Is notifiable disease also communicable.. A virus
that causes congestion and oedema in the nerve
cells especially the spinal cord and the brainstem.
The cell damage maybe recoverable or there maybe
PolioVirus 1 (Brunhilda)- associated with paralytic
PolioVirus2 (Lansing)-seldom associated with
PolioVirus3 (Leon)-not often associated with
Method of spread: via the respiratory tract , and via
contaminated food and milk. The virus will then be
ingested and can be ingested and can be found in
1. The pre-paralytic stage.
Onset sudden,symptoms of slight cold.
Patient develops fever,severe headache and
Signs of meningeal irritation:neck
Muscles are tender and painful,and patient is very
After 24-48 hours the temperature falls and
paralysis sets in. It is assymmetrically distributed.
Few of several groups of muscles can be affected .
Involves the legs more than arm and called flaccily
paralysis. Limbs becomes thin.
Pain and muscle tenderness may persit.
The asymmetrically paralysed muscle lead to
orthopeadic problems such as socoliosis.dropped
foot or shortening of a limp.
On lummbar puncture the C.S.F will show an
increase in the number of the white cells i.e
leucocytosis. The diagnosis is made according to the
clinical picture: flaccid paralysis of a limb or part of
Improvement usually takes place over the next few
months . But it may take as long as a year before the
maximum recovery has been obtained.in some cases
Health education with regard to the following
- The need for vaccination.
- Immunization is compulsory.
During an epidemic ,trauma of any kind should be avoided .e.g
tooth extractions,tonsillectomies etc Gathering of crowds of
people must be prevented during an epidemic.
Satisfactory refuse and sewage waste disposal.
Good housing facilities: improvement of socio-economic
Pure water and food supply.
Pastureurization of milk.
Improved nutrition to raise the resistance of the
Treat signs and symptoms.
Isolate infected patient.
Hospitalisation of infected patients.
Bedrest using cradle to elevate weight of blankets on
the affected leg
Do not stretch paralysed muscle because it can
cause permanent damage.
Passive exercise when muscles become tender under
the supervision of the physiotherapist .
1.Sedatives for restlessness.
2.Analgesics to relieve pain.
3Antibiotics may be ordered to prevent secondary
This includes :Rehabilition,re-education and
provision of facilities to limit disabilities.
As patient improves may need services such asPhysiotherapy.
-special orthopadaedic appliances.
1. Permanent paralysis.
2.Malformation of limbs.
5.Urinary tract infection may lead to formation of
calcium phosphate stones.