Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

WebVisions2016 Presumptive Design Workshop

Loading in …3

Check these out next

1 of 58 Ad

WebVisions2016 Presumptive Design Workshop

Download to read offline

A 3.5 hour workshop introducing Presumptive Design, situating it within design thinking and research methods, and providing hands-on exercises to internalize the technique

A 3.5 hour workshop introducing Presumptive Design, situating it within design thinking and research methods, and providing hands-on exercises to internalize the technique


More Related Content

Slideshows for you (20)

Viewers also liked (20)


Similar to WebVisions2016 Presumptive Design Workshop (20)

Recently uploaded (20)


WebVisions2016 Presumptive Design Workshop

  1. 1. WebVisions Create First, Research Later! Presumptive Design: An 'Action First' Research Technique Leo Frishberg Principal | Phase II, Portland OR @leofrish Charles Lambdin UX Designer | Intel Corporation @CGLambdin
  2. 2. WebVisions Presumptive Design An Introduction May 2016
  3. 3. WebVisions Agenda Intros Activity Time Activity Time Intros/Agenda/Objectives 15 min About the Engagement Session 10 min What is PrD? 15 min Engagement Session Demo 5 min Assumptions 10 min Preparation 30 min The Strategy Challenges 20 min Engagement Session 30 min Artifacts vs. Deliverables 5 min Debrief / Analysis 15 min The Tasks, Context and Objectives 10 min Report-outs 10 min Break 10 min What is PrD? – Reprise 10 min Open discussion, books remaining 2:00 2:15 2:30 2:40 3:00 3:05 3:15 3:25 3:25 3:35 3:40 4:10 4:45 5:00 5:10 5:20 May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 3
  4. 4. WebVisions • Introduce a rapid method of assumption validation based on Design Thinking • Apply the process to internalize its value • Explore the differences between PrD and other research and design methods The best way to predict the future is to invent it. – Alan Kay, 1971, Dennis Gabor, 1963 Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. – Arthur C. Clarke, 1961 – Clarke’s Third Law Workshop Objectives May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 4
  5. 5. WebVisions Presumptive Design Design Thinking Cycles, Strategy and an Artifact-First Approach
  6. 6. WebVisions May 2016 On Your Feet Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 6
  7. 7. WebVisions Owen’s Design Thinking Model May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 7
  8. 8. WebVisions Owen’s Design Thinking Model Finders Makers May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 8
  9. 9. WebVisions Owen’s Design Thinking Model Know Apply May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 9
  10. 10. WebVisions Kumar’s Design Thinking Model May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 10
  11. 11. WebVisions Sato’s Design Thinking Model May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 11
  12. 12. WebVisions PrD in the Context of Design Thinking Traditional User Centered Design (UCD): Discover first Presumptive Design: Conceptualize first May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 12
  13. 13. WebVisions UK Design Council’s Double Diamond May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 14
  14. 14. WebVisions What PrD Means by Assumptions
  15. 15. WebVisions An Exercise In Assumptions Takete? Kiki?Baluba? Bouba? May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 16
  16. 16. WebVisions Figure 1 Figure 2 An Exercise In Assumptions May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 17
  17. 17. WebVisions May 2016 Figure 2 An Exercise In Assumptions Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 18
  18. 18. WebVisions The Strategy Challenges
  19. 19. Remarkable Now – Dodecatimer Strategy
  20. 20. WebVisions Remarkable Now Brief UX Strat 15 Remarkable Now (RN) creates digital products with an analog twist. Its most recent invention is the DodecaTimer (DT)– a multi-faceted geometric solid that counts-down preset times. The specific countdown depends on whichever facet the user has turned facing up. • RN’s tag line for the DT is: “The egg timer reimagined.” • RN’s plans for the DT extend well beyond a simple desktop, benchtop or countertop interval-timer. As a Bluetooth-enabled device, DT broadcasts its remaining time to any BT-enabled application or device receiving BTLE or iBeacon announcements. • RN’s plans for the DT aren’t limited to time-related experiences. The object can be used in any context in which a discrete set of states is advantageous. • Because the DT is a manipulative, a wide variety of gestures can be incorporated into the object beyond simply standing a face upward You work on a design team focused on Internet of Things (IoT) experiences. RN has hired you to investigate the value of DT to prospective customers. Before RN invests in manufacturing and production, it is looking for the highest value opportunities. The insight it hopes to gain will help structure a multi-year roadmap. May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 21
  21. 21. WebVisions What Are the Key Assumptions Behind this Strategy? • RN must prioritize among the many ideas it has for Dodecatimer, including powering options, time ranges, facets and feedback cues • RN believes the DT has nearly universal appeal • RN serves a wide variety of Personas • RN believes the essence of the DT is in its manipulation and aesthetic appeal • RN believes the DT is more than a simple timer: it is a discrete device suitable for interacting with other enabled devices • RN is looking the highest value experiences the DT can serve • RN expects to use the DT to branch into other digitally enabled experiences • RN is prepared to take multiple years to ramp May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 22
