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Nebosh igc1 refresher course notes and answers


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Nebosh igc1 refresher course notes and answers: summary of all knowledge of IGC1

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Nebosh igc1 refresher course notes and answers

  1. 1. 1 NEBOSH International General Certificate (IGC) in Occupational Safety and Health Revision Workshops Mr. Bernard Colgan B.A. (Soc Sci) A.D. (Hlth Policy) RN, RM, Dip WHS, Cert 1V TAE, HRIS Integrated Safety Solution Pte Ltd "Before we discuss the Department of Occupational Safety Health and Welfare (DOHSW) investigation, imprisonment of our executive directors for breaches of the OHSW Act and numerous lawsuits filed against us by our employees, I'd like to open the meeting with a joke." WELCOME • Attendance Sheets • Key Objectives • Roles • Assessment • Evaluations • Right of review Housekeeping and Safety • Training facilities • Alarm System and Muster point • Safety Share • Ablutions • Refreshments / Breaks Code of conduct • Mobile phones • Laptops – Emails etc. • Computer Access • Privacy • Questions Expectations and roles • Session Expectations • Nominate a Timekeeper • Writing Car park questions for follow up • Introductions
  2. 2. 2 Your instructor.. SCHEDULED ACTIVITIES – Day 1 SCHEDULED ACTIVITIES – Day 2 IGC1 Element 1 – Foundations in Health and Safety • International General Certificate (IGC1) Exam • Exam techniques • Foundations of Occupational health and safety • Scope and Nature • Multidisciplinary nature • Barriers . • Role of Governments and International bodies • Government • Employers , Employee • Enforcement Agencies, Non-compliance • International Standards, Sources of information • Maintaining standards in Health and Safety • Size of problem • Societal expectations • Social (Moral) expectations • Business / Financial • International framework . EXAM TECHNIQUES NEBOSH are renown for setting challenging questions in exam papers and marking strictly. They word their questions in such a way as to ask specific information and they expect you to provide it in the requested format. The main mistake that candidates make is to not read the question properly. Often students provide excellent answers, but do not answer the question asked. EXAM TECHNIQUES - ANSWERING THE QUESTION • Read the questions carefully: • Know what information is being requested. • Understand what information is being requested. • Understand the breadth of knowledge required. • Provide the information in a logical and coherent manner. • Consider the marks available: • Develop a plan: • The examiner will expect a piece of information to allocate the available marks on. • Time management (allocate your time evenly and take into account the value of marks allocated to the question. • Focus on key words; • Create a mind map; • Have enough facts; • Re-read the question for clarity.
  3. 3. 3 EXAM TECHNIQUES - VERB “ACTION” INSTRUCTIONS Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary To List: Only list the words, names, items, figures, phrases etc. without any explanations or descriptions. To State: To formally, write and express an opinion, define or provide categorically what the facts are. Where there is no definition. To Identify: Demonstrate that you know, understand and/or recognize the pertinent points to the issue by selecting and naming them and saying what they are in a concise manner. EXAM TECHNIQUES - VERB “ACTION” INSTRUCTIONS Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary To Outline: Give a clear description of the key (most important) features, facts or points of the events or issue that are involved and give a brief explanation of the reasons/points. To Describe: Provide a greater level of detail or a more “in-depth” explanation or description of the key issue or events. Include a “word picture” description of the key points also. EXAM TECHNIQUES - VERB “ACTION” INSTRUCTIONS Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary To Explain: Provide: a more detailed level of explanation (a word picture or story) as to the rationale, and a detailed description of the process or events with a breakdown of each key point or fact to ensure your message is clearly understood. EXAM TECHNIQUES - ANSWER THE QUESTION Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary COMPONENTS: The “Topic”: Should be usually clear from the question being asked. Ask how and why has the examiner has posed this question. EXAM TECHNIQUES - ANSWER THE QUESTION The “Components”: Scope and Focus: Check to see whether the wording of the question includes a word or phrase that limits or expands the topic in a very specific way. Common mistakes to avoid: • Covering too broad an area • Writing with too narrow a focus • Including irrelevant information • Only answering half the question. EXAM TECHNIQUES – MONITOR YOUR TIME Section 1: One question – may be divided into sub-parts (20Marks – spend approx. 30 minutes) Section2 : Ten Questions ( 8Marks – spend approx. 90Minutes) No choice of questions – ALL are compulsory!
  4. 4. 4 EXAM TECHNIQUES - ANSWER THE QUESTION Definition Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Types of Questions : Knowledge: They ask you to recall important facts and are the simplest question. Key “Action words” - Verbs: Outline Give Label Define State Identify Describe. Summarize Name List EXAM TECHNIQUES - ANSWER THE QUESTION Definition Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Types of Questions : Comprehension: They ask you to demonstrate your understanding of concepts. You must clearly show that you understand the ideas and theories that underlie the facts. Key “Actionwords” - Verbs: Explain Para phase Trace Summarize Give Examples Re-state Illustrate Express Distinguish Match. EXAM TECHNIQUES - ANSWER THE QUESTION Definition Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Key “Action words” - Verbs: Application: They ask you to demonstrate how to use your knowledge to address a specific problem and require more than to simply recollect but to apply the knowledge also. Key Verbs: Apply Show Solve Choose Organise Relate Generalise EXAM TECHNIQUES - ANSWER THE QUESTION Definition Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Types of Questions: Analysis: They ask you to examine the relationship between / among facts and concepts. Key Verbs: Analyse Classify Compare Contrast Distinguish Differentiate Sub-divide Categorise Select Infer Prioritise EXAM TECHNIQUES - ANSWER THE QUESTION Definition Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Key “Action words” - Verbs: Synthesis: They ask you to create a new structure in written form – e.g. construct an OHSMS policy. . Key Verbs: Design Plan Construct Create Compose Produce Develop Invent Combine EXAM TECHNIQUES - ANSWER THE QUESTION Definition Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Key “Action words” - Verbs: Evaluation: They ask you to make a value judgement and present your own opinions often citing works and views of experts in the field, if possible. Key Verbs: Discuss Evaluate Compare Consider Examine Explore Comment Justify Appraise Weigh Support Recommend
  5. 5. 5 Learning Outcomes On completion of this element, you should be able to: Demonstrate an understanding of the content through the application of knowledge in familiar and unfamiliar situations. 1. Outline the scope and nature of Occupational Health and Safety ; 2. Explain the moral, social and economic reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety in the workplace; 3. Explain the role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a framework for the regulation of health and safety. © RRC Training Sample questions: The results of a health and safety audit of an organisation showed a number of non-compliances with respect to procedures. • Describe the possible reasons for procedures not being adhered to. (10) • Outline what actions could be taken to encourage employees to comply with health and safety procedures.(10) HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION • Part (a) • To Describe means to provide a word picture of something • Don’t just list the reasons – each one needs to be expanded on slightly to ensure the examiner understands the point. • Each reason – allocate 2 marks up to a maximum of 10 • Focus on describing the reasons only. • Don’t try to guess what procedures are not being complied with – we don’t know this!! • Don’t get stuck on the word “Audit “ – it is not about the audit but try to focus why people do not comply! • E.g. peer pressure, no enforcement, management are not concerned, PPE makes the task more difficult, employees have never been told to wear PPE etc. HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION • Part (b) • To Outline means to essentially asks for the main features or general principles. No explanation is required. • 1 mark will be given for each valid point up to a maximum of 10 • The question requires actions that could be taken to encourage or motivate employees to comply with procedures. • Think about how people are motivated – use an example. The actions might include: • Training, • joint consultation on provision and use of PPE, • poster campaigns, • management commitment, • discipline etc. HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION • Part (a) • Unrealistic / unclear procedures, • poor safety culture, • Lack of consultation • poor management commitment, • inadequate supervision/enforcement, • cutting corners encouraged, • Lack of training/safety awareness information etc. • Part (b) • Safety meetings, • team briefings, • joint employee / management consultations • Involve employees in risk assessment • Provide training • Poster campaigns encourage accident / incident reporting • Provide a ds good working environment • Job rotation • disciplinary procedures Provide definitions for the following key terms: Health: Safety: Welfare: Accident: NearMiss: The state of being free (i.e. absence) from disease, injury or illness. The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or personal injury. The provision of efforts to ensure the basic physical and material well-being (i.e. their health and safety) of people and or facilities. An unfortunate, unplanned or unwanted incident or event which typically leads to injury, damage or loss. A narrowly avoided, unplanned, unwanted event which has potential to lead to injury, damage or loss. Reference: Pp1-2 Element 1- RRC IGC1 Manual
  6. 6. 6 Provide definitions for the following key terms:: Hazard - Anything with the potential to cause injury or harm, and/or property damages. Risk - The likelihood that a situation involving exposure to danger will cause harm i.e. a hazard, It is usually considered in combination with the severity (Consequences) of the injury, damages or loss that might occur. Dangerous Occurrence: - A specified incident or event that has to be reported to relevant authorities by law. Environmental Protection: The action of preventing damage to the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates i.e. air, land, water and living organisms. Reference: Pp1-1 NEBOSH IGC1 Sample Questions: Using an example in each case, explain the following terms: •Hazard (2) • A hazard is something with the potential to cause harm • Example: A damaged pavement with the potential to cause harm resulting from a slip, trip or fall. •Risk (3) • Risk is the probability or likelihood that an unwanted event will occur and the possible severity or Consequences in terms of injury/damage that could occur as a result. • Example: if there is a road work pit in the pavement there is a risk of someone falling into the hole; if however the hole has barriers and signage to warn of the danger then the risk is reduced. •So far as is reasonable practicable (3) • This refers to the balance between risk and cost (money, time, trouble). i.e. If the risk is significant then action must be taken. • Example: if the damages to the pavement are significant and the cost to repair is manageable then the work should be carried out. Barriers to Good Standards Describe what barriers there might be to good health and safety practice in the workplace? Complexity of the workplace Complex nature and diverse range of activities that occur in the workplace; Behavioural Issues Safety relies on individual good behaviour People failing to act as desired or making mistakes Competing / conflicting demands Timescales – supply and demand of product or service Standards – e.g. compliance with health and safety and environmental protection laws Budgets – need to be profitable and safe! Reference: Pp1-1 Element 1- RRC IGC1 Manual Why should an organisation manage health and safety? Moral – there is a social expectation that people will behave in a morally responsible manner Legal (or social) – Laws exist to ensure that there are minimum standards to ensure • a safe place of work • Safe plant and equipment • Safe systems of work and • Training, supervision and competency Economic – i.e. The business case - Accidents and ill-health cost money and affect the profit margin – directly and indirectly as well as insured and non-insured costs. Question 1: Why might the Management of an organisation not consider health and safety to be a priority? Key points should include: Competes with other business aims i.e. It requires: Time Money and Resources and therefore is seen as “costly” to business Question 2 What would this attitude suggest about the organisation’s Management? Key points should include: This demonstrates an ignorance of : • The true costs of injury/illness – the business Case • The legal requirements/duties of care • The real hazards in the workplace.
