Polio by leo

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  • Polio by leo

    1. 1.  Is notifiable disease also communicable.. A virus that causes congestion and oedema in the nerve cells especially the spinal cord and the brainstem. The cell damage maybe recoverable or there maybe permanent changes..
    2. 2.    PolioVirus 1 (Brunhilda)- associated with paralytic illness. PolioVirus2 (Lansing)-seldom associated with paralytic illness. PolioVirus3 (Leon)-not often associated with Paralytic illness.
    3. 3.  Between 7-14 days.
    4. 4. Reservoir:Man Method of spread: via the respiratory tract , and via contaminated food and milk. The virus will then be ingested and can be ingested and can be found in feaces.
    5. 5. 1. The pre-paralytic stage.  Onset sudden,symptoms of slight cold.  Patient develops fever,severe headache and depression.  Signs of meningeal irritation:neck rigidity,photophobia.  Muscles are tender and painful,and patient is very restless. 
    6. 6. 2.Paralytic phase.  After 24-48 hours the temperature falls and paralysis sets in. It is assymmetrically distributed. Few of several groups of muscles can be affected . Involves the legs more than arm and called flaccily paralysis. Limbs becomes thin.  Pain and muscle tenderness may persit. 
    7. 7. 3.Post-paralytic phase.  The asymmetrically paralysed muscle lead to orthopeadic problems such as socoliosis.dropped foot or shortening of a limp. 
    8. 8.   On lummbar puncture the C.S.F will show an increase in the number of the white cells i.e leucocytosis. The diagnosis is made according to the clinical picture: flaccid paralysis of a limb or part of a limb. Improvement usually takes place over the next few months . But it may take as long as a year before the maximum recovery has been obtained.in some cases paralysis remains.
    9. 9.  Primary prevention . Health education with regard to the following - The need for vaccination. - Immunization is compulsory.  During an epidemic ,trauma of any kind should be avoided .e.g tooth extractions,tonsillectomies etc Gathering of crowds of people must be prevented during an epidemic.  Satisfactory refuse and sewage waste disposal.  Good housing facilities: improvement of socio-economic conditions.  Pure water and food supply.  Pastureurization of milk. 
    10. 10.        Improved nutrition to raise the resistance of the population. Treat signs and symptoms. Isolate infected patient. Hospitalisation of infected patients. Bedrest using cradle to elevate weight of blankets on the affected leg Do not stretch paralysed muscle because it can cause permanent damage. Passive exercise when muscles become tender under the supervision of the physiotherapist .
    11. 11. 1.Sedatives for restlessness. 2.Analgesics to relieve pain. 3Antibiotics may be ordered to prevent secondary infection.
    12. 12. Tertiary prevention.  This includes :Rehabilition,re-education and provision of facilities to limit disabilities.  As patient improves may need services such asPhysiotherapy. -Occupational therapy. -special orthopadaedic appliances. -psychological support 
    13. 13.      1. Permanent paralysis. 2.Malformation of limbs. 3.Bronchopneumonia. 4.Respiratory failure. 5.Urinary tract infection may lead to formation of calcium phosphate stones.
    14. 14. END OF PRESENTATION KEA LEBOHA!!!!

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