  22. 22. Likewhyze CX Data Capture and Analysis Strategy
  23. 23. WebVisions Likewhyze Brief Likewhyze (LW) is composed of two key parts: a data capture application and a back end analytics tool. The data capture app is a graphic-novel-based customer feedback tool for customer experience mapping. With it, consumers provide candid feedback to any business. The app addresses several key problems: • Eliminates rigid text-based survey formats that fail to capture qualitative thoughts and feelings during key moments in a customer’s experience. • Offers loyal customers who’ve suffered a bad experience an anonymous and confidential channel to a business without having to use public social media. • Eliminates customer recall of past experiences by enabling LW users to provide feedback during a moment, or immediately afterward. The LW data analysis suite affords the CX professional inside the business with unique opportunities: • Provides drill-down to specific stories, moments or aggregates of these, across the entire journey. • Builds CJMs up from individual data points, acquired throughout the capture period. Analysts can watch the CJM assemble over time. You have been asked to validate LW’s strategy for its data analytics suite using PrD. Before LW invests any further effort, it needs to test its assumptions about customer experience professionals’ needs and expectations. May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 24
  24. 24. WebVisions What Are the Key Assumptions Behind this Strategy? Likewhyze will: • Assist CX analysts to know what their customers like or dislike about their experiences with the company’s products or services better than regular quantitative surveys. • Assist CX analysts' understanding of the why behind these opinions by revealing customer thoughts and feelings. • Reduce CX analyst frustration with traditional customer satisfaction surveys and still avoid costly in-depth qualitative research by capturing qualitative "whys" and linking them to quantitative "whats". • Make it easier for CX analysts to see how specific touchpoints contribute to CX episodes and customer journeys. • Make it easier for CX analysts to explore CX data for common pain-point patterns and emotional themes. • Address CX analysts' need to foster customer empathy and share new CX targets across their organization’s functional silos by providing a common story-based visual language and collaboration platform. May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 25
  25. 25. Why Artifacts Aren’t Prototypes
  26. 26. WebVisions Artifacts vs. Deliverables May 2016
  27. 27. vs. May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 28
  28. 28. WebVisions The Importance of Tasks, Context and Objectives
  29. 29. WebVisions Remarkabl e Now’s Tasks And Context Remarkable Now (See packet for specifics) There are five different Dodecatimer (DT) tasks – one for each team 1. A timer: you will need to ask what task your users perform with timers today 2. Frequent contacts: Suggest it will work with their smart phone 3. Frequent services: As they turn the DT, display the website on a tablet 4. Device controller: Let them explore the idea of an IoT controller 5. Smart Home controller: Explore the ramifications of such a device • DT’s contexts are likely at home, in a professional setting or in an office May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 30
  30. 30. WebVisions Likewhyze’s Tasks And Context Likewhyze (See packet for specifics) There are five different Likewhyze tasks – one for each screen/team. 1. Scatterplot: What does the average of all of the data look like? 2. Dislikes matrix: What is going on in the most disliked case? 3. Theme: What is the common theme? 4. Persona: What are each persona’s concerns about the interface? 5. Story mapping: Explore what a crowdsourced map tells us. • The LW analytics suite is targeted to CX professionals who will likely be working in their office May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 31
  31. 31. WebVisions To Build the Future, You Need a Definition of ‘Done’ S Specific: a single focus for each objective—no “and” or “ors” M Measurable: a number—how many “things” will it take to be considered done A Attainable: will it be achievable in the time frame of the exercise? R Realistic: is it appropriate to the exercise you are performing? T Time-bound: after how much time will you consider the exercise done? May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 32
  32. 32. WebVisions Engagement Session Objectives (Choose 2) Validate the top three assumptions behind the company’s strategy Document three user-identified assumptions that differed from the company’s. Discover at least one additional problem (beyond any assumed by the company) which the participant would expect the artifact to solve. Identify at least one task the participant would do with the artifact in addition to the task proposed by the team. May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 33
  33. 33. WebVisions May 2016 Break Take 10 minutes – please be back by 3:25
  34. 34. WebVisions About the Engagement Session
  35. 35. WebVisions • This is like a usability test, but it isn’t a usability test. • Prepare a minimal script to introduce the artifact and the task (SEE SCRIPT IN PACKETS AT YOUR TABLE) • You will offer the user the artifact and let them proceed. • Based on their reaction, you will take notes on what they say as they perform the task. • If they get stuck, or turn to you for help, this is a key opportunity to learn more. • Mirror their question back to them. (“What would you do in this situation?”) • Do not explain, present or pitch the artifact or the company’s expectations/strategy. Remember: This is about company’s assumptions, some of which may not be apparent until the user calls your attention to them! Engagement Session Procedures May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 36
