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Gcg major legal system

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Major Legal System in the World

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Gcg major legal system

  1. 1. Good Corporate Governance Legal System
  2. 2. Major Legal System in The World Common law Civil law Socialist law Islamic law Anglo-American, English, judge- Continental, Romano-Other names made Germanic Communist Religious lawSource of law Case law, legislation Statutes, legislation Statutes, legislation QuranLawyers Experienced lawyers Judges dominate trials Judges dominate trials Secondary roleJudges Career bureaucrats, Party Religious as well as legal Control courtroom Career judgesqualifications members training High; separate from theDegree of judicial High executive and the legislative Very limited Very limitedindependence branches of government May adjudicate in conjunctionJuries Provided at trial level with judges in serious criminal Often used at lowest level Not allowed matters Courts and other government Courts have equal but Courts are subordinate to thePolicy-making role Courts share in balancing power separate power legislature branches are subordinate to the Sharia Australia, England, Hong Kong, France, Spain, Germany, Ireland, USA (except Louisiana), Louisiana, Brazil, Japan,Examples Canada (except Québec), Mexico, Québec, Switzerland, Soviet Union Saudi Arabia Pakistan, India, Malaysia The Netherlands
  3. 3. Legal System Map Around the World Biru : Continental Law (Civil Law) Merah Marun: Anglo Saxon Law (Common law) Coklat Tua: Bijuridical (Civil &Common) Hijau Tua: Customary Law Kuning Emas: Fiqh
  4. 4. Three major legal systems  The three major legal systems of the world today consist of  Continental legal system (civil law)  Anglo-American legal system (common law)  Religious legal systems  Each country often develops variations on each system or incorporates many other features into the system.
  5. 5. Continental legal system  It is a legal system inspired by Roman law, the primary feature of which is that laws are written into a collection, codified, and not determined, as in common law, by judges.  The principle of this system is to provide all citizens with an accessible and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow.  It is the most prevalent and oldest surviving legal system in the world.  Continental legal system is sometimes inappropriately referred to as Roman law or otherwise called Romano-Germanic law, especially by people under its jurisdiction.
  6. 6. History  The civil law system is based on Roman law, especially the Corpus Juris Civilis of Emperor Justinian, as later developed by the Middle Ages  The acceptance of Roman law had different characteristics in different countries. In some of them its effect resulted from legislative act - it became positive law, whereas in other ones it became accepted by way of its processing by legal theorists.  A second characteristic, beyond Roman law foundations, is the extended codification of the adopted Roman law - its inclusion into civil codes. The concept of codification dates back to the Code of Hammurabi in ancient Babylon.
  7. 7. Codification  The concept of codification was further developed during the 17th and 18th century, as an expression of both Natural Law and the ideas of the Enlightenment.  The political ideal of that era was expressed by the concepts of democracy, protection of property and the rule of law. That ideal required the creation of certainty of law, through the recording of law and through its uniformity.  So, the mix of Roman law and customary (local) law ceased to exist, and the road opened for law codification, which could contribute to the aims of the above mentioned political ideal.  The French Napoleonic Code of 1804, Austrian civil code of 1811 and the German civil code of 1900 were the most influential national civil codes.
  8. 8. Subgroups  However, since continental European traditions are by no means uniform, scholars of comparative law usually subdivide civil law into four distinct groups:  French civil law – in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Quebec (Canada), Louisiana (USA), Italy, Spain and former colonies of those countries  German civil law – in Germany, Switzerland, Brazil, Portugal, Turkey, Japan, South Korea, China  Austrian civil law – in Austria, Czech republic, Slovakia, Greece, Serbia, Romania  Scandinavian civil law – in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway
  9. 9. Anglo-American legal system  Common law is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals (called case law), rather than through legislative statutes or executive action, and to corresponding legal systems that rely on precedential case law.  Common law legal systems are in widespread use, particularly in England where it originated in the Middle Ages, and in nations that trace their legal heritage to England as former colonies of the British Empire, including the United States, Singapore, Pakistan, India, Ghana, Cameroon, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, Hong Kong and Australia
  10. 10. History of the common law  The term "common law" originally developed after the Norman Conquest of England  The "common law" was the law that the whole country had in common, rather than particular tribal laws that might apply between smaller communities  The doctrine of precedent developed under the inquisitorial system in England during the 12th and 13th centuries  Equity is the name given to the set of legal principles, in jurisdictions following the English common law tradition, which supplement strict rules of common law where their application would operate harshly
  11. 11. Religious legal systems  Religious law refers to the notion of a religious system or document being used as a legal source  The main kinds of religious law are Sharia in Islam, Halakha in Judaism, and Canon law in some Christian groups
  12. 12. Islamic law  The Islamic legal system of Sharia (Islamic law) and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) is the most widely used religious law, and one of the three most common legal systems in the world alongside common law and civil law.  Mainstream Islam distinguishes between fiqh (deep understanding, discernment), which refers to the inferences drawn by scholars, and sharia, which refers to the principles that lie behind the fiqh.
