SCOPE All the content, topics, learning experiences and organizing threads comprising the educational plan. (Tyler in Ornstein – 2004) Provides boundaries in the curriculum as it applies to the different educational levels. It is here where the decision making skill of the teacher is needed. Can divided into chunks – units, sub-units, chapters.
SEQUENCE A particular order in which related events, movements, or things follow each other. Vertical relationship among the elements to provide continuous and cumulative learning 4 Principles (Smith, Stanley, Shore – 1957) Simple to Complex Learning Prerequisite Learning Whole to Part Learning Chronological Learning
SEQUENCE (cont.) 5 Major Principles in Organizing contents in units (Posner, Rudnitsky – 1994) 1. World–related sequence Space Time Physical Attributes 2. Concept-related sequence Class relations Propositional relations
CONTINUITY The unbroken and consistent existence or operation of something over a period of time. Enables the learner to strengthen the permanency of learning and development of skills. “Spiral Curriculum” – content is organized according to the interrelationship between the structure of the basic ideas of a major discipline. (Gerome Bruner)
INTEGRATION “Everything is integrated and interconnected. Life is a series of of emerging themes.”ARTICULATION Can be done vertically or horizontally.BALANCE To establish this, equitable assignment of content, time, experiences and other elements.
GUIDELINES IN CURRICULUMDESIGN Curriculum design committee should involve teachers, parents, administrators and students. School’s vision, mission, goals and objectives should be reviewed and used as a bases for curriculum design. The needs and interests of the learners, in particular, and the society, in general, should be considered. Alternative curriculum design should consider pros and cons in terms of costs, scheduling, class size, facilities and personnel required. The curriculum design should take into account cognitive, affective, psychomotor skills and outcomes.