  36. 36. WebVisions May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 37 LW Data Capture App Demo
  37. 37. WebVisions PrD Roles • You will have multiple opportunities to work with external stakeholders. • Choose a Facilitator. You can have several— one for each visitor. • All of the others become Researchers/Observers • The Facilitator role is subtle: • Offer the artifact with a minimal introduction. • Ask the visitor to perform the task. • Become an improv artist based on the user’s interactions. May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 38
  38. 38. WebVisions Five Levels of Prompts 1.Go do X. 2.You seem hesitant. Is there a problem? 3.How might you start doing X on Y? 4.We thought Y might be a useful place to start X. 5.Great. Now let’s pretend you had pressed Y. So go ahead and press Y. May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 39
  39. 39. WebVisions Four Rules for Facilitators 1.You’re not there to present your design. 2.Act like a psychic. 3.Keep it about the present. 4.No prompts > Level 2. May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 40
  40. 40. WebVisions Engagement Session Demo
  41. 41. WebVisions Engagement Session Preparation
  42. 42. WebVisions Engagement Session
  43. 43. WebVisions Analysis and Report Out
  44. 44. WebVisions Process in Review
  45. 45. WebVisions The Five Principles of Presumptive Design Design to fail Create, discover, analyze Make assumptions explicit Iterate, iterate, iterate The faster you go the sooner you know Have fun. May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 46
  46. 46. May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 47 Methods within the Diamond Design Sprint Cultural Probes Usability Tests Rapid Prototyping Lean UX
  47. 47. WebVisions Unknown Unknowns Unknowable Unknowns Known Unknowns Known Knowns PrD in the Cynefin Framework May 2016 CHI2016 San Jose @leofrish 48
  48. 48. WebVisions Unknown Unknowns Unknowable Unknowns Known Unknowns Known Knowns {C=E} “Best Practice” Sense-Categorize-Respond Simple PrD in the Cynefin Framework May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin
  49. 49. WebVisions Unknown Unknowns Unknowable Unknowns Known Unknowns Known Knowns {C------>E} {C=E} “Best Practice” Sense-Categorize-Respond Simple Complicated Sense-Analyze-Respond “Good Practice” PrD in the Cynefin Framework May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin
  50. 50. WebVisions Unknown Unknowns Unknowable Unknowns Known Unknowns Known Knowns {C------>E} {C=E} “Best Practice” Sense-Categorize-Respond Simple Complicated Sense-Analyze-Respond “Good Practice” Complex C E C E{ } Probe-Sense-Respond “Emergent Practice” PrD in the Cynefin Framework May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin
  51. 51. WebVisions Unknown Unknowns Unknowable Unknowns Known Unknowns Known Knowns {C------>E} C≠E {C=E} “Best Practice” Sense-Categorize-Respond Simple Complicated Sense-Analyze-Respond “Good Practice” Chaotic Complex C E C E{ } Probe-Sense-Respond “Novel Practice” “Emergent Practice” Act-Sense-RespondMay 2016 PrD in the Cynefin Framework
  52. 52. WebVisions Unknown Unknowns Unknowable Unknowns Known Unknowns Known Knowns {C------>E} C≠E {C=E} “Best Practice” Sense-Categorize-Respond Simple Complicated Sense-Analyze-Respond “Good Practice” Chaotic Complex C E C E{ } Probe-Sense-Respond “Novel Practice” “Emergent Practice” Act-Sense-Respond Presumptive Design Resides Here May 2016 PrD in the Cynefin Framework
  53. 53. WebVisions PrD Elements and Timeline May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 54
  54. 54. WebVisions May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 55 Data Gathering Complete Analysis/ Insights Complete Report Out Complete, Design Team Ramp Up Conceptual Design Complete Design Development Complete Iteration 0 Complete Project Phases/Time Effort Research Design Values are for illustrative purposes Insights . 2 Research and analysis wind down to completion and design begins to ramp up. Time since the obser- vations were made increases and a handoff is required. These decrease the team’s intima- cy with user needs and goals and reduces potential insights . PrD Increases Insight, and Decreases Time to Insight
  55. 55. WebVisions May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 56 PrD Increases Insight, and Decreases Time to Insight
  56. 56. WebVisions Open Discussion
  57. 57. WebVisions References • Buxton, Bill; Sketching User Experiences: Getting the Design Right and the Right Design; Morgan Kaufmann; 2007 • Carroll, Lewis; Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There; The MacMilllan Company, New York, London, 1899 • Dubberly, Hugh; Evenson, Shelley; and Robinson, Rick; The Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model; • Frishberg, Leo; Lambdin, Charles; Presumptive Design: Design Provocations for Innovation. Morgan Kaufmann; 2016 • Frishberg, Leo; Presumptive design, or cutting the Looking-glass cake. Interactions, Vol. 13, Iss. 1, 18-20; 2006 • Frishberg, Leo; Presumptive design, or cutting the Looking-glass cake. SAO Ignite, March, 2012; • Kuhn, Thomas; The Structure of Scientific Revolutions; University of Chicago Press, 1962 • Laseau, Paul; Graphic Thinking for Architects and Designers; Van Nostrand, 1980 • Owens, Charles; Design Thinking: Notes on its Nature and Use; Design Research Quarterly Vol. 2, N0. 1, January, 2007, pp. 16-27 • Sato, Steve; Using Design Thinking to Measure Design’s Impact; CHIFOO Presentation, September 2013 • Sanders, Liz; Stappers, Pieter Jan; Convivial Toolbox: Generative Research for the Front End of Design; BIS Publishers, 2013 May 2016 Webvisions Portland @leofrish @CGLambdin 58