  13. 13. Socialist law  Socialist law is the official name of the legal system used in Communist states. It is based on the civil law system, with major modifications and additions from Marxist-Leninist ideology  Prior to the end of the Cold War, Socialist law was generally ranked among the major legal systems of the world  However, many contemporary observers no longer consider it to be such, due to similarities with the civil law system and the fact that it is no longer in widespread use following the dismantling of most communist states.
  14. 14. Mixed legal systems  Mixed legal systems are mostly defined as the combination of civil law and common law  Examples - South Africa, Louisiana, Israel  Israels legal system combines English common law, civil law, and Jewish law  Legal enclaves – territories surrounded by different legal culture
  15. 15. Continental System  Struktur Organisasi (SO) dalam Sistem Continental, Board of Directors (Dewan Direksi) dipisahkan menjadi dua lapis,yaitu:  Dewan Pembina (Supervisory Board)  Manajemen Perusahaan (Management Board)  Istilah OECD untk SO dengan Continental System adalah Two Tier Boards
  16. 16. Sistem Continental di Indonesia  Supervisory Board = Dewan Komisaris  Management Board = Dewan Direksi  Anggota Supervisory Board terdiri dari Non Executiv Members; atau Independent Directors  Dalam perusahaan skala menengah dan besar, management board memiliki 2 atau lebih Directors
  17. 17. Penerapan Sistem Continental  Negara-negara pemakai SO Continental System untuk Corporate Management:  Indonesia  Belanda  Jerman  Perancis  Belgia  Luxemburg
  18. 18. Governance Board Sample (2)Copyright ©2000 by PT TELKOM Indonesia .All rights reserved
  19. 19. Anglo Saxon System  Struktur Organisasi (SO) untuk Board of Directors dengan Sistem Anglo Saxon terdiri dari satu satuan atau unit organisasi  Istilah OECD untuk sistem Anglo Saxon = Uniterary Board
  20. 20. Elemen Board di Anglo Saxon System  Para anggota di Board dengan SO Anglo Saxon system adalah:  Chairman  Non Executive Directors  Executive Directors  Jumlah anggota Board Directors untuk negara2 penganut sistem ini beranekaragam (7 samai dengan 14 orang Non Executive Directors + satu atau beberapa Executive Directors)
  21. 21. Penerapan Sistem Anglo Saxon  Negara2 pemakai Sistem Anglo Saxon untuk Corporate Managment:  Amerika Serikat  Australia  India  Inggris  Singapore  Hong Kong (China)
  22. 22. Corporate Executive Office Chairman & CEO Corporate Staff Service Divisions Finance Business R&D Human Legal Development Resources GE GE GEGE Aircraft GE Trans- GE Industrial Appliances Supply Engines portation Plastics Systems GE GE Power GE Medical GE GE Specialty NBC Systems Systems Lighting Capital Materials 26 businesses organized into 5 segments: Consumer Mid-market Specialized Specialty Equipment Services Financing Financing Insurance Management General Electric’s Organization Structure, 2002
  23. 23. PT = SUBYEK HUKUMPT merupakan perusahaan yang oleh undang-undang dinyatakan sebagai perusahaan yangberbadan hukum. Dengan status yang demikian itu,PT menjadi subyek hukum yang menjadi pendukunghak dan kewajiban, sebagai badan hukum, PTmemiliki kedudukan mandiri (persona standi injudicio) yang tidak tergantung pada pemegangsahamnya. Dalam PT hanya organ yang dapatmewakili PT atau perseroan yang menjalankanperusahaan (Ery Arifudin, 1999: 24). Hal ini berartiPT dapat melakukan perbuatan-perbuatan hukumseperti seorang manusia dan dapat pula mempunyaikekayaan atau utang (ia bertindak denganperantaraan pengurusnya).
  24. 24. DASAR HUKUM UUPT Secara khusus badan usaha Perseroan Terbatas diatur dalam Undang-Undang No. 40 Tahun 2007 tentang Perseroan Terbatas (UUPT), yang secara efektif berlaku sejak tanggal 16 Agustus 2007. Sebelum UUPT 2007, berlaku UUPT No. 1 Th 1995 yg diberlakukan sejak 7 Maret 1996 (satu tahun setelah diundangkan) s.d. 15 Agt 2007, UUPT th 1995 tsb sebagai pengganti ketentuan ttg perseroan terbatas yang diatur dalam KUHD Pasal 36 sampai dengan Pasal 56, dan segala perubahannya
  25. 25. Definisi PT (Perseroan Terbatas)  Badan hukum yang merupakan persekutuan modal, didirikan berdasarkan perjanjian, melakukan kegiatan usaha dengan modal dasar yang seluruhnya terbagi dalam saham, dan memenuhi persyaratan yang ditetapkan dalam undang-undang ini serta peraturan pelaksanaannya. (Ref: Pasal 1 UUPT No. 40/2007)
  26. 26. Unsur-unsur PT Sebuah PT menurut UUPT harus memenuhi unsur-unsur: Berbentuk badan hukum, yg merupakan persekutuan modal; Didirikan atas dasar perjanjian; Melakukan kegiatan usaha; Modalnya terbagi saham-saham; Memenuhi persyaratan yang ditetapkan dlm UUPT serta peraturan pelaksanaannya.