  7. 7. 7 Following a workplace accident, an employer has decided to implement regular workplace inspections. a) Outline the factors that the employer should consider when planning the inspections. (6) b) Outline three proactive methods for monitoring health and safety performance. (6) c) Identify all the possible costs to the company as a result of the accident. (8) Workplace Inspections: HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION – “Outline the factors” • Nature of hazards, • team consultations, • competence, • location/route, • Inspection checklists to consistency and systematic, • consultations, • standards/legislation to apply - compliance, • remedial actions/work prioritized, • Direct/indirect costs, • Competency of inspectors, • Representative team of inspectors, • Safety and welfare of inspectors doing survey, • Regular frequency /scheduling e.g. 3 monthly. HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION – b) Outline 3 pro-active monitoring methods … •Audits – comprehensive and independent examination against stated objectives, •Safety surveys – detailed in-depth examination of specific field of activity e.g. manual handling, •Safety Tours – an unscheduled workplace inspection to ensure housekeeping standards are acceptable , •Others – benchmarking / Sampling (outline three) c) Identify all the possible costs •Direct / Indirect costs • Lost production, • clean up/repair costs, • lost time, • investigation costs, • first aid, • intangible costs (morale), • insurance premiums increases, • fines, • compensation, • replacement/retraining of staff etc. Business costs to an organisation Identify some of the possible costs an organisations may experience following an accident in the workplace? (8 Marks) Direct Costs - which are measurable costs arising directly from accidents and may include: First aid treatment Workers Sick pay during absences Repairs to plant or equipment Lost or damaged plant or product Lost production time Overtime cover for injured person Fines in criminal / civil court Compensation payment to victim Clean-up activities Cost of recruiting and retraining additional employees (cover in interim) Reference: Pp1-5/13 Element 1- RRC IGC1 Manual Business costs to an organisation Identify some of the possible costs an organisations may experience following an accident in the workplace? (8 Marks) Indirect Costs which arise as a consequence of the event but may not directly involve money. Often difficult to quantify and may include: Incident Investigation time Lost employee morale / industrial unrest / high staff turnover Cost of additional control measures Compliance with enforcement notices Cost of redeployment and / or rehabilitation Damaged customer relationships and goodwill Damaged public image and business reputation Decrease in profitability Question 4: Insurance costs to an Organisation Identify some of the possible insurance costs an organisations may experience following an employee being injured after an accident in the workplace? £8 - £36 £1 • Loss of raw materials due to accidents • Sick pay • Overtime • Equipment repairs • Lost materials “Uninsured” Costs •Fire •Worker injury/death •Medical costs “Insured” Costs
  8. 8. 8 SCHEDULED ACTIVITIES – IGC1 Health and Safety Management Systems (HSMS) - Policy • Key Elements of ILO –OSH-2001 HSMS’s • Purpose and Importance of OSH Policy • Role of OSH Policy in decision making • Key features of a HSMS • Statement of intent • Organisation • Arrangements • Policy Review • Continuous Improvement and Audit . Health and Safety Policy Outline the purpose of an Organisation’s Health and Safety Policy. An important document: • The foundation for good health and safety management in an organisation • Sets out the organisation’s aims • Identifies who is responsible for achieving these aims • States how the aims are to be achieved • Specific to each organisation’s requirements (Not to be confused with "Policy" in the H&S management system model) © RRC Training Key Elements of a H&S Policy Identify the Key Elements of an Organisation’s Health and Safety Policy. A health and safety policy usually comprises three parts: 1. Statement of Intent What's going to be done 2. Organisation Who's going to do it 3. Arrangements How they're going to do it © RRC Training General Statement of Intent Outline the issues that are typically included in the statement of intent section of a health and safety policy... • Setting overall aims and objectives • Complying with law • Achieving standards • Reminds workers at all levels of their responsibilities • Signed and dated by the most senior person • Regular review © RRC Training Organisation Section Outline the issues that are typically included in the Organisation section of a health and safety policy. • Outlines the chain of command for health and safety management • Identifies the roles and responsibilities of staff • Usually includes an organisational chart relating to health and safety • Shows lines of communication and feedback Defines responsibilities for: • The CEO or MD - ultimately responsible and accountable • Management - responsible for day-to-day management • All employees - responsible for acting safely • Competent persons - first aiders, fire marshals, etc. • Specialist health and safety practitioners – responsible for providing advice to support management and employees Q)Identify reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety in an organisation. (8)
  9. 9. 9 © RRC Training Arrangements Section Outline the issues that are typically included in the Arrangements section of a health and safety policy. (8) • Describes how things are done and going to be achieved • Detailed description of policies and procedures • Usually a long document • Often separate from the policy document • Unique to each organisation Examples of topics: • Carrying out risk assessments • Information, instruction and training • Compliance monitoring, including auditing • Accident and near miss reporting, recording and investigation • Consultation with workers • Developing safe systems of work © RRC Training Policy Reviewing Outline the circumstances that would require a health and safety policy to be reviewed. Some reasons for review • Changes in:  key personnel  management structure  ownership  processes  technology  legislation • Incident • Enforcement action • After audit • After worker consultation • Passage of time e.g. annually Contractors: Contractors are carrying out a major building project for an organisation. Q) Outline how this organisation could reduce the risks to contractors carrying out the project. (8) If a client can be held responsible for an injury caused by a contractor working for the client then it must be in the client’s own best interests to ensure that contractors do not endanger workers or others. The way that a client manages contractors can be broken down into key areas: • Selecting the contractor • Planning the work • Coordinating the work • Monitoring the work Contractors: 1. Selecting the right Contractor Things you should check: • Health and safety policy • Risk assessments • Qualifications and training records • Membership of a professional organisation • Maintenance and equipment testing • Previous or current clients • Accident records • Enforcement action • Adequate resources 2. Planning the Contractors’ Work Information to be shared between client and contractor: • Hazards posed by the site and work carried out • Hazards posed by the contractor’s activities • Risk assessments • Method statements 3. Co-ordination of Contractors’ Work Arrangements between the client and contractor include: • Ensuring activities don’t conflict • Permit-to-work system to control activities • Key contacts e.g. works foreman identified to ensure continuity 4 Monitor and Control Clients must: • Monitor the work to ensure safety The Client can: • Stop the work if it involves unsafe practices • Auditing against agreed method statements is a good technique. Unit IGC1 Element 1.3 Role of National Governments and International Bodies Role of National Governments and International Bodies The Legal and Social Expectation Health and safety law is usually based on: • International standards from the International Labour Organisation • A country’s own health and safety standards
  10. 10. 10 Role of National Governments and International Bodies International Labour Organisation (ILO) • Agency of United Nations • Most countries are members • Sets international standards for H&S by publishing: – C155 OHS Convention (C155) – R164 OHS Recommendations (1981) Role of National Governments and International Bodies The International Framework Conventions • Create binding obligations or policies to implement their provisions ; • No legal authority, unless ratified by the member-state into its own legal structure. Recommendations • Provide guidance on policy, legislation and practice. Role of National Governments and International Bodies Regulatory International Frameworks Regulations adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO): • Occupational Safety and Health Convention (C155) - a goal setting policy for national and individual company level. • Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation 1981 (R164) - supplements Convention 155 and gives more guidance on obligations and how to comply with its policies. We'll talk about these a lot during the course! Role of National Governments and International Bodies Regulatory Frameworks ILO has also published Conventions associated with specific hazards: • C115 - Radiation Protection (1960) • C162 - Asbestos (1986) • C167 - H&S in Construction (1988) Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Other International Standards International Organisation for Standardisation • World's largest developer of management standards, for example: – ISO 9001 – Quality Management – ISO 14001 – Environmental Management – ISO 12100 – Safety of Machinery • These standards are not "law", they're good management practice • They lead to a worldwide common approach to good management Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Other International Standards • Internationally recognised standard for Occupational Health and Safety is OHSAS 18001 • Compatible with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001
