Center for Language Development Across the Disciplines APA Format Citation Guideline
Author mentioned in text Author’s last name (in paragraph)This phenomenon is not confined to the computer-technical – Miller (2000) Year of publication complained that executives “adopt a one size-fits-all knowledge strategy [and] fall victim to the key pitfall in managing a knowledge organization” (p. 2). Page number
Author not mentioned in textThis phenomenon is not confined to the computer-technical – the author complained that executives “adopt a one size-fits-all knowledge strategy [and] fall victim to the key pitfall in managing a knowledge organization” (Miller, 2000, p. 2). Author’s last name (not Year of Page mentioned in paragraph) publication number
Two authors mentioned in text Authors’ last names Year of publication (in paragraph)EXAMPLE 1: As Palloff and Pratt (2000) indicate, “instructors often establish guidelines for minimum participation, making it more likely that students will engage with their colleagues and facilitating the community-building process” (p. 31). Page number
Two Authors not Mentioned in Text EXAMPLE 2: As the authors indicate, “instructors often establish guidelines for minimum participation, making it more likely that students will engage with their colleagues and facilitating the community-building process” (Palloff and Pratt, 2000, p. 31). Authors’ last names (not Year of mentioned in paragraph) publication Page number
Three, four or five authors mentioned in textFirst entry: • Wasserstein, Zapulla, Rosen, Gerstman and Rock (1994) found… Second entry: • Wasserstein et al. (1994) found… Subsequent entries: • Wasserstein et al. found…
A Work Written by Three to Five Authors Year of publication First appearance of authors’ last names in workEXAMPLE 1: Sims, Dobbs and Hand (2002)use the term “learning design” in theirwork to “emphasize the learner-centered[sic] environments that online resourcescan provide” (p. 140). Page number
A Work Written by Three to Five Authors Previously Mentioned Authors’ last names abbreviated if last Year of publication names previously cited in paperEXAMPLE 2: Sims et al. (2002) go on to indicate that “taking this stance is particularly important because it forces designers to conceptualize the development process from the learner’s perspective rather than that of the content or the teacher” (p. 140). Page number
A Work Written by Six or More Authors Authors’ last names abbreviated The project funded by NASA was temporarily disbanded, reported Bruno et al. (2004), because of technical difficulties and the mismanagement of resources. Year of publication Paraphrased information(no page number necessary)
Block Quotation or Long Quotation (40 words or more)• Block quotation should begin on a separate line (like a paragraph).• Text should be double spaced.• Quotation marks are not necessary.• Block should be indented five spaces on the left side.• All parts of speech, including prepositions, articles and conjunctions, should be considered on the word count.• Page number must be written at the end.
Long Quotation or Block Quotation (40 words or more)Author’s last name Year of publication Fogarty (2008) explains: A and an are called indefinite articles. The is called a definite article. The difference is that a and an don’t say anything special about the work that follows… [but] if you say “I need the horse,” then you want a specific horse. (p. 7) Page number
A Work Written by a Group of Authors The Mars exploration was being conducted by those who had little scientific background (Planetary Science Institute [PSI], 2003). Group’s name (not mentioned in paragraph)Abbreviation Year of publication
A Work Written by a Group of Authors: Subsequent EntriesThe findings were determining factors for theconclusion of the study (PSI, 2003). Abbreviation used Year of publication when entity is not mentioned in text
A Work without AuthorEXAMPLE 1: The data reported had beengleaned from an article (“Happenstanceand mystery,” 1955) that gave an historicalperspective of the project. Title of work when there Year of publication is no author
An Anonymous WorkEXAMPLE 2: The data reported had beengleaned from an article (Anonymous, 1955)that gave a historical perspective of theproject. Anonymous Year of publication author
One or More Works Written by the Same Authors Authors’ last names (listed alphabetically) Mueller, Pinciotti, Smeaton and Waters (2001, 2003) pinpoint the purpose of assessment as the improvement of Year of student learning.publication for each work
Two or More Works Written by Different Authors Year of publication Separate works Last name of first author for first author with semicolon Several authors (Moore, 1989; Palloff& Pratt, 2000) identified three types of Year ofpublication interaction in an online class: betweenfor second author student and contact, between student and teacher, and between student and student. Last names of additional cited authors
An Indirect SourceOriginal author Year of publication Lewis (as cited in White & Weight, 2000, p. 108) spells out the WRITE way to communicate online: (W)arm, (R)esponsive, (I)nquisitive, (T)entati ve, and (E)mpathetic – just exactly the mindset that would improve the communication of a technical person when approaching a non-technical audience and reader. Paraphrased information (no page number necessary)
An Electronic Source Author’s last name Year of Paragraph(as part of main text) publication number Leggett (1997, ¶ 2) lamented that there is a “great need for scientists to communicate not only with each other but with the wider public”.
General Considerations• Insert an ellipsis surrounded by squared brackets to indicate a pause or an omission in the original quote. Ex. “The data reported *…+ gave a historical perspective of the subject.” • Use quotation marks (at the beginning and the end) when incorporating a direct citation in your work.
Questions? Comments? Barat Norte 223 (BN 223) 787-728-1515 ext. 2294 E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.sagrado.edu/lad