZonesSeaic TrenchesSeamountsSubmarine CanyonsSubmarine Fans 4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics
  370. 370. Crest ofthe Mid-Atlantic Ridge 4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics
  371. 371. Sea-FloorSpreading, Mi d-Atlantic Ridge 1. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics
  372. 372. 5. Submarine landslides are important on continental marginsTurbidity Flows – Grand Banks, 1929
  373. 373. 6. Deep Sea sediment comes from the continents and marine organismsWhere Sediment Comes From
  374. 374. Atlantic Sediments
  375. 375. 6. Deep Sea sediment comes from the continents and marine organismsDeep Sea Sediments
  376. 376. 1. The earth has two kinds of crust2. Continents have thick, light, granitic crust, Seas have thin, dense, basaltic crust3. How we probe the sea floor4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics5. Submarine landslides are important on continental margins6. Deep Sea sediment comes from the continents and marine organisms Take-Away Points
  377. 377. Modern Day Exploration
  378. 378. Slide 2 Station A: Deep Sea Exploration A ship Using SONARDeep sea exploration advanced dramatically in the 1900’s with a series of inventions. For example, Sonar allowed explorers to detect the presence of objects underwater.
  379. 379. Deep Sea Slide 3Another important invention for deep sea exploration was deep diving submarines. Alvin is the name of one of these submarines and can carry a crew of three people to depths of 4,000 meters. The sub is equipped with lights, cameras, and highly maneuverable arms.
  380. 380. Slide 4Alvin collects samples of hydrothermal soil, plant, and animal life on vent site on the ocean floor and sends the ocean them to scientific laboratories floor across the world for scientists to study. For example, Alvin travelled 1.5 miles below the surface to hydrothermal vent sites which spit out super hot mineral water from the ocean floor. These vents support a lot of different life forms from A ghost giant tube worms to ghost white crab white crabs.
  381. 381. Slide 5To be a deep sea explorer you must overcome some major challenges. For one the voyage to the ocean floor is a cold, 4-hour round trip in a cramped submarine. Another problem is that submarines like Alvin can cost up to 3 million dollars.
  382. 382. Slide 6Once Alvin gets to the ocean floor, the hydrothermal vent sites have super hot, mineral rich water which can be dangerous to be in. Scientists are trying to figure out how to observe these waters without being so close to them in the submarine. 662 degrees Fahrenheit
  383. 383. Station B Slide 8 : Exploring AntarcticaSerious exploration of Antarctica began with the invention of the airplane. American pilot Robert Byrd was the first to fly over the South Pole in 1929 and he made repeated flights over the continent from 1930-1950. Robert Byrd and his crew.
  384. 384. Slide 9 The Newest scientific laboratory in Antarctica. Built in 2009, it runs entirely on renewable solar and wind energy.Byrd conducted many scientific experiments in his Antarctic travels. By doing this Byrd helped to make scientific research the main purpose for exploring Antarctica. Scientists came to Antarctica to study wildlife, the land, and most recently global warming.
  385. 385. Slide 10There have been many challenges Early Explorer of Antarctica past and present for Antarctic explorers. Early explorers had to dress in heavy layers of itchy wool fabrics to protect themselves from the extreme temperatures (the average temp in the summer is -18 degrees). The wool fabric would soak up sweat, which meant getting dressed in the morning would often involve putting on layers of clothing that were frozen solid from yesterday’s sweat.

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