  11. 11. 11 SCHEDULED ACTIVITIES – IGC1 Health and Safety Management Systems (HSMS) - Organising • Roles and Responsibilities • Health and Safety Culture • Factors influencing Safety related behaviour • Improving Safety related behaviour • Emergency Procedures & First Aid • Factors influencing Safety related behaviour Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Everybody - but most of the responsibility lies with the employer to provide: • Safe place of work; • Safe plant and equipment; • Safe systems of work; • Training and supervision and competency; • OHS arrangements in place; • Appropriate PPE and equipment. Q) Outline the role of the Employers in respect of health and safety at work. (4) Q) Outline the responsibilities of Employers in respect of health and safety at work. (4) Revision Questions: EXAM TECHNIQUES - VERB “ACTION” INSTRUCTIONS Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary To Outline: Give a clear description of the key (most important) features, facts or points of the events or issue that are involved and give a brief explanation of the reasons/points. To Describe: Provide a greater level of detail or a more “in-depth” explanation or description of the key issue or events. Include a “word picture” description of the key points also. Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? The Employer’s role- to provide • Safe place of work – and safe access and egress • Safe plant and equipment – the need to inspect, service and replace machinery will depend on the level of risk • Safe system of work – should be safe in all circumstances - appropriate review, planning and control ensure continued safety of methods • Training and supervision to ensure competency Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Employers’ Responsibilities Article 16 of C155 identifies obligations placed on employers: • To provide and maintain safe workplaces, machinery, equipment and work processes • To ensure that chemical, physical and biological substances and agents are without risk to health when protective measures have been taken • To provide adequate protective clothing and equipment (PPE) to prevent risks of accidents or adverse health effects
  12. 12. 12 Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Employers’ Responsibilities Article 10 of R164: • Provide and maintain safe workplaces, machinery and equipment and use working methods that are safe; • Give necessary instruction, training and supervision in application and use of health and safety measures; • Introduce organisational arrangements relevant to activities and size of undertaking; • Provide PPE and clothing without charge to workers; • Ensure that work organisation, particularly working hours and rest breaks, does not adversely affect occupational safety and health; • Take reasonably practical measures with a view to eliminating excessive physical and mental fatigue; • Keep up-to-date of scientific and technical knowledge to comply with the above. © RRC Training Organisational Health and Safety Roles and Responsibilities Employer: •The employer carries ultimate responsibility for ensuring that the workplace is safe and free of health and safety risks. Ensures the safety of workers and “others” e.g. visitors and contractors Directors and senior managers:  Give an organisation its direction  Set its priorities  Allocate resources and appoint competent persons  Allocate responsibilities  Are responsible for ensuring that all of the legal "What do you mean, 'we never got around to developing a strategic plan'?" Middle Managers and supervisors: are involved in the day-to-day operational running of the organisation so are responsible for the health and safety standards within the operations under their control. © RRC Training Organisational Health and Safety Roles and Responsibilities CONTRACTORS AND SELF-EMPLOYED: • To take reasonable care of their own health and safety and the health and safety of others who might be affected by their acts or omissions. DESIGNERS, MANUFACTURERS AND SUPPLIERS : • Designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers of items and substances form the “supply chain”. • They have responsibilities to ensure their products are safe. JOINT OCCUPIERS OF PREMISES • Under ILO Convention C155 – Article 17 and ILO Recommendation R164 – Article 11 Employers in shared facilities should communicate to develop appropriate health and safety standards and appropriate policies and procedures. • This may include:  sharing of procedures e.g. fire and emergency response  sharing of risk assessments Q) Outline the rights of workers in respect of health and safety at work. (4) Q) Outline the responsibilities of workers in respect of health and safety at work. (4) Revision Questions: © RRC Training Organisational Health and Safety Roles and Responsibilities •SAFETY SPECIALISTS: •Safety Specialists (or Practitioners) are responsible for giving correct advice to the organisation so that the organisation can meet its legal obligations and achieve its policy aims. • Typical responsibilities include:  Providing advice and guidance on health and safety standards.  Promoting a positive culture.  Advising management on accident prevention.  Developing and implementing policy.  Overseeing the development of adequate risk assessments.  Identifying training needs.  Monitoring health and safety performance.  Overseeing accident reporting and investigations. •WORKERS: Workers have a responsibility to take reasonable care of their own health and safety and that of other people who might be affected by what they do (or don't do). •Workers must also co-operate with their employer on matters of health and safety. •CONTROLLERS OF PREMISES •To the extent that they have control, controllers of premises are responsible for ensuring that the premises are safe to use as a workplace, and that there is safe access and egress to it and from it. Workers’ Rights and responsibilities Article 19 of C155 (ILO) states that every worker must be: Given adequate information on actions the employer has taken to ensure safety and health; Given the right to the necessary training in safety and health; Consulted by the employer on all matters of safety and health relating to their work; Given the right to leave a workplace which he has reason to think presents an imminent and serious danger to his life or health, and not be compelled to return until it is safe. Article 19 of C155 Places obligations on workers, expanded in R164 as follows: Take reasonable care of their own safety and that of other people. Comply with safety instructions. Use all safety equipment properly. Report any situation which they believe could be a hazard and which they cannot themselves correct. Report any work-related accident/ill-health. Source: C155 - Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155)
  13. 13. 13 Group Exercise Anyone affected by their business activities: • Visitors • Invited guests / uninvited trespassers • Lawful / unlawful (law differs from country to country) • Contractors • Members of the public Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Enforcement Agencies • No harmonised global standard • Country-specific agencies may include: – H&S Enforcement Agency – Fire Authority – Insurance Companies • Police may be involved in enforcing H&S law in some countries Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Consequences of non-compliance • Formal enforcement actions – Make necessary improvements, stop activities, comply with legislation; • Prosecution of organisation in criminal courts – Punishment in terms of fines or imprisonment; • Prosecution of individuals (directors, Managers and/or workers); • Compensation for injured workers. Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Consequences of Non-Compliance Breach of H&S legislation is usually a criminal offence leading to: • Enforcement action • Improvement • Prohibition • Prosecution • Organisation may be fined • Individuals may be fined or imprisoned Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Claims for Compensation Fault-Based Compensation Systems • Worker brings claim against employer; • Civil legal system; • Must prove employer was negligent and therefore to blame for injury/ill-health; • UK and USA. Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Claims for Compensation No-fault systems • National or regional schemes • No need to prove negligence • Decided by a panel of experts • No lawyers or courts • New Zealand and Sweden
  14. 14. 14 Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Sources of Information Internal • Accident records • Medical records • Risk assessments • Maintenance reports • Safety inspections • Audit reports • Safety committee minutes External • National legislation • Safety data sheets • Codes of practice • Guidance notes • Operating instructions • Trade associations • Safety publications Who’s responsible for Health and Safety? Source Organisations International Labour Organisation (UN) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA) European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU) Health and Safety Executive (UK) Worksafe (Western Australia) Focus Questions • Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system • Explain the purpose and importance of setting policy for health and safety • Describe the key features and appropriate content of an effective health and safety policy ILO-OSH 2001 Safety & Health Management System Follows the PDCA Cycle • Plan – what you’re going to do • Do – it! • Check – that what you’re doing is working • Act – if what you’re doing isn’t working as well as it should © RRC Training Key Elements of ILO-OSH 2001 • We will cover this in more detail in a minute… – Policy – Organising – Planning and Implementing – Evaluation – Action for Improvement – Audit • The system should develop over time to ensure continual improvement © RRC Training Key Elements of ILO-OSH 2001 • Policy – clear statement of commitment to health and safety • Organising – Roles and responsibilities for health and safety – At all levels in the organisation • Planning and Implementing – Detailed arrangements to manage H&S – Risk assessments!
