Grammar Workshop


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This workshop seeks to explain the eight parts of speech. You will find definitions and examples to help you understand their function and use.

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Grammar Workshop

  1. 1. LAD GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Center for Language Development Across the Disciplines LAD/FIPSE/FAR
  2. 2. What is a sentence? <ul><li>A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. This gift is for you. </li></ul><ul><li>Every sentence has two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicate </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Subject <ul><li>The subject tells who or </li></ul><ul><li>what the sentence is about . </li></ul><ul><li>Complete subject : </li></ul><ul><li>My tutors are outstanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple subject : </li></ul><ul><li>Yvette is a tutor. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Predicate <ul><li>Complete predicate : </li></ul><ul><li>words that tell what the subject is or does </li></ul><ul><li>Verb : the key word of </li></ul><ul><li>the complete predicate – </li></ul><ul><li>also known as simple predicate </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. The girl runs real fast . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Noun A noun is the name of a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. Computer Table
  6. 6. Kinds of Nouns <ul><li>Proper Noun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Noun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abstract Noun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>love </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collective Noun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>class </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Plural Forms of Nouns <ul><li>Regular Plural Nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Bus -------buses </li></ul><ul><li>Student- students </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular Plural Nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf ------leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Child----- children </li></ul><ul><li>Woman-- women </li></ul><ul><li>City ------ cities </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pronouns <ul><li>Kinds of Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul><ul><li>Relative </li></ul><ul><li>Object </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul>A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun.
  9. 9. Kinds of Pronouns <ul><li>Subject Object Possessive Possessive Adjectives Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>I Me My Mine </li></ul><ul><li>You You Your Yours </li></ul><ul><li>He Him His His </li></ul><ul><li>She Her Hers Hers </li></ul><ul><li>It It It Its </li></ul><ul><li>We Us Our Ours </li></ul><ul><li>You You Your Yours </li></ul><ul><li>They Them Their Theirs </li></ul>
  10. 10. Kinds of Pronouns <ul><li>Reflexive Relative Interrogative Demonstrative </li></ul><ul><li>Myself That Who This </li></ul><ul><li>Yourself Which Whose That </li></ul><ul><li>Himself Who What These </li></ul><ul><li>Herself Whom Whom Those </li></ul><ul><li>Itself Whose Which </li></ul><ul><li>Ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Yourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Themselves </li></ul>
  11. 11. Kinds of Pronouns <ul><li>Indefinite </li></ul><ul><li>All Another Any Anybody </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone Anything Both Each </li></ul><ul><li>Either Everybody Everyone Everything </li></ul><ul><li>Few Many More Most </li></ul><ul><li>Much Neither Nobody None </li></ul><ul><li>No one One Other Several </li></ul><ul><li>Some Somebody Someone Something </li></ul><ul><li>Such </li></ul>
  12. 12. Kinds of Verbs <ul><li>Action - Ex. Dive </li></ul><ul><li>Linking - Ex. Am </li></ul><ul><li>Helping or auxiliary - </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. have, do, be </li></ul>
  13. 13. Verb Tenses <ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><li>Present Progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Past Progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Future Progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Present Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Past Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Future Perfect </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adjective <ul><li>An adjective describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li> I like the long, green rectangle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which one? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I want that dress. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I see twelve circles. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Adverb <ul><li>A word that modifies verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the questions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When ? I will see you tomorrow . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where ? The dog is outside . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> How? She worked happily. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> To what extent or degree ? They swam deeper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>into the ocean . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> In what manner ? Mary sang beautifully . </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Prepositions <ul><li>A word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other words in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The students of this university are dynamic. </li></ul>
  17. 17. List of Prepositions <ul><li>Along </li></ul><ul><li>Among </li></ul><ul><li>Around </li></ul><ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>At </li></ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>Behind </li></ul><ul><li>Below </li></ul><ul><li>Beneath </li></ul><ul><li>Beside </li></ul><ul><li>Besides </li></ul><ul><li>Between </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Despite </li></ul><ul><li>Down </li></ul><ul><li>Except </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>From </li></ul><ul><li>In </li></ul><ul><li>Near </li></ul>
