Poetry terminology


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slides I used during my Poetry lesson

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Poetry terminology

  1. 1. T. Ionell
  2. 2. Poetry  A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)
  3. 3. Point of View in Poetry POET SPEAKER The poet is the author  The speaker of the of the poem. poem is the “narrator” of the poem.
  4. 4. Poetry Form FORM - the A word is dead appearance of the words on the page When it is said, Some say. LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem I say it just Begins to live STANZA - a group of lines arranged together That day.
  5. 5. Kinds of Stanzas Couplet a two line stanza Triplet (Tercet) a three line stanza Quatrain a four line stanza Quintet a five line stanza Sestet (Sextet) a six line stanza Septet a seven line stanza Octave an eight line stanza
  6. 6. Some Types of Poetry we will be Studying
  7. 7. Lyric A short poem Usually written in first person point of view Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene Does not tell a story and are often musical
  8. 8. Narrative Poems A poem that tells a Examples of Narrative story. Poems Generally longer than the lyric styles of “The Raven” poetry because the “The Highwayman” poet needs to establish characters and a plot. “Casey at the Bat” “The Walrus and the Carpenter”
  9. 9. Types ofLyricPoetry
  10. 10. Haiku A Japanese poem written in three lines Five Syllables An old silent pond . . . Seven Syllables A frog jumps into the pond. Five Syllables Splash! Silence again.
  11. 11. Ode When first the fiery mantled SunA formal poem His heavenly race began to runhaving a complex Round the earth and ocean bluestanza pattern and it His children four the Seasons flew;- First, in green apparel dancingis addressed to an The young Spring smiled with angel-grace;object or an idea. Rosy Summer, next advancing Rush’d into her sire’s embrace- Her bright-hair’d sire, who bade her keep For ever nearest to his smiles On Calpe’s olive-shaded steep Or India’s citron-cover’d sles More remote and buxom-brown Thomas Campbell, The Queen of vintage bow’d before his throne; “Ode to Winter” A ripe sheaf bound her zone.
  12. 12. Elegy A solemn and dignified poem for mourning someone’s death. I before my death We are neither afraid of death, Have composed, Nor covetous for life, An elegy of the Earth, We only wish to relish in full, Which (after war) Our natural life before the final ruin, Roodali of the Air will sing, And it is our right too. Weeping and wailing, If war is indispensable, Sitting amid the burnt We shall fight it only for our Decomposed bodies. existence, The Decree of Death For our dreams are not Has been written, The fuel for the wars being fought on On the pale forehead of the Earth; rent. Muhammad Shanazar Only time is to be fixed. “An Elegy of the Earth”
  13. 13. Shakespearian SonnetA fourteen line poem Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. with a specific Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, rhyme scheme. And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.The poem is written in Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, three quatrains and And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair from fair sometimes declines, ends with a couplet. By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed.The rhyme scheme is But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;abab cdcd efef gg Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st William Shakespeare So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, “Sonnet 18” So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
  14. 14. Types ofNarrative Poetry
  15. 15. Ballad When Princes and Prelates, A narrative poem that is And hot-headed zealots, mostly set into music. A’ Europe had set in a low, a low, Subjects for these poems The poor man lies down, are usually of folk origin. Nor envies a crown, It could also mean a song And comforts himself as he dow, as he dow, of romantic or sentimental And comforts himself as he dow. nature. The black-headed eagle, A refrain may be seen in As keen as a beagle, He hunted o’er height and o’er howe, the middle or end of the In the braes o’ Gemappe, poem. He fell in a trap, E’en let him come out as he dow, dow Robert Burns E’en let him come out as he dow… “A Tippling Ballad”
  16. 16. Epic (Folk) The glory of battle went to Beowulf, and A long narrative poem of serious tone and usually Grendel, mortally wounded, sought his sad home under the fen slope.He centers on the hero or knew surely that his life had reached its end, heroine. the number of his days gone. The hero tracks a great The hope of the Danes had come to pass—He who came from far had quest or journey and faces cleansed Hrothgars hall great enemies and and saved it from affliction. troubles. They rejoiced it that A folk epic is composed nights work. Beowulf had fulfilled his promise orally and then passed to the Danes and all from generations. the distress they had endured, Excerpts from all the trouble and sorrow, “Beowulf” had reached an end.