  15. 15. 15 © RRC Training Key Elements of ILO-OSH 2001 • Evaluation – Methods to monitor and review the effectiveness of the arrangements • Action for Improvement – Steps to correct issues found in the review • Audit – Independent, critical and systematic review of the management system © RRC Training Focus questions • Outline the health and safety roles and responsibilities of employers, managers, supervisors, workers and other relevant parties • Explain the concept of health and safety culture and its significance in the management of health and safety in an organisation • Outline the human factors which influence behaviour at work in a way that can affect health and safety © RRC Training Reminder -What are the Employer's Four Duties? Safe Place of Work Safe Plant and Equipment Safe System of Work Training and Supervision © RRC Training Provide a definition of “safety culture”. The safety culture of an organisation is the shared attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviours relating to health and safety. Influenced by: • Management • Communication • Worker competence • Co-operation Provide indicators of a “poor” safety culture. Health and Safety Culture Indicators Poor health and safety culture leads to poor performance. The following things need to be spotted early:  Accident records  Sickness rates  Absenteeism  Staff turnover  Compliance with safety rules  Worker complaints  Staff morale Factors promoting a “negative” safety Culture  Lack of leadership from management  Presence of a blame culture  Lack of management commitment to safety  Health and safety a lower priority than other issues  Organisational changes  High staff turnover rates  Lack of resources e.g. too few workers, low investment  Interpersonal issues e.g. peer group pressure, bullying  External influences e.g. economic climate  Poor management systems and procedures  Lack of worker consultation Blame Culture What is it? Workers believe that if they report an incident or make a complaint, they are going to get: • Blamed • Punished • Sacked Reorganisation  Company takeover  Merger  Management buy-out  Change of management  Departmental restructure  Redundancy Leading to:  Concentration on the 'new order'  Uncertainty over roles and responsibilities Uncertainty Poor Leadership  No clear rules or policies  Decisions  Increases at times of change  Reduces morale  Focus moves away from H&S  No clear framework for decision-making  Individuals make their own decisions  Not in line with policy  Inconsistent  Frequently reversed  Influenced by personal reasons  Conflicting priorities  Poor communication  No consultation with workers
  16. 16. 16 Factors promoting a positive Safety Culture What would an organisation with a positive culture “look” and “feel” like? What characteristics would it demonstrate? In organisations with a positive safety culture… Health and safety is important to everyone There is strong policy and leadership Managers and directors lead on safety and workers believe in it Health and safety performance is good: People work safely There are fewer accidents and ill health events In organisations with a negative safety culture… Most feel safety isn’t important There is a lack of competence Safety is low priority Safety conscious workers are in minority Health and safety performance is poor There is a lack of attention to detail and procedure Lack of care and poor behaviour results in accidents Safety Related Behaviour Three significant factors influence worker behaviour: The Individual – Personal characteristics The Job – Nature of the job The Organisation – Characteristics of the business Graphic taken from HSG48 from Organisational Factors • Safety culture • Policies and procedures • Commitment and leadership from management • Consultation and worker involvement • Levels of supervision • Peer group pressure • Communication • Training • Work patterns Job Factors • Task • Workload • Environment • Displays and controls • Procedures Individual Factors • Competence • Skills • Attitude • Motivation • Risk Perception Attitude, Competence and Motivation • Attitude – A person’s point of view or way of looking at something; how they think and feel about it • Motivation – A person’s drive towards a goal; what makes them do what they do – Particular care needed with the use of financial incentives!
  17. 17. 17 Changing Attitude • Education & training • High impact intervention ("aversion therapy") • Enforcement • Consultation What is “Competence”? • A combination of: • Knowledge • Ability • Training • Experience • A competent person isn’t just one who is trained – nor is it someone who has been there a long time! Perception Perception: the way a person interprets information detected by their senses: • Sight • Hearing • Smell • Taste • Touch Perception Factors which can affect perception include: • Illness • Stress • Fatigue • Drugs and Alcohol • Previous experiences • Training and education Improving Hazard Perception • Understand why hazards are not noticed by talking to workers • Awareness campaigns/training • Highlight hazards e.g. signs • Ensure adequate lighting is available • Reduce distractions e.g. noise • Avoid excessive fatigue Management Commitment • Securing management commitment is essential – Senior managers provide leadership and motivation – Needs clear policy, priorities and targets • Commitment cascades down through the organisation • Requires visible leadership
  18. 18. 18 © RRC Training Group Syndicate Exercise • In groups discuss the leaders that you have worked with. What made them good (or bad) leaders, particularly on health and safety? • From here think about what managers can do to demonstrate their commitment to health and safety. © RRC Training Visible Commitment • Demonstrated by: – Behaving safely themselves – Involvement in the day to day management of safety – E.g. attending safety meetings – Taking part in safety tours and audits – Promoting activities to improve safety – Enforcing the rules © RRC Training Disciplinary Procedures • Sometimes rules are broken • Employees may endanger themselves or others • Ignoring issues can result in injuries • Sometimes it is necessary to use discipline to enforce the rules © RRC Training Who Would You Discipline • A supervisor who orders the team to cut corners to save time? • A reckless fork lift truck driver? • A persistent prankster? • An office worker who repeatedly fails to wear PPE when in the factory area? • A maintenance worker who doesn’t isolate a machine as the job was only 10 minutes? © RRC Training Competent Staff • Competence – Knowledge, ability, training, experience • Competent Managers – Understand the implications of their decisions on health and safety – Often a weakness! • Competent Staff – Enables job to be done safely © RRC Training Communication Individual Activity List as many methods of communicating in the workplace as you can think of, splitting your list into: ● Verbal communication ● Written communication ● Graphic communication What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method?
  19. 19. 19 © RRC Training Verbal Communication Limitations • Language barrier • Jargon • Strong accent/dialect • Background noise • Poor hearing • Ambiguity • Miss information • Forget information • No record • Poor quality (telephone or PA) Merits • Personal • Quick • Direct • Check understanding • Feedback • Share views • Additional information (Body language) © RRC Training Written Communication Limitations • Indirect • Time • Jargon/abbreviations • Impersonal • Ambiguous • May not be read • Language barriers • Recipient may not be able to read • No immediate feedback • Cannot question • Impaired vision Merits • Permanent record • Reference • Can be written carefully for clarity • Wide distribution relatively cheaply © RRC Training Graphic Communication Limitations • Very Simple • Expensive • May not be looked at • Symbols or pictograms may be unknown • Feedback • No questions • Impaired vision Merits • Eye-catching • Visual • Quick to interpret • No language barrier • Jargon-free • Conveys a message to a wide audience © RRC Training Communication Media • Posters • Video/films • Memos/emails • Employee handbooks • Toolbox talks © RRC Training Consultation With Workers • Often a legal requirement to consult with workers • Consultation is a two-way process – Managers inform workers of plans, etc. and listen to employee concerns © RRC Training Methods of Consultation • Direct consultation – Employer talks to each worker and resolves issues • Through worker representatives – Committee is formed to represent workers – Regular meetings to discuss and resolve issues – Members may have rights in law
  20. 20. 20 © RRC Training Typical Issues to Consult on: • Introduction of new measures affecting health and safety • Appointment of new advisors • Health and safety training plans • Introduction of new technology © RRC Training Co-operation & Consultation Negative Culture • Informing • Dictatorial approach Positive Culture • Consultation • Worker involvement © RRC Training Training Needs Analysis Describe what factors need to be considered for training in the workplace? Depends upon the nature and function of the organisation – The hazard and risk profile – The accident history of the organisation There may be statutory training requirements – The level of training previously provided, together with the detail of which employees have been trained and when. © RRC Training Training Helps workers to understand: • Hazards and risks • Rules and precautions • Emergency procedures • Limitations and restrictions © RRC Training Describe when it is important to provide training opportunities for employees Induction training − For new employees Job change − New hazards following a change in job Process change − New hazards associated with new ways of working New technology − New hazards associated with plant and machinery New legislation − Implications of the new legislation © RRC Training Post Training Activities • Maintain training records – Who attended which sessions and when • Carry out evaluation of effectiveness – Look for indicators such as: – Reduced incidents – Increased awareness – Improved compliance to rules