Editor's Notes

    Welcome everyone! Let’s get started!
  • 2
    We have a lot of people here – thank you! In addition, we have a lot of material to cover – which we expect to be immediately actionable and useful to you in your day jobs. Because of the number of people and the 3.5 hours, we will work hard to keep us on time and keep the agenda moving.

    You can help as well by keeping side conversations to a minimum, by listening attentively to others when they are presenting and by concentrating on the activities. And we will have a number of fun activities.

    At about 4:00 we’ll be joined by several volunteers who will be working with you as you validate strategy using artifacts.

    We will be photographing and recording parts of today’s session. If you would not like your image recorded, please take one of the sheets from the center of your table and place it in front of you.

    This course has a companion book, available to course attendees for purchase at the end of the course. We’ve made a limited number of signed copies available at almost 40% off retail. If you aren’t prepared to purchase the book today, you can get a copy through our website and still enjoy a substantial discount with free shipping. Flyers for this discount are available here at the front of the room.

    Okay – very briefly – a little about us, your instructors today, and a few questions about you.

    <Leo Introduction>
    <Charles Introduction>

    Please stand up if you consider yourself a designer.
    Please stand up if you are a researcher
    A student
    A strategist
    A leader or manager in your group or organization.

    Whoever is still seated, as you stand, please shout out your primary responsibility or job.

    Now – please sit down if you are part of a creative, consulting or other form of agency.
    Please sit down if you are part of a school.
    Is it safe to assume the folks who are standing are employed by a company, freelancing or looking for an opportunity?

    Excellent – thank you for helping us get a sense of who all is in the room.
    This course is designed to get into the process as quickly as possible, offering you real-world business problems as the focus of your efforts today. You will be working in teams to help two local entrepreneurs evaluate their strategy. They have worked hard to prepare their materials for today’s session with the expectation that you’ll both validate and identify opportunities for improving their strategy.

    We expect the next few hours to be fun, to be playful, and to be a safe place to explore some shifts in our typical approaches to problem resolution. But let’s be clear: there are several things the workshop won’t be able to do:
    Given the limited time frame, we don’t expect to actually solve these companies’ problems or offer a reworked strategy. Instead, you will use their design briefs to apply the Presumptive Design process, specifically in the context of understanding the problem space behind their products and services.