  27. 27. Persyaratan Material Pendirian PT 1. perjanjian antara dua orang atau lebih; 2. dibuat dengan akta autentik 3. modal dasar perseroan 4. pengambilan saham saat perseroan didirikan
  28. 28. Perbedaan Persyaratan PT padaUmumnya dg PT BankPT pada Umumnya: PT Bank :1. Prosedur pengesahan 1. Prosedur pengesahan badan hukum: tidak badan hukum: PT bank perlu adanya persetujuan prinsip dari persetujuan prinsip dari Dewan Gubernur BI intansi terkait mrpkan kausa2. Kegiatan Usaha: boleh diberikannya melakukan kegiatan pengesahan usaha rangkap/lebih 2. Kegiatan usaha: dari satu kegiatan perbankan merupakan usaha satu-satunya kegiatan usaha
  29. 29. Lanjutan ….3. Permodalan: Modal 3. Permodalan: Modal disetor minimal Rp 3 Trilyun utk dasar minimal Rp 50 pendirian Bank Umum; juta. sedang BPR di DKI Jakarta4. Kepemilikan: tidak ada raya: Rp 5 M, di Ibukota Ibukota Propinsi di P. Jawa & pembatasan. bali dan di wil. Kab/Kota5. Direksi dan Komisaris: Botabek: Rp 2 M, di Ibukota Prop. Di luar P. Jawa & bali: dapat dilakukan oleh Rp 1 M, dan wilayah lain di siapa saja yang luar wil. di atas: Rp. 500 juta. memenuhi ketentuan (PBI No. 2/27/PB/2000 jo PBI No. 6/22/PBI/2004). UUPT.
  30. 30. Lanjutan PT Bank …….4. Kepemilikan: ada pembatasan sebagaimana diatur dalam UU & perat. Pelaksanaannya (PBI No. 2/27/PB/2000 jo PBI No. 6/22/PBI/2004).5. Direksi dan Komisaris: untuk PT bank perlu ditambah adanya fit and proper test dari BI dan persyaratan lain yang diatur dalam PBI No. 2/27/PB/2000 jo PBI No.6/22/PBI/2004 jo PBI No. 6/23/PBI/2004 jo SEBI No. 6/35/DPBPR tgl 16 Agustus 2004).
  31. 31. ORGAN-ORGAN PT 1. RAPAT UMUM PEMEGANG SAHAM (RUPS) 2. DIREKSI 3. DEWAN KOMISARIS
  32. 32. RUPS  RUPS mempunyai wewenang yang tidak diberikan kepada Direksi atau Dewan Komisaris, dalam batas yang ditentukan dalam Undang-Undang PT dan/atau anggaran dasar.  Dalam forum RUPS, pemegang saham berhak memperoleh keterangan yang berkaitan dengan Perseroan dari Direksi dan/atau Dewan Komisaris, sepanjang berhubungan dengan mata acara rapat dan tidak bertentangan dengan kepentingan Perseroan.  RUPS dalam mata acara lain-lain tidak berhak mengambil keputusan, kecuali semua pemegang saham hadir dan/atau diwakili dalam RUPS dan menyetujui penambahan mata acara rapat.  Keputusan atas mata acara rapat yang ditambahkan harus disetujui dengan suara bulat.
  33. 33. Jenis RUPS  RUPS terdiri atas RUPS tahunan dan RUPS lainnya.  RUPS tahunan wajib diadakan dalam jangka waktu paling lambat 6 (enam) bulan setelah tahun buku berakhir.  Dalam RUPS tahunan, harus diajukan semua dokumen dari laporan tahunan Perseroan  RUPS lainnya dapat diadakan setiap waktu berdasarkan kebutuhan untuk kepentingan Perseroan.  Direksi menyelenggarakan RUPS tahunan dan RUPS lainnya dengan didahului pemanggilan RUPS.
  34. 34. DIREKSI Direksi merupakan organ yang membela kepentingan perseroan --- Prinsip Fiduciary Duties. Tugas ganda Direksi; melaksanakan kepengurusan dan perwakilan Tugas kepengurusan secara kolegial oleh msg-msg anggota direksi. Direksi perseroan yang mengerahkan dana masyarakat, menerbitkan srt pengakuan hutang, PT terbuka: minimal 2 org anggota Direksi.
  35. 35. DEWAN KOMISARIS Tugas utamanya: mengawasi kebijakan direksi dlm menjalankan perseroan serta memberi nasihat direksi Pengangkatan Komisaris oleh RUPS. Keanggotaan Komisaris: jika pemegang saham maka hrs melaporkan kepemilikan sahamnya baik di perseroan yang diawasi maupun saham yg dimiliki di perseroan lain. Kriteria yg dpt mjd Komisaris spt halnya direksi.

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