  21. 21. 21 © RRC Training New Employee Induction Topics • Health and safety policy • Emergency procedures • First aid • Welfare facilities • Safe movement • Accident and incident reporting • Consultation arrangements • Safety rules • Personal protective equipment • Safe working and permits • Risk assessment system Emergency Procedures: Q) Identify FOUR types of emergency that would require an organisation to have an emergency procedure. (4) Q) Explain why visitors to a workplace should be informed of it’s emergency procedure. (4) © RRC Training Emergency Procedures • Why do we need them? • Because despite all of the precautions, things can still go wrong! © RRC Training Group Syndicate Activity • Primary School – Fire, first aid, bomb threat (possibly), severe weather, outbreak of disease. • Chemical manufacturing plant – Fire, first aid (including multiple casualty incident), bomb threat, severe weather, outbreak of disease, chemical release, toxic chemical exposure. Possible outbreak of disease. • Shopping Centre – Fire, first aid, terrorist threats including bomb and/or suspect packages, multiple casualty incident, severe weather, crowd control/panic. Emergency Procedures The organisation needs to arrange: • Procedures to be followed • Suitable emergency equipment • Responsible staff • Training and information needs • Drills and exercises © RRC Training Contacting Emergency Services • Communication equipment – Phones, radios etc. • Contact Details – National and local emergency numbers • Responsible individuals – ESSENTIAL to understand who’s responsibility it is! – Must be trained
  22. 22. 22 © RRC Training First Aid An employer has a duty to make appropriate first-aid provision for his employees which include: • Facilities – An appropriate location where first-aid treatment can be given • Equipment – Suitably stocked first-aid kits and other equipment • Personnel – Trained staff Must inform people of these arrangements 'The 3 Ps' Basic principle of first-aid is to keep the injured person alive until professional medical assistance arrives, sometimes called 'The 3 Ps': P reserve life P revent deterioration P romote recovery Also provide treatment for minor injuries Personnel and Coverage Trained personnel: • First aider – full training • Appointed person – basic training only Coverage will depend on: • The general risk level of the workplace • The hazards present in the workplace • Accident history • Vulnerable persons • The number of workers • Work patterns and shift systems • Workplace location (geographic) • The spread of the workplace © RRC Training First Aid Facilities First Aid Room (possibly) • Centrally located; accessible by emergency services • Clean and adequately heated, ventilated and lit • Hand-wash facilities, chair, clinical waste bin, etc. Equipment • First aid boxes (minimum) • Plus - Eye-wash stations - Emergency showers - Blankets - Splints - Resuscitation equipment - Stretchers - Wheelchairs - Other equipment as required SCHEDULED ACTIVITIES – IGC1 Health and Safety Management Systems (HSMS) - Planning • Purpose and Importance of Planning • Risk Assessment Principles and Practice • Principles of control • Hierarchy of Risk Reduction Measures • Sources of Information • Developing Safe Systems of Work (SSW) • Permit to work Systems © RRC Training 4 Learning Outcomes On completion of this element, you should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular you should be able to: • Explain the importance of planning in the context of health and safety management systems • Explain the principles and practice of risk assessment • Explain the general principles of control and basic hierarchy of risk reduction measures • Identify key sources of health and safety information • Explain what factors should be considered when developing and implementing a safe system of work for general activities • Explain the role and function of a permit-to-work system
  23. 23. 23 © RRC Training Planning • 3rd Step in ILO-OHS 2001 • Part of PDCA cycle • Essential in the systematic management of health and safety © RRC Training SMART Objectives • Specific - clearly defined, precise • Measurable - towards a target, quantified • Achievable - it can be done • Reasonable - within timescale and resources • Time-bound - deadline, timescale e.g. review all 48 risk assessments within a 12 month period © RRC Training Setting Objectives • Setting objectives requires consideration of: – Who is setting objectives? – Managers? Safety advisors? • How will objectives be set at each functional level? – Cascaded throughout organisation – Linked to personal targets and appraisals? • Legal and other requirements – May link objectives to standards © RRC Training Setting Objectives • Requires consideration of: – Hazards and risks – Objectives aim to control risks in organisation • Technological options available – Adopt new technology • Financial/operational/business requirements – Integrate H&S with business objectives • Views of interested parties – Employees through consultation – Other stakeholders © RRC Training Keeping Up To Date • Essential to be up to date – Especially with law • Various methods including: – HSE newsletters - – EU law- – Websites - – Practitioner publications and subscriptions – Conferences © RRC Training Legal Requirements • ILO Convention C155 Article 15 • Imposes a duty to ensure a workplace is so far as is reasonably practicable without risk to employees.
  24. 24. 24 © RRC Training Reasonable Practicability • “reasonable practicability” – balance of cost vs risk of harm – Cost is time, effort and money • Basis of a risk assessment © RRC Training Hazard Categories • Physical – E.g. electricity, noise, vibration, radiation, machinery • Chemical – E.g. mercury, solvents, carbon monoxide • Biological – E.g. legionella bacteria, hepatitis • Ergonomic – E.g. manual handling, repetitive tasks • Psychological – E.g. stress, violence © RRC Training Objectives of Risk Assessment Prevent: • Death and personal injury • Other types of loss incident • Breaches of statute law which might lead to enforcement action and/or prosecution • The direct and indirect costs that follow on from accidents © RRC Training Types of Incident • Accident • Injury accident • Damage only accident • Near-miss • Dangerous occurrence • Work related Ill-health © RRC Training Relationship Between published by the Health and Safety Executive and licensed under the Open Government Licence v1.0 ( licence/): HSG245 Incident Types Hazard Near Miss Injury Risk Assessors • Competent people – training, knowledge, experience • Team approach is beneficial – workers familiar with tasks – H&S specialists – technical specialists – line managers – worker safety representatives
  25. 25. 25 Revision Questions: Q)Give the meaning of the term “Risk”. (4) • Risk is a measure of the likelihood of harm occurring and the severity of that harm Or to put it more simply: Risk = Likelihood × Severity © RRC Training Risk Assessment Q) Identify the stages of a risk assessment. (4) © RRC Training Hazard identification Safety - Physical injury: • Slips, trips and falls • Falling objects • Collisions • Trapping/crushing • Machinery • Electricity • Transport • Chemicals • Drowning • Asphyxiation • Fire/explosion • Animals • Violence Health Occupational disease or ill-health: • Physical • Chemical • Biological • Ergonomic • Psychological © RRC Training Identify the People at Risk • Employees • Maintenance staff • Cleaners • Contractors • Visitors • Members of the public (also trespassers) © RRC Training ● Qualitative (based on opinion) Uses words to describe likelihood and severity, e.g. high, medium, low, etc. ● Semi-Quantitative Uses words and numbers to describe likelihood and severity. Evaluate the Risk The Risk Evaluation can be: Likelihood Severity 1 = extremely unlikely 1 = very minor 2 = unlikely 2 = first-aid injury 3 = possible 3 = lost time injury 4 = likely 4 = hospital treatment 5 = very probable 5 = disabling injury © RRC Training Suitable and Sufficient Risk Assessment • State the name/competence of assessor • Identify significant hazards and risks • Identify persons at risk – Workers and others e.g. visitors and vulnerable • Evaluate current controls • Identify additional controls • Enable employer to prioritise controls • Appropriate to nature of work • Proportionate to risks • State time period valid
  26. 26. 26 © RRC Training Risk Assessment Matrix © RRC Training Semi-Quantitative Risk Evaluation Advantages of semi-quantitative risk evaluation: • Clarity of thinking • Consistency of approach • Prioritisation • Timescale Risk Rating Action and Timescales 15 and above Unacceptable 9 to 14 Tolerable 5 to 8 Tolerable (must be reduced to below 5) 4 or below Acceptable General Control Hierarchy E R I C Prevents Death (ERIC PD) • Eliminate the hazard • Reduce or substitute the hazard • Isolate (people from the hazard/ the hazard from people) Isolation, total enclosure, separation, segregation, partial enclosure, safety devices • Control exposure (safe conditions, engineering, procedures safe systems of work, reduced exposure, reduced time of exposure, dose, information, instruction, training and supervision) • Personal protective equipment • Discipline (SSOW, training, supervision, enforcement) © RRC Training Priorities and Timescales • High risk = high priority actions • Low risk = low priority BUT risk and timescale are not the same: • Low cost, easy actions should be done even if low priority • Medium priority still needs rapid action Hazard Identification • Task Analysis – analyses job components before the job starts • Legislation – standards, guidance documents • Manufacturers' Information – safe use, maintenance, cleaning • Incident Data – accidents, near-misses, ill-health © RRC Training Task Analysis S elect the task R ecord the stages of the task E valuate risks associated with each stage D evelop the safe working method I mplement the safe working method M onitor to ensure effectiveness