  17. 17. Epic (Literary) Farewell, happy fields, Literary epics are Where joy for ever dwells! Hail, horrors! hail, those that are Infernal world! and thou, profoundest Hell, attributed to known Receive thy new possessor--one who brings authors. A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath made greater? Here at least We shall be free; th Almighty hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive us hence: Here we may reign secure; and, in my choice, John Milton To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Book I of “Paradise Lost” Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven
  18. 18. Metrical Tale A type of objective Who so shall telle a tale after a man, poetry reflecting He moste reherse, as neighe as ever he medieval age can, Such poetry is Everich word, if it be in his charge, characterized by two: All speke he never so rudely and so feudal system and large; unscientific outlook of Or elles he moste tellen his tale the people untrewe, Or feinen thinges, or finden wordes newe. Geoffrey Chaucer Excerpts from Canterbury Tales Line 733
  19. 19. Types ofModernPoetry
  20. 20. Cinquain A five line poem containing 22 syllables Two Syllables How frail Four Syllables Above the bulk Six Syllables Of crashing water hangs Eight Syllables Autumnal, evanescent, wan Two Syllables The moon.
  21. 21. Acrostic Poems A poem based from the first letters of a specified subject or theme.
  22. 22. Concrete Poems Poetry In concrete poems, the Is like Flames, words are arranged to Which are create a picture that Swift and elusive relates to the content Dodging realization of the poem. Sparks, like words on the Paper, leap and dance in the Flickering firelight. The fiery Tongues, formless and shifting Shapes, tease the imiagination. Yet for those who see, Through their mind’s Eye, they burn Up the page.
  23. 23. Diamante Poems Made up of seven lines in which the words form a diamond Noun 1 MountainTwo adjectives for 1 High, rocky Three verbs for 1 Flying, looking, killing Nouns for 1/ for 2 Eagle, power, fear, rabbit Three verbs for 2 Living, moving, making-noiseTwo adjectives for 2 Deep, beautifulNoun 2 (opposite 1) Valley
  24. 24. http://www.types-of-poetry.org.uk/ This site gives you poems in ABC order with definitions andexamples for each kind of poem!
  25. 25. Language of Poetry
  26. 26. Rhythm  The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem  Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain.
  27. 27. Meter A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern. When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They repeat the pattern throughout the poem.
  28. 28. Meter FOOT - unit of meter.  TYPES OF FEET A foot can have two or The types of feet are three syllables. determined by the Usually consists of arrangement of one stressed and one stressed and or more unstressed unstressed syllables. syllables. (cont.)
  29. 29. Types of Feet Iambic - unstressed, stressed My mind / to me / a king / dom is / Trochaic - stressed, unstressed Listen, / lords and / ladies / gay / Anapestic - unstressed, unstressed, stressed All at once / and all o’er / with a might- / y uproar / Dactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed Heed not the / corpse, though a / king in your / path / Spondee – stressed, stressed Rocks, caves, / lakes, fens / and shades of death /
  30. 30. Activity: Feet What is the apparent type of feet in these poetic lines? 1. We were very tired, we were very Trochee merry 2. My heart is like a singing bird Iamb 3. Take her up tenderly Dactyl 4. There are many who say that a Anapest dog has his day 5. Smart lad to slip betimes away Spondee
  31. 31. Kinds of Metrical Lines one foot on a line monometer “Love is not love which two feet on a line dimeter alters when it alteration three feet on a line trimeter finds” four feet on a line tetrameter -William Shakespeare, five feet on a line pentameter Sonnet 116 six feet on a line hexameterseven feet on a line heptameter eight feet on a line octometer “Love is / not love / which al / ters when / it al / tera / tion finds” Pentameter (five feet )
  32. 32. Activity: Meter Create a short rap with pentameter metrical lines about your favorite animal or your pet. Then, during your rap, perform it with the type of feet the teacher assigns you.
  33. 33. Free Verse Poetry Unlike metered  Free verse poetry is poetry, free verse very conversational - poetry does NOT have sounds like someone any repeating patterns talking with you. of stressed and unstressed syllables.  A more modern type Does NOT have of poetry. rhyme.
  34. 34. Blank Verse Poetry from Julius Ceasar Written in lines of iambic Cowards die many times before their deaths; pentameter, but The valiant never taste of death but once. does NOT use Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, end rhyme. It seems to me most strange that men should fear; Seeing that death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come.
  35. 35. Rhyme Words sound alike because they share the LAMP same ending vowel and consonant sounds. STAMP  Share the short “a” (A word always vowel sound rhymes with itself.)  Share the combined “mp” consonant sound
  36. 36. End Rhyme A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line Hector the Collector Collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring.
  37. 37. Internal Rhyme A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. From “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe
  38. 38. Near Rhyme a.k.a imperfect rhyme, close rhyme ROSE LOSE The words share EITHER the same  Different vowel vowel or consonant sounds (long “o” and sound BUT NOT “oo” sound) BOTH  Share the same consonant sound
  39. 39. Activity: Rhyme What kind of rhyme is characterized by these poetic lines?1. I never saw a purple cow But I can tell you anyhow…2. I never hope to see one I’d rather see than I am on3. Among the gusty trees the moon was a ghostly galleon tossed upon cloudy seas
  40. 40. Rhyme Scheme A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always). Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example.)