    Again, given the timeframe, we don’t expect you to become proficient at PrD – the best way to do that is practice. With that said, of course, we hope the exercises and hands on experience will let you internalize many of the aspects of the process that differentiate it from other research methods.

    The book covers everything about the method in excruciating detail. Today, we’ll only focus on a couple of key elements: how artifacts differ from prototypes, and how the engagement session differs from typical user interviews. To get through the most important parts of the process, we’ve approached the workshop using the “Julia Child” method – we’ll have pre-baked a few things. Those will be noted in the slides.
    5 minutes - LEO
    PrD sits within the broad academic discipline called “design inquiry” or Research through Design. In this discipline, the process of discovery depends on crafting an artifact. In some cases, RtD methods use the act of making of artifacts as the key act of discovery. Other forms of RtD care less about the making of artifacts and more about the introduction of artifacts into the environment to call attention to large scale problems such as income inequities, health care, infrastructure and the like. And in still other forms of RtD, design researchers introduce artifacts to gain inspiration from the target populations they are interested in serving.

    In all cases, RtD methods involve an artifact and a target group of people, who we call “external stakeholders” – meaning, individuals external to the design/research/strategy team. They could be constituents (in the context of “civics”), users, service recipients, visitors (to a museum, a city), or even others within your own organization but not part of your team.

    PrD shares many of the qualities of other RtD methods, distinguishing itself in the following ways:
    PrD’s primary goal is to validate a problem proposed by internal stakeholders, rather than exploring the world for interesting problems to solve
    PrD is applied research, meaning, it assists teams in focusing on the right problem to solve, rather than expanding our knowledge of the world in general
    Ultimately, PrD is designed to reduce the risk of inventing the future

    Operationally, PrD has two distinct parts: a Creation Session, in which you work with internal stakeholders to craft the artifact, and Engagement Sessions, in which you work with external stakeholders to test the assumptions behind that artifact.

    Because PrD is a research through design method, it is based on design thinking frameworks. In this section we rapidly cover the design thinking framework that forms the basis for PrD.
  • 6

    Charles Owen of the Institute of Design at the Illinois Institute of Technology suggests different forms of thinking can be distinguished by two axes: analytic to synthetic and real to symbolic.

    He suggests that any given discipline isn’t limited to a particular quadrant, just that its “center of gravity” is there.

  • 15 SECONDS
    Owen also distinguishes the left and right sides of the map based on how work is done – Finders and Makers
  • 15 SECONDS
    Owen’s model also can be divided top and bottom to distinguish between types of activities or engagements.
  • 30 SECONDS
    Vijay Kumar, of the Institute of Design at the Illinois Institute of Technology has taken the 2x2 and moved it a little. Still 2 axes, but they’ve changed – Synthetic becomes “Make”, Analytic becomes “Know”

    Kumar begins to trace a path through the quadrants, suggesting we start at the center with a hypothesis, do our research, analyze our results, come to some conceptual understanding (still abstract, but now being “made”), until we get to an artifact or result we actually implement
  • 1 MINUTE
    Steve Sato, educated at IIT and now Co-Chair of the Design Management Institute puts it in yet another slightly modified form:

    Abstract becomes “Reflect” and Real becomes “Act.”

    What each of these individuals agree on, irrespective of the specific labels on the axes, is that Design Thinking is a journey through the quadrants in an effort to find a “best fit” solution to the original hypothesis.
    In the traditional user-centered design lifecycle, you start by researching your users and learning about who they are and what they need.

    But sometimes you don’t have time for upfront research. Typically you (or members of your team) already have a pretty good idea of what your users need. As Thomas Kuhn wrote in his 1962 work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, it is impossible to do science in the absence of a preexisting theory.

    Presumptive Design rotates traditional user-centered design and starts you in a different quadrant of the design thinking loop.

    Here, you start by mocking up your best-guess solution…literally your best guess. By starting here, you are liberated from any belief that you actually know what you’re talking about. That is, you need to also let go of any belief that your solution is “right.” How could it be right if you haven’t done the research?

    Then, assuming you’re wrong…knowing you’re wrong, you get it in front of external stakeholders as fast as possible. You hand them the artifact, give them some tasks to perform and, without leading, prompt them to explore. The goal is to find out how wrong you are as quickly as possible.