  27. 27. 27 © RRC Training Young Persons • Under 18 (national law) • Lack of experience • Physical and mental maturity • Poor risk perception • Influenced by peer group • Eager • Control measures: • prohibit certain high risk activities, e.g. high risk machinery • restrict work patterns and hours, e.g. no overtime • train and supervise Pregnant women Hazards: • Certain chemicals, e.g. lead • Certain biological agents, e.g. rubella virus • Manual handling • Temperature extremes • Whole body vibration • Ionising radiation • Night shifts • Stress • Violence Disabled Persons Identify: • Health and fitness criteria for some jobs – e.g. eyesight requirements to drive forklift trucks • Workers with known disabilities – What are the implications of their disability? Workers especially vulnerable and more at risk: • Of violence – e.g. prison officer, mental health nurse • If they are injured or ill – e.g. confined space entry Vulnerable Groups Lone Workers Revision Questions: Q) Identify EIGHT possible health and safety hazards relevant to the role of a long distance delivery driver. (8) © RRC Training Record Significant Findings Typical content: • Activity/area assessed and hazards • Groups at risk • Evaluation of risks and adequacy of existing control measures • Further precautions needed • Date and name of competent person • Review date © RRC Training Review and update Significant change in: • Process • Substances • Equipment • Workplace environment • Personnel • Law If it is no longer valid • Accident • Near miss • Ill-health Periodically e.g. annually © RRC Training Risk Assessment Q) Identify the stages of a risk assessment. (4) © RRC Training General Principles of Prevention Avoid risks Evaluate risks which cannot be avoided Control hazards at source Adapt work to suit the individual Adapt to technical progress Replace dangerous with less/non dangerous Coherent/overall prevention policy Give priority to collective protective measures Give appropriate instructions to employees
  28. 28. 28 Safe Place/Safe Person • Collective protective measures Protect the whole workplace and everyone in it • Safe place Design, selection and engineering of premises, plant, machinery, equipment, processes and substances • Safe person Competence of workers who have received adequate information, instruction and training and follow safe systems of work – Technical – Procedural – Behavioural © RRC Training Technical, Procedural and Behavioural Controls • Controls can be further classified as: • Technical – Equipment and engineered solutions • Procedural – Safe systems of work, procedures, permits • Behavioural – Training, awareness, competence Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Personal Protective Equipment Regulations 1992 Supply suitable PPE: • appropriate for risk • ergonomic • fits • doesn’t increase overall risk • complies with standards Ensure compatibility of items Suitable storage Information, instruction and training Enforce use of PPE Replace or repair damaged or lost items Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Benefits of PPE Limitations of PPE • Interim control • Some situations only control option • Emergency back up • Cheap (short term) • Immediate protection •Doesn’t remove hazard •Only protects the wearer •Requires good fit •Relies on wearer •Requires training •Uncomfortable •May increase overall risk •Incompatibility •Unpopular so often unworn •Fails to danger •No good if wrongly selected •Contamination •Expensive long term Sources of Information Internal • Accident records • Medical records • Risk assessments • Maintenance reports • Safety inspections • Audit reports • Safety committee minutes External • National legislation • Safety data sheets • Codes of practice • Guidance notes • Operating instructions • Trade associations • Safety publications © RRC Training Written Procedures • Written procedures: – Ensure consistency – Provides a basis for training – Establishes a standard (can be checked) – Provide a written record for incident investigations/regulatory inspections • Can be in many forms – Checklists – Short notes – Detailed manuals
  29. 29. 29 © RRC Training Technical, Procedural and Behavioural Controls • Safe system of work will contain: – Technical controls – “things and stuff” – Equipment provided/engineering controls • Procedural controls – Often explain the correct use of technical controls • Behavioural controls – How the workers behave – Training and supervision © RRC Training Developing SSoW - PEME • People – competence, ability • Equipment – plant, equipment, PPE •Materials – substances, articles, waste • Environment – space, lighting, heating © RRC Training Developing Safe Systems of Work © RRC Training Worked example – The Steps In Changing a Wheel • Step 1 – park the car in a safe location • Step 2 – remove equipment from boot • Step 3 – loosen wheel nuts • Step 4 – jack up car • Step 5 – remove wheel nuts • Step 6 – replace wheel and wheel nuts • Step 7 - lower car, remove jack • Step 8 – tighten wheel nuts • Step 9 - replace equipment in boot © RRC Training Implementing Controls • Often most difficult stage! • Consultation and engagement helps gain buy-in from workers • Allow concerns to be raised and addressed during development © RRC Training Instruction, Training and Monitoring • Information, Instruction, Training and Supervision (IITS)! • May need detailed training in the SSoW • Must monitor to ensure: – SSoW is being applied correctly – SSoW is as safe as was intended!
  30. 30. 30 © RRC Training Describe a specific examples of a SSoW and the controls you would put in place. • Confined spaces • Lone working • Travelling abroad Using PEME principles, what should be included in a SSW for each? Confined Space • Enclosed in nature (ventilation will be restricted and access/ egress may be difficult) • One or more foreseeable specified risks exist – Fire or explosion – Loss of consciousness from gas, fumes, vapour, lack of oxygen – Drowning – Asphyxiation from free flowing solid – Loss of consciousness from temperature © RRC Training Confined Space Control Measures • Do not work inside a confined space if possible • Carry out a risk assessment • Develop safe system of work • Emergency arrangements • Permit-to-work • Trained personnel Safe System of Work for Confined Spaces • Supervision • Competency • Communication • Atmospheric testing/monitoring • Ventilation • Removal of residues • Isolation, lock off of in-feeds and out-feeds • Isolation, lock off of electrical/mechanical hazards • PPE • Access/egress • Fire prevention • Lighting • Suitability of individuals • Emergency/rescue procedures © RRC Training Confined Spaces • Risk assessment by competent person • Controls implemented (already covered) • Safe system of work • Emergency arrangements Lone Workers “Workers who are separated from their work colleagues” • Lack assistance if things go wrong • Communication with colleagues more difficult, i.e. – out of eyesight – out of earshot
  31. 31. 31 © RRC Training Lone Working Examples • Maintenance workers • Service engineers e.g. gas, appliance • Garage forecourt attendants • Trainers / tutors • Security guards • Receptionists (sometimes) • Social workers/carers • Health visitors/district nurses • Painters/decorators • Sales representatives (on the road) © RRC Training Safe System of Work for Lone Working • No lone working for high risk activities, e.g. confined spaces • Remote supervision • Logging workers’ locations • Mobile phones or radios • Lone worker alarm systems • Procedures for lone workers • Emergency procedures • Training for workers © RRC Training Working and Travelling Abroad • Not the same as a holiday! – Brings additional hazards • Risks when travelling related to – Security – Health • Workers may also be “lone workers” • Some areas are not recommended for travel – see local websites e.g FCO at travel-advice-by-country/ © RRC Training Working Abroad Employers have a duty to workers whom they send to work abroad and should provide: • Pre- and post-visit briefings • Insurance • Health advice and vaccinations • Financial arrangements • Security training and advice • Cultural requirements advice • Accommodation • In-country travel • Emergency arrangements • 24-hour contacts © RRC Training Permit-to-Work System A formal, documented safety procedure, forming part of a safe system of work Typical applications: ● Hot work (involving naked flames or creation of ignition sources) ● High voltage electrical systems ● Confined space ● Operational pipelines ● Excavation near buried services ● Complex machinery ● Working at height Permit-to-Work Consists of 4 elements: 1. Issue 2. Receipt 3. Clearance/return to service 4. Cancellation May also be an extension
  32. 32. 32 © RRC Training Permit-to-Work System • Issue – Pre Job Checks – Description of work to be carried out – Description of plant and location – Assessment of hazards – Identification of controls – Additional permits e.g. hot work – Isolation of services – PPE – Emergency procedures © RRC Training Permit-to-Work System • Receipt – handover of permit – Competent and authorised person issues permit to workers – Workers sign to say they accept controls • Work can now start • Plant is now under the control of the workers © RRC Training Permit-to-Work System • Clearance – hand back of permit – Workers sign to say they have left the job site and equipment can restart. • Cancellation – Authorised person accepts plant back and can remove isolations etc. • Plant is now returned to the control of the “site” © RRC Training Importance of Permit Control • Poorly implemented permits are useless • Piper Alpha disaster was the failure of a permit to work system • People must be trained in use • Permits never issued from a desk • System must be monitored Government Licence v1.0 ( doc/open-government-licence/): © RRC Training Hot Work Controls • Remove flammable materials • Fire retardant blankets/screens • Floor swept of debris • Floors damped down if necessary • Fire extinguishers at hand • “Fire watcher” present • Post work checks to ensure no smouldering embers © RRC Training Work on Live Electrical Systems • Work must be justified – Not possible to work dead • Precautions in place • Workers are competent