  18. 18. More Prepositions <ul><li>Of </li></ul><ul><li>Off </li></ul><ul><li>On </li></ul><ul><li>Onto </li></ul><ul><li>Out </li></ul><ul><li>Outside </li></ul><ul><li>Over </li></ul><ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><li>Since </li></ul><ul><li>Through </li></ul><ul><li>Till </li></ul><ul><li>To </li></ul><ul><li>Toward </li></ul><ul><li>Under </li></ul><ul><li>Underneath </li></ul><ul><li>Until </li></ul><ul><li>Up </li></ul><ul><li>Upon </li></ul><ul><li>With </li></ul><ul><li>Within </li></ul><ul><li>Without </li></ul>
  19. 19. Compound Prepositions <ul><li>According to </li></ul><ul><li>As of </li></ul><ul><li>As well as </li></ul><ul><li>Aside from </li></ul><ul><li>Because of </li></ul><ul><li>By means of </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to </li></ul><ul><li>In front of </li></ul><ul><li>In place of </li></ul><ul><li>In regard to </li></ul><ul><li>In respect to </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of </li></ul><ul><li>On account of </li></ul><ul><li>Out of </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to </li></ul>
  20. 20. Conjunction <ul><li>A conjunction is used to join words or group of words </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of conjunctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating conjunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlative conjunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinating conjunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctive Adverbs </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Coordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>A coordinating conjunction connects individual words or groups of words that perform the same function. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. I dance and sing. </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Nor </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Yet </li></ul>
  22. 22. Correlative Conjunctions <ul><li>A correlative conjunction consists of two or more words that function together. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Either Bill or Mary wrote the poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Either...or </li></ul><ul><li>Neither…nor </li></ul><ul><li>Whether…or </li></ul><ul><li>Not only…but (also) </li></ul><ul><li>both…and </li></ul>
  23. 23. Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>Subordinating conjunctions introduce subordinate clauses, which are clauses that cannot stand by themselves as a complete thought. </li></ul><ul><li>The subordinate conjunction connects a subordinate clause to an independent clause, which can stand by itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. We will go whale watching if we have time. </li></ul>
  24. 24. List of Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>After </li></ul><ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>As long as </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as </li></ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>In order that </li></ul><ul><li>So that </li></ul><ul><li>That </li></ul><ul><li>Since </li></ul><ul><li>Until </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever </li></ul><ul><li>While </li></ul>Time Purpose Time
  25. 25. List of Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>Manner </li></ul><ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>As if </li></ul><ul><li>As though </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul><ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Than </li></ul>Cause Comparison
  26. 26. Subordinating Conjunctions of Condition While Provided that Even if Unless If As long as Though Even though Although
  27. 27. Conjunctive Adverbs <ul><li>A conjunctive adverb is an adverb that functions somewhat like a coordinating conjunction. </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctive adverbs usually connect independent clauses. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Conjunctive Adverbs <ul><li>A semicolon precedes the conjunctive adverb, and a comma usually follows it. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. I have to clean my room; therefore , I can’t go to the movies with you. </li></ul>
  29. 29. List of Conjunctive Adverbs <ul><li>Accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Also </li></ul><ul><li>Besides </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently </li></ul><ul><li>Finally </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore </li></ul><ul><li>However </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed </li></ul><ul><li>Instead </li></ul><ul><li>Later </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise </li></ul><ul><li>Still </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore </li></ul><ul><li>Thus </li></ul>
  30. 30. Interjection <ul><li>An interjection is a word that expresses strong feelings </li></ul><ul><li>It is followed by an exclamation mark (!) </li></ul>
  31. 31. List of Common Interjections <ul><li>Really! </li></ul><ul><li>Whoops! </li></ul><ul><li>Good grief! </li></ul><ul><li>Honestly! </li></ul><ul><li>Good! </li></ul><ul><li>Oh! </li></ul><ul><li>What! </li></ul><ul><li>Well! </li></ul><ul><li>Sh! </li></ul><ul><li>Ugh! </li></ul><ul><li>Alas! </li></ul><ul><li>Yes! </li></ul><ul><li>Ahem! </li></ul><ul><li>My! </li></ul><ul><li>Please! </li></ul><ul><li>No! </li></ul><ul><li>Unbelievable! </li></ul><ul><li>Congratulations! </li></ul><ul><li>My goodness! </li></ul>
  32. 32. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Faculty Enrichment and Educational Technology Center </li></ul><ul><li>Zobeida Rosado </li></ul>
  33. 33. LAD GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Prepared by Professors Delia Serrano and Jennifer Soler University of the Sacred Heart Department of Humanities copyright © August 2002