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Chapter 5


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Chapter 5

  1. 1. Estructuras Gramaticales Unidad 5
  2. 2. Preterite: Regular Forms Infinitive stem -ar ending Ex: Tomar -er/ir endings Ex: comer Ex: vivir Yo -é Tomé -í Comí Viví Tu -aste Tomaste -iste Comiste Viviste El,ella, Ud. -ó Tomó -ió Comió Vivió Nosotros -amos Tomamos -imos Comimos Vivimos Vosotros -aseis Tomasteis -isteis Comisteis Vivisteis Tomaron Comieron Vivieron Ellos, -aron ellas, uds. -ieron
  3. 3. • Verbs ending in –car, -gar, -zar have a spelling change • C  qu ex: buscar  (yo) busqué • G  gu pagar  (yo) pagué • Z  c realizar  (yo) realicé
  4. 4. • In the preterite, dar and ver take the endings –er and –ir: • Dar  di diste dio dimos disteis dieron • Ver  vi viste vio vimos visteis vieron
  5. 5. Not done yet… Oír, caer, and verbs ending in –eer and –uir have the following change in the él and ellos forms of the preterite: i  y. Oír  oí oíste oyó oímos oísteis oyeron Caer  caí caíste cayó caímos caísteis cayeron Leer  leí leíste leyó leímos leísteis leyeron Construir  construí construíste construyó construímos construísteis constryeron
  6. 6. Stem changing verbs • Verbs in –ar and –er that use stem changes in the present do not have the stem change in preterite: Pensar (ie)  pensé Contar (ue)  conté
  7. 7. Changes in -ir Verbs in –ir that have stem changes in the present have stem changes in the él and ellos forms of the preterite: ei sentir: (yo) sentí (él) sintó (ellos) sintieron ou dormir: (yo) dormí (él) durmió (ellos) durmieron
  8. 8. But wait! REMEMBER! Reír and sonreír have the following preterite forms: Ex: reí reíste rió reímos reísteis rieron
  9. 9. Why preterite? The preterite is used to describe events and actions that took place and were completed in the past. Ex: Argentina won the world cup in 1986. La Argentina ganó el Mundial en 1986.
  10. 10. Irregular preterite! Infinitive Ser/ir J group I/U group Yo Fui -e -e Tu Fuiste -iste -iste El, Ella, Ud. Nosotros Fue -o -o Fuimos -imos -imos Vosotros Fuisteis -isteis -isteis -eron -ieron Ellos, ellas, fueron uds.
  11. 11. Notes • Remember! The yo and él forms of the preterite have no accent marks. • In the preterite, ser and ir have the same form. Usually the context clarifies the meaning of the verb. • The él form of the preterite of hacer is hizo. • The preterite of hay is hubo. • Verbs conjugated in the present like hacer, venir, and tener have similar conjugation patterns in the preterite: (componer) ¿Quién compuso la sinfonia? •
  12. 12. The groups “J” group: “I” group: Traer  trajquerer  quisDecir  dijhacer  hicProducir  produj- venir  vin“U” group: Estar  estuvponer  pusandar  anduvsaber  suppoder  pudtener  tuv-
  13. 13. Some words change… Infinitive Original meaning Preterite meaning Conocer To know Met (for the first time Poder To be able Suceeded Querer To want Tried No querer To not want Refused Saber To know Found out Tener To have Got, recieved
  14. 14. Affirmative expressions Alguno(a) Some, any Alguien Algo Someone, somebody Something Siempre Always Alguna vez Ever Alguna veces Sometimes o…o Either…or también Also, too
  15. 15. Negative expressions Ninguno(a) No, none, not any Nadie No one, nobody Nada Nothing, not anything Nunca/jamás Never Ni…ni Neither…nor tampoco neither
  16. 16. More notes (so boring D:) Alguno and ninguno become algún and ningún before a masculine singular noun. The personal a is required with alguien, nadie, alguno, and ninguno When used in a question, jamás corresponds to ever. Tampoco is used to express agreement with negative statements. Ex: Neither do I.
  17. 17. Rules Negative words may come either before or after the verb. negative word + verbno + verb + negative word Nadie vio la película. No vi a nadie en la cafetería. No one saw the movie. I didn’t see anyone in the cafeteria. When the negative words come before and after the verb, no is not used, when both come before the verb, no is used.
  18. 18. Pero and Sino Both pero and sino mean but. Sino is used if the first part of the sentence is negative but is contradicted by the second part. It is equivalent to the expressions but instead and but rather. Pero is used instead of sino if there is no direct contradiction between the two parts of the sentence. Sino que is used instead of sino to connect two contradictory clauses.
  19. 19. Present indicative • The present indicative is used to describe actions or situations that have been going on since a specific point in time or for a certain period of time. • Present + (desde [since] + point in time / desde hace [for] + duration of time) • Juego al tenis.  I am playing tennis. • Juego al tenis desde la una.  I have been playing tennis since one o’ clock. • Juego al tenis desde hace dos horas.  I have been playing tennis for two hours.
  20. 20. Un poco mas • Interrogative expressions: ¿Desde cuándo…?  Since when….? ¿Desde have cuávnto tiempo…?  (For) how long…? • Once can also describe and action that has veen going on for a given period of time with the following: • hace + duration of time + que + present