  33. 33. 33 © RRC Training Machinery Maintenance • Work is carefully planned and controlled – May be several people working • Hazards are communicated • Services are isolated and locked off • Stored energy is released • Workers are competent © RRC Training Work at Height • Avoidance if possible • Prevention of falls by using – safe platform with adequate edge protection • Minimise distance and consequence of fall – PPE and fall arrest devices • Weather conditions considered – Wind, ice/snow SCHEDULED ACTIVITIES – IGC1 Health and Safety Management Systems (HSMS) – Measurement, Audit and Review • Active vs Reactive Monitoring • Auditing OSHM’s • Incident Investigations • Recording and Reporting Incidents • OHSM’s Performance reviews © RRC Training FOCUS QUESTIONS • Outline the principles, purpose and role of active and reactive monitoring • Explain the purpose of, and procedures for, health and safety auditing • Explain the purpose of, and procedures for, investigating incidents (accidents, cases of work-related ill-health and other occurrences) • Describe the legal and organisational requirements for recording and reporting incidents • Explain the purpose of and, procedures for, regular reviews of health and safety performance © RRC Training Active and Reactive Monitoring What is the difference between Active and Reactive monitoring? Active • Looking at control measures to see if they are correct and being used before accidents, etc. are caused • Measures progress Reactive • Using accident, incident and ill-health data to highlight areas of concern • Measures failure © RRC Training Reactive Monitoring • Dealing with things that went wrong! • Accidents, incidents, ill-health, other unwanted events and situations – highlights areas of concern – things that have already gone wrong – measures failure • 2 methods – lessons from one specific event, e.g. an accident – data collected over a period
  34. 34. 34 © RRC Training Systematic Inspections Observation Plant Premises • Machinery • Vehicles • Workplace • Environment Interviewing People • Working methods • Behaviour Examination Procedures • Safe systems • Method statements • Permits-to-work © RRC Training Safety Inspections, Sampling, Surveys and Tours Safety Inspection • Examination of workplace, statutory inspection, plant and machinery, pre-use checks Safety Sampling • Representative sample to judge compliance • Less time-consuming Safety Survey • Detailed examination of one issue, topic Safety Tour • High profile inspection by managers • Can be used to observe behaviours too © RRC Training Performance Standards Conformance/non-conformance with standards: • Number and quality of risk assessments • Health and safety training to schedule • Consultative committee meetings to schedule • Workplace inspections to schedule © RRC Training Workplace Inspections Factors to consider: • Type of inspection • Frequency of inspection • Allocation of responsibilities • Competence of the inspector • Objectivity of inspector • Use of checklists • Action planning for problems found • Training for inspectors © RRC Training Workplace Inspections What topics could be considered in a general workplace inspection? Typical topics: • Fire safety • Housekeeping • Environment issues • Traffic routes • Chemical safety • Machinery safety • Electrical safety • Welfare facilities © RRC Training Example Inspection System Bank head office: • Purpose – monitor H&S standards • Frequency – monthly • Persons responsible – managers at different levels • Competence – one day course • Inspection checklist – general checklist, tailored if required • Follow up arrangements – an action plan
  35. 35. 35 © RRC Training Use of Checklists Advantages • Ensures all points covered • Consistent approach • Form of written record Disadvantages • May ignore items not on checklist © RRC Training Other Standards • Health Surveillance – Monitoring worker health - a proactive measure – Shows effectiveness of controls • Benchmarking – Comparison to other organisations – Can compare between sectors Group Syndicate Exercise In groups, list the topic headings that should be included on an inspection checklist for use in your workplace. Design a rough format for the inspection checksheet. © RRC Training Allocation of Responsibilities • Inspections must follow through into action. Action required Responsible person Date Due Repair damaged fire extinguisher bracket Maintenance technician By 15th July 2011 © RRC Training Effective Report Writing Style – formal, free of jargon or slang, factual, persuasive, clear, concise Structure – executive summary, introduction, main body, recommendations, conclusions Content – significant findings, evidence of findings Justified recommendations – moral, legal, economic arguments, action plan Recommended action Priority Timescale Responsible Person Tidy the office Medium 1 week Office Supervisor © RRC Training Statistics Data collected and reported about: • Accidents • Dangerous occurrences • Near-misses • Ill-health cases • Worker complaints • Enforcement action Assist in analysing • Trends – events over a period of time • Patterns – hot spots of certain types, e.g. injury
  36. 36. 36 © RRC Training Group Discussion Point • An organisation has 2 sites carrying out similar operations • Company A has 300 workers and has had 10 accidents • Company B has 150 workers and has had 5 accidents • Which has the “better” safety performance? © RRC Training Accident Rate Accident Incidence Rate (AIR) 'accidents per 1000 workers' AIR = Number of accidents during a specific period  1000 Average number of workers during the same period © RRC Training Use of Statistics • Potential issues • Data may be manipulated • Incidents may go unreported • Sudden increase in reporting of incidents can suggest a decrease in performance – Could be due to improved reporting. © RRC Training Other Reactive Measures • Enforcement actions • Often required during pre-tender qualifications • Civil claims • Total cost of claims can be calculated • May be affected by: – Advertising campaigns – Dissatisfaction with organisation Revision Questions: Q)Identify FOUR types of health and safety information that could be displayed on a notice board within a workplace. (4) Q) Identify FOUR “active “monitoring methods (4) Q) Explain Four “reactive” monitoring methods. (4) © RRC Training End of Section Quiz 1. What is meant by active monitoring? 2. What is meant by reactive monitoring? 3. Give examples of active monitoring techniques 4. What topics could be considered in a general workplace inspection? 5. What are accident rates used for?
  37. 37. 37 Unit IGC 1 Element 5.2 Health and Safety Auditing © RRC Training Health and Safety Audits Define Auditing. Auditing is the: • systematic • objective • critical evaluation of an organisation’s health and safety management system © RRC Training Group Discussion Point What is the difference between an audit and an inspection? © RRC Training Distinction Between Audit and Inspection What is the difference between an audit and a workplace inspection? Audit • Examines documents • Examines procedures • Interviews workers • Verifies standards • Checks the workplace • Can be a long process • Usually expensive • Requires a high level of competence Inspection • Checks the workplace • Checks records • Usually quick • Lower cost • May only require basic competence • Part of an audit © RRC Training Pre Audit Preparations The following should be defined: • Timescales • Scope of the audit • Area and extent of the audit • Who will be required • What documentation will be required • Auditor competence • Time and resources for auditors © RRC Training During the Audit Auditors use three methods to gather information: • Paperwork - documents and records • Interviews - managers and workers • Observation - workplace, equipment, activities and behaviour
  38. 38. 38 © RRC Training Documents Identify the written information that is likely to be examined during a health and safety audit. (8) Typical information examined during an audit: • Health and safety policy • Risk assessments • Training records • Minutes of safety committee meetings • Maintenance records • Record of monitoring activities • Accident investigation reports and data • Emergency arrangements • Inspection reports from insurance companies • Regulator visitors • Worker complaints © RRC Training The End of the Audit Verbal feedback session • To managers • Highlights of the audit Written Report to Management • Findings • Recommendations • Priorities and timescales © RRC Training Responsibility for the Audit • The organisation • External authorities: – enforcement agencies – insurance companies – accreditation centre's (OHSAS 18001, etc.) It is the responsibility of management at all levels to ensure recommendations for improvement are communicated and implemented © RRC Training Whole Group Exercise Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of an external and an internal audit © RRC Training External Audits Advantages Disadvantages External Audits • Independent of any internal influence • Fresh pair of eyes • May have wider experienced at auditing • Experience of different types of workplace • Recommendations often carry more weight • Up to date with law • More able to be critical • Expensive • Time consuming • May not understand the business so make impractical suggestions • May intimidate workers so get incomplete evidence © RRC Training Internal Audits Advantages Disadvantages Internal Audits • Less expensive • Auditors are already familiar with the workplace and what is practicable • Can see changes since last audit • Improves ownership of issues found • Builds competence internally • Workplace more at ease • Familiarity with workplace and individuals • Auditors may not notice certain issues • Auditors may not have good knowledge of industry or legal standards • Auditors may not possess auditing skills so may need training • Auditors are not independent so may be subject to internal influence
  39. 39. 39 © RRC Training Correcting Non-Conformities Major non-conformance • Significant issue, needs urgent action Minor non-conformance • Less serious issue, unlikely to result in injury or failure of management system • Observations • Opinion given by auditor © RRC Training End of Section Quiz 1. Define “auditing”. 2. What is the difference between an audit and a workplace inspection? 3. What types of information might be examined during an audit? Unit IGC 1 Element 5.3 Investigating Incidents © RRC Training Incident Investigations Why should an organisation carry out reviews of health and safety performance? • Identify the causes • Prevent recurrence • Collect evidence • Legal reasons • Insurance purposes • Staff morale • Disciplinary purposes • To update risk assessments • Discover trends © RRC Training Types of Incidents Near-miss An unplanned, unwanted event that had the potential to lead to injury, damage or loss but did not Accident An unplanned, unwanted event which leads to injury, damage or loss • Injury accident - where the unplanned, unwanted event leads to some sort of personal injury, e.g. a cut hand • Damage only accident - where the unplanned, unwanted event leads to equipment or property damage but not personal injury, e.g. a wall is demolished Types of Incidents Dangerous occurrence • A specified event that has to be reported to the relevant authority by statute law, e.g. a major gas leak • Ill-health • A disease or medical condition that is directly attributable to work, e.g. dermatitis as a result of exposure to skin irritants