    By “designing like you believe it, and testing as if you’re wrong,” you uncover stakeholders’ needs, motivations and frustrations.
  • 13
  • 1 MINUTE
    We complete the theory stuff with a slightly different model of applied design thinking.

    What we find compelling about this diagram is its integration of Paul Lasseau’s Funnel – a fundamental notion of divergent/convergent thinking.

    And as Peter Merholz has suggested, everything before the decision point should be strategy, everything afterward, execution
  • 10 MINUTES total LEO
    PrD tests your internal teams’ assumptions. It does so through the use of a presumptive artifact that embodies those assumptions. In a moment you’ll have a chance to learn more about the artifacts you’ll be testing today. But first, because of the importance of assumptions to the PrD process, we’ll do a quick exercise about them.
  • 16
  • 17
  • 18
  • 20 MINUTES Leo

    The materials on the following slides are in the packet on your table. We’ll go over these very briefly to get everyone on the same page about each strategy and the objectives for the upcoming Engagement Sessions.
  • How often do we receive design briefs that include tacit assumptions: about the organization’s expectations for their market, their product or service, and their very existence?
  • During a usual PrD process, not within this workshop, you would work with your stakeholders to identify their assumptions. This is the first of the “Julia Child” pieces you’ll see throughout the rest of the workshop.

    We can’t over-emphasize the difficulty and challenges of teasing out assumptions from your internal stakeholders. We cover this in depth in the book; it is one of the key advantages of PrD over other methods such as GVDS or Lean UX

  • 10 minutes - CHARLES
  • Charles

    Jarod Spool has been talking about this problem we all have when it comes to prototypes. The word is being used all over the place. He’s pretty clear about it: if you haven’t made a decision about the project, you’re working pre-decision, it’s an artifact. After the decision point, no matter its resolution, it’s a prototype or a deliverable.

    Gavers, et. al. suggest ambiguity is a requirement for better understanding individuals’ perspective and understanding of the problem space.

    The question is: how much should the artifact reveal about the team’s assumptions and understanding of the problem space vs leaving room for users to fill in the blanks?
  • 6 minutes – Leo, 6 minutes Charles

    Here again, we are providing Julia Child information to get us through the material in the time we have. Note, however, that a substantial amount of time is spent during Creation Sessions to get agreement from your stakeholders on these elements.
  • 3 MIN – LEO
    PrD requires the user to perform a task with the artifact. In addition, it requires a context in which you expect the Persona to perform the task.
  • 3 minutes - LEO

    Presumptive Design is otherwise known as a process of design provocations. You are crafting an artifact to provoke a conversation. To make sure you are provoking the right conversation, you need to establish your objectives. In brief your provocations are your objectives.

    Your objectives serve several purposes and become the crucial backbone of your efforts. They help you:
    figure out what should be in the prototype and what shouldn’t
    identify the questions you are likely to explore and those you won’t
    determine when participants offer information that is valuable and when they don’t
    Determine when you can stop the interview
    structure your report out

  • In a typical Presumptive Design process, you would work with your internal stakeholders to craft objectives meaningful to them.

    Because we are focusing on a small part of the PrD process – the Engagement Session with external users – we have offered these for your sessions today
  • 10 Minutes, Max, please
  • 10 minutes maximum – LEO AND CHARLES

    In a few minutes, several prospective users of your solution will be coming in. These engagements are the key differentiators of Presumptive Design from other user research methods.

    This is your chance to get a peek into your users’ mental models and there are a few key things to pay attention to.

    In the next few minutes we’ll give you insights into this process and then give you a chance to practice with each other. Each of you should take a turn at practicing facilitation, evaluation and being the “wizard” for practice.

    During the actual engagement session, you’ll have five opportunities to play these roles, so be prepared to select who will do what for each of the engagements


    Here are five levels


    Remember, the user should be doing at least 97% of the talking. You’re there to facilitate, to offer prompts. This means you’re there to keep the user talking. The types of prompts you use, what you actually say to the user, makes or breaks a user interview.

    User prompts can be thought of as consisting of five levels.

    Because PrD depends so heavily on the Engagement Session, and because it isn’t a typical sort of user research interview, we’ve been asked by prior workshop attendees to take a few minutes and demonstrate how the interview might go.

    So, here goes!