  41. 41. Rhyme Scheme The Germ by Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, a Though smaller than the pachyderm. a His customary dwelling place b Is deep within the human race. b His childish pride he often pleases c By giving people strange diseases. c Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? a You probably contain a germ. a
  42. 42. Activity: Rhyme What are the rhymes in the poem “The Lone Dog” by Irene Rutherford McLeod?I’m a lean dog, a keen dog, a wild dog and loneI’m a rough dog, a tough dog, hunting on my own;I’m a bad dog, a mad dog, teasing silly sheepI love to sit and bay the moon, to keep fat souls from sleep
  43. 43. Activity: Rhyme Search for a song with end, internal or near rhymes. Then, sing a line of the song to the class with defined rhymes and explain the rhymes afterwards.
  44. 44. Onomatopoeia Words that imitate the sound they are naming BUZZ OR sounds that imitate another sound “The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain . . .”
  45. 45. Alliteration Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?
  46. 46. Activity: Alliteration Form a sentence with alliterative words containing it. The letter you shall consider must be the first letter of your name. If possible, insert your name as subject or object in the sentence.
  47. 47. Consonance Similar to alliteration EXCEPT . . . The repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words “silken, sad, uncertain, rustling . . “
  48. 48. Assonance Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry. (Often creates near rhyme.) Lake Fate Base Fade (All share the long “a” sound.)
  49. 49. AssonanceExamples of ASSONANCE: “Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.” - John Masefield “Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.” - William Shakespeare
  50. 50. Activity: Repetition What kind of repetition is characterized in these poetic lines?1. Spotted kitten slept quietly on matted fur2. Young fuzzy puppy on a club in the hub3. Oh, the cobbles, he cluttered and clashed in the dark innyard
  51. 51. Refrain A sound, word, phrase “Quoth the raven, or line repeated regularly in a poem. ‘Nevermore.’”
  52. 52. Figurative Language
  53. 53. Simile A comparison of two things using “like, as than,” or “resembles.”“She is as beautiful as a sunrise.”
  54. 54. Metaphor A direct comparison of two unlike things“All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players.” - William Shakespeare
  55. 55. Implied Metaphor The comparison is hinted at but not clearly stated.“The poison sacs of the town began to manufacture venom, and the town swelled and puffed with the pressure of it.” - from The Pearl - by John Steinbeck
  56. 56. Hyperbole Exaggeration often used for emphasis.“You can fry an egg upon my brow as I melt away in the sun.” - from Summertime is Here - by Sharon Hendricks
  57. 57. Litotes Understatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic. Ex. Calling a slow moving person “Speedy”
  58. 58. Idiom An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs.
  59. 59. Personification An animal from “Ninki” given human- by Shirley Jackson like qualities “Ninki was by this time irritated beyond or an object belief by the general air of incompetence given life-like exhibited in the kitchen, and she went qualities. into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun.
  60. 60. Activity: Figurative LanguageIdentify the type of figures of speech used in thesepoetic lines:1. Death is a black camel, which kneels at the gates of all.2. The leaves were whispering secrets to the breeze.3. But myself was all the one that fell. Was it Goliath too large?4. He’s not the brightest man in the world.5. Up above the world so high like a diamond in the sky.
  61. 61. Activity: Figurative Language Come up with a list of things that can be associated with NATURE. Choose one from the list. Then, create a simile, metaphor, personification or even a hyperbole for it.
  62. 62. OtherPoeticDevices
  63. 63. Symbolism When a person, place, thing, or event that has = Innocence meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else. = America = Peace
  64. 64. Activity: Symbolism What are the meanings of these colors/animals in words?1. Red (for Chinese) 1. Butterfly’s wings2. Green thumb 2. Shark’s fangs3. True blue 3. Spider’s web4. Purple speech 4. Raven5. Yellow journalism 5. Horse
  65. 65. Allusion Allusion comes from A tunnel walled and overlaid the verb “allude” With dazzling crystal: we had which means “to refer read to” Of rare Aladdin’s wondrous An allusion is a cave, reference to something And to our own his name we famous. gave. From “Snowbound” John Greenleaf Whittier
  66. 66. Imagery Language that appeals to the senses. Most images are visual, but they can also appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or smell. then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather . . . from “Those Winter Sundays”
  67. 67. Activity: Imagery Use concrete words to to evoke a very frightening image of a ghost you do not want to see. Detail your poetic lines with the sense of sight, smell, touch, and hearing.