  40. 40. 40 © RRC Training Level of Investigation Minor incidents • Investigated by line manager Major incidents, more complex events or incidents with high potential • Investigated by a team – Safety specialist – Senior Manager – Technical specialist – Worker representative Whole Group Activity Discuss the first thing you should do when arriving at an accident scene and then the later steps Consider what type of equipment you may need to assist you Basic Investigation Procedure Safety of the scene Is the area safe to approach? Is immediate action needed to eliminate danger before casualties are approached? Casualty care First-aid treatment Hospitalisation – Also consider that bystanders may be in shock © RRC Training Basic Investigation Procedure Step 1 • Gather factual information Step 2 • Analyse the information and draw conclusions Step 3 • Identify suitable control measures Step 4 • Plan the remedial action Step 1 - Gathering Information Secure the scene Identify witnesses Collect factual information − Photo/sketch − Measurements − Notes − Mark up plans − Samples Interview witnesses Examine documents Witness Interview Technique Quiet room, no distractions Establish a rapport Explain the purpose, not about blame Use open questions, e.g. Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? Keep an open mind Take notes Ask for a written statement Thank the witness
  41. 41. 41 Document Examination • Site plans • Company health and safety policy • Risk assessments • Training records • Safe systems of work • Permits-to-work • Maintenance records • Previous accident reports • Sickness records Step 2 – Analysing Information Immediate Causes: • Unsafe acts • Unsafe conditions Underlying or Root Causes: • Reasons behind the immediate causes • Often failures in the management system – No supervision – No PPE provided – No training – No maintenance – No checking or inspections – Inadequate or no risk assessments © RRC Training Forklift Truck Accident A worker is struck by a load being carried on a pallet by a forklift truck. Outline possible immediate and underlying causes of the accident. Immediate Causes: – Failure to secure the pallet – Poor positioning of the truck close to the pedestrian exit – Aggressive braking by the driver – Inattentive pedestrian steps into the path of the forklift truck Underlying or Root Causes: • No training for the driver • Lack of segregation of vehicles and pedestrians • Poor driver induction • Poor truck maintenance • No refresher training © RRC Training Step 3 – Identifying Suitable Control Measures For Immediate Causes • Clean up the spill • Replace the missing guard • Relocate the trailing cable For Underlying or Root Causes • More difficult • Need to make changes in management system © RRC Training Step 4 – Plan the Remedial Actions • Dangerous conditions must be dealt with immediately • Interim actions may be possible • Underlying causes will require more complex actions – will take time, effort, disruption, money – need for prioritisation Recommended action Priority Timescale Responsible Introduce induction training for all new FLT drivers Medium 1 month Warehouse Manager © RRC Training End of Section Quiz 1. What are the main reasons for reporting an incident? 2. What are the main reasons for investigating an incident? 3. Who might investigate a minor injury to a worker which had no real potential to be worse? 4. Who might a major incident be investigated? 5. What are the 4 key steps in incident investigation?
  42. 42. 42 Unit IGC 1 Element 5.4 Reporting and Recording Incidents © RRC Training Internal Incident Reporting What are the main reasons for reporting an incident? Reasons for reporting incidents: • To trigger the provision of first aid • Preserve accident scene • Enable investigations to be carried out to prevent recurrence • Legal requirement to report some incidents • Record for civil claims © RRC Training Group Syndicate Exercise What sort of things are likely to hinder good accident and near-miss reporting? What can an organisation do to make it more likely that incidents will be reported? What sort of things are likely to hinder good accident and near-miss reporting? © RRC Training Barriers to Reporting What sort of things are likely to hinder good accident and near-miss reporting? • Unclear organisational policy • No reporting system in place • Culture of not reporting (peer pressure) • Overly-complicated reporting procedures • Excessive paperwork • Takes too much time • Blame culture • Apathy – poor management response • Concern over impact on organisation/individuals • Reluctance to receive first aid © RRC Training Accident Record Contents A worker is struck by a load being carried on a pallet by a forklift truck. Outline possible immediate and underlying causes of the accident. • Name and address of casualty • Date and time of accident • Location of accident • Details of injury • Details of treatment given • Description of event causing injury • Details of any equipment or substances involved • Witnesses’ names and contact details • Details of person completing the record • Signatures Internal and External Incident Reporting Will depend upon the severity: Internal External • Directors • Senior managers • Human resources managers • Health, Safety Environmental Advisors • Worker representatives • Family of the casualty • External authorities • Insurance companies • Public relations advisors
  43. 43. 43 © RRC Training Externally Reportable Events • Some incidents need to be reported to regulator by law, e.g. − Fatality − Major injury − Dangerous occurrence − Disease − Lost time injuries Data Collection & Analysis Analysis of data: • What is the trend in accident/incidence rate over the past 5 years? • What are the most common types of accident? • What are the most common types of injury? • Between what times of the day do most accidents occur? • Which part of the body is most frequently injured? • Which department has the highest accident rate? • What is the accident rate trend for a particular part of the organisation? • Where do most accidents occur in the workplace? © RRC Training Lessons Learnt • Action taken as a result of incident • Published internally as “lessons learned” − Shows company commitment to improving − Allows improvements to be made • Maintain confidentiality! © RRC Training End of Section Quiz 1. Why might an employee not report an incident? 2. What are the typical contents of an internal incident report form? 3. Why is incident data collected? Unit IGC 1 Element 5.5 Review of Health and Safety Performance © RRC Training Levels of Review • Full management system review − By the board, annually • Management team review − Every quarter, feeds to full review • Departmental review − Monthly, by line manager to ensure on track
  44. 44. 44 Reasons for Having Regular Reviews • Are we on target? • If not, why not? • What do we have to change to continually improve? • Essential part of management system • Requirement of ISO certification Whole Group Exercise What measurements of health and safety performance should be included in the annual review? © RRC Training Performance Indicators • Compliance with legal and organisational requirements, new developments • Accident and incident data + corrective actions • Inspections, surveys, tours, sampling • Absence and sickness data • Quality assurance reports • Audit reports • Monitoring data/records • External communications and complaints • Consultation results • Achievement of objectives • Enforcement action • Actions from previous management reviews © RRC Training Outputs from Review • Management reports − Minutes circulated − Records maintained − Actions closed out • Annual report to shareholders − For some organisations • Continual Improvement © RRC Training Continuous Improvement Review evaluates performance against standards – Action taken as a result to improve • Board/Senior managers – Set targets as a result of review/amend policy • Middle Managers – Review performance – Set targets for their area • Junior Managers – Review local performance – Set targets for their area © RRC Training End of Section Quiz 1. Why should an organisation carry out reviews of health and safety performance? 2. What should be considered in the management review of health and safety performance?
  45. 45. 45 Revision Questions: Q) Give (Define) the meaning of the term “ergonomics” (3) Q) Identify the possible health effects that may be caused by the poor ergonomic design of display screen equipment workstations. (3) Q) Identify the factors to be considered in an ergonomic assessment of a display screen equipment workstation. (14) Revision Questions: Absorbent mats and granules have been used to soak up a chemical spillage. Q) Outline the issues that will need to be considered in relation to the handling, temporary storage and final disposal of the waste material. (8) Revision Questions: Q) Identify the main hazards associated with demolition work (8) Revision Questions: Q) Identify the main types of hazards that may cause slips or trips at work (4) Q) Identify control measures to reduce risk from slip and trip hazards in the workplace. (4) Revision Questions: Q) Outline the factors that may lead to unacceptable levels of occupational stress amongst workers. (8) A worker is manually loading boxes of components onto metal shelves.. Q) Identify FOUR types of injury that the worker could suffer while carrying out this activity. (4) Q) Identify factors in relation to the task that could increase the risk of injury (4) Revision Questions:
  46. 46. 46 Revision Questions: Q) Identify TWO forms of hazardous substances (2) Q) Outline the personal hygiene controls to be followed to reduce risk of ingestion of a hazardous substance. (6) Summary and wrap-up • What else do I need to know. • Assessment – Session expectations / competency. • Feedback & reminders. • Evaluation - Check for understanding. • Remember – Follow-up communication & car-park questions.