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  1. 1. Grammar II presents…COORDINATION
  2. 2. CoordinationvsSubordination
  3. 3. COORDINATIONCONJOINSThe coordinated unitsCONJOINTThe resulting combination
  4. 4. CoordinatorsCOORDINATINGCONJUNCTIONS AND: cumulative BUT: adversative OR: alternative SO: illative
  5. 5. Types of coordinationSyndetic:Slowly and stealthily, he crept towards his victimAsyndetic:Slowly, stealthily, he crept towards his victimPolysyndetic:The wind roared, and the lightning flashed, and the clouds raced across the sky
  6. 6. Characteristics ofcoordination Coordinators are placed before a member. Coordinated members are sequentially fixed. Coordinators can’t be preceded by another coordinator Coordinators can link elements. Coordinators can link clauses and phrases.
  7. 7. The uses of “AND”1. Sequence2. Consequence3. Contrast4. Concession5. Condition6. Similarity7. Addition8. Explanationand (then)and (therefore)and (in contrast)and (yet)and (then)and (similarly)and (also)- and …
  8. 8. The uses of “OR” EXCLUSIVE:It excludes the possibility that the content of both clauses are trueYou can sleep on the couch or you can go to a hotel INCLUSIVE:We can add a 3rd clause to include both optionsYou can boil an egg, or you can make a sandwich, or you can do both. CORRECTIVE:The 2nd member is a restatement or a corrective of the 1st.They are enjoying themselves or they appear to be. NEGATIVE CONDITION:Switch the radio or we’ll miss the news
  9. 9. The uses of “BUT” The content of the 2nd element is unexpectedJohn is poor, but he is happy The 2nd element expresses in positive terms what thenegation in the 1st element conveysJane did not waste her time before the exam, but studied hard every evening.
  11. 11. TYPES OF COORDINATIONQuasiPseudoAppendedGappingComplexSimpleTYPES
  12. 12. THE END