    Okay! Your users are arriving in 30 minutes. You have the following tasks to do, to prepare:

    Identify who will be the facilitator – you will have multiple users, so please consider having at least four people to facilitate
    Facilitators – study the script, study the artifacts, consider the possible tasks your users will perform, and begin to prepare for their reactions. REMEMBER, this is improv, so you can’t prepare completely, but you can probably predict a little.
    Everyone: Study the artifacts and get familiar with how they work.
    Remember, your users will likely go in a completely different direction from the assumptions, tasks and so forth, so be prepared for that probability. You will be able to mark up and change the artifacts to suit your users. Facilitators, practice with team members who take left turns on you.
    During the session, your users may wih to change the artifact, if they don’t understand it, or want some other functionality. Let them do it! If, between users, you feel the need to change the artifact, feel free.

    You now have 25 minutes, so get going!
  • LEO

    You’ve got about an 30 minutes to complete your sessions – at each 5 minute interval, I’ll call “switch” so your participants can go to the next engagement and so that your team can switch up the roles
  • LEO

    You have 5 minutes to summarize your findings and then every team will have 1 minute to share what they learned with the rest of the group.

    For your 1 minute of fame, please present the following:

    The artifact
    The objectives you chose
    The results as they relate to your objectives
    An opinion on whether your company’s strategy has potential or needs work

    Design to Fail – You are about to start working on something about which you know very little. Because you are about to make wild assumptions about your target stakeholders, you must believe you are wrong. It is fundamental to the process that you continue to question your very assumptions, even as you sincerely craft an artifact expressing them.

    Create, discover, analyze – as you’ll see in a moment, Presumptive Design turns the typical Design Thinking cycle on its head

    Make assumptions explicit – the focus of your effort in the next hour is to get your assumptions about the users, their needs and the ways in which those needs are addressed out on the table

    Iterate, Iterate, Iterate – You won’t be happy with the first turn of the crank. You’ll want to do it several times – to the point I mentioned earlier – you’ll want to move through the design thinking cycle multiple times to get to the essence of what your stakeholders really care about

    And you’ll want to do it fast! – Iterations within the timeframe of the stakeholder engagement (a la Carolyn Smith’s paper prototyping or other rapid techniques) in service of your objectives (not to refine the design) gets you to the insights significantly faster.
    To review, PrD fits firmly in the left hand diamond, focusing on the problem definition and assumptions. I’ve placed a few common design-based methods into position.

    Cultural probes are intended to identify interesting problems and to inspire a team to consider cultural contexts. This should happen before a project is even initiated, or as the purpose of the project.
    Design Sprints are all about the solution – here we’ve positioned the Design Sprint firmly in the right-hand diamond. Even if the results of the sprint may toss out the entire idea, and may reflect on the problem as a result, DS’s are really set up to rapidly move from an idea to a putative solution.
    So too, Lean UX. Lean UX is all about removing time and effort in creating UX “Deliverables,” substituting instead a vibrant act of exploration. But Lean UX’s focus is almost entirely dependent on a problem being defined by the business. Almost…and this is where PrD complements Lean UX.
    Most Rapid prototyping processes are also focused on solution resolution. The “problems” represented in these prototypes are only those associated with reaching a solution to the “requirement.”
    Finally, usability testing, by definition must come after a solution is crafted, even if that solution is a mock-up or prototype. The purpose of usability testing is to create a closed loop evaluation mechanism, specifically focused on the usability of a solution.
  • 1 MINUTE

    CuneVIN framework
    Snowden speaks about his framework as a way of considering decision making
  • 1 MINUTE
  • 1 MINUTE
  • 1 MINUTE
  • 1 MINUTE
  • 1 MINUTE
    Operationally it requires two types of sessions:

    The Creation Session and the Engagement Session.

    You prepare internal stakeholders to participate in the Creation Session. These are members of the business, the development team, or whomever is going to create the next big thing. The Creation Session is very much a participatory design process and you can use any tools associated with participatory design. The outcome is an artifact that reflects the internal team’s assumptions about the solution, beliefs about the problem and other heartfelt points-of-view.

    You use the artifacts created in the Creation Session in subsequent Engagement Sessions with external stakeholders. The Engagement Sessions are treated as if they were usability studies or any other user interview from the perspective of recruitment, calendaring and the like. But, as you’ll soon see, they are not at all like usability studies or other forms of social science interviews.