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I4ADA 2019 - Presentation Cedric Wachholz

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See https://i4ada.org for additional information and videorecordings of the presentations held at the Hague Summit for Accountability in the Digital Age

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I4ADA 2019 - Presentation Cedric Wachholz

  1. 1. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Cédric Wachholz, Chief ICT in Education, Culture and Science Section UNESCO Accountability in the Digital Age
  2. 2. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date
  3. 3. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date 1.Artificial Intelligence challenges – mind the gaps! 2. Accountability: key dimensions & requirements 3. Action points 4. What UNESCO does & will do Accountabitliy in the digtial age
  4. 4. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI Challenges – accountability gaps Need for accountability: examples
  5. 5. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI Challenges – accountability gaps Need for accountability: examples • Inclusion: Digital & knowledge divides Percentage of individuals with ICT skills, by development status, 2017 Geographic distribution of issuers of ethical AI guidelines by number of documents released
  6. 6. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI Challenges – accountability gaps Need for accountability: examples • Inclusion • Privacy
  7. 7. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI Challenges – accountability gaps Need for accountability: examples • Inclusion • Privacy • Biases
  8. 8. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI Challenges – accountability gaps Need for accountability: examples • Inclusion • Privacy • Biases • Blackbox – explainability, transparency and human control • Complexity: Multiple components and hands
  9. 9. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI Challenges – accountability gaps • Overtrust • Distrotion/ Disruption of governance models Credit:Stanfordedu/Reuters/MortezaNikoubazl, Unsplash/MarkusSpiske,DreaSullivan
  10. 10. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI Challenges – accountability gaps • Overtrust • Distrotion/ Disruption of governance models • Portability across borders challenge • Pace of technology innovation vs policy responses • How to ensure accountability in this complex context?
  11. 11. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Accountability (A.): key dimensions • A.: Acknowledgement of responsability • Pre-factum A. as an AI system feature • Post-factum A.: Responsibility determination • A. as a feature in sociotechn. systems • Algorithmic accountability and justice • Human rights based, inclusive, relational def.
  12. 12. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Accountability: key requirements • Transparency • Explainability Different approaches: Understanding the • overall system (how does it work?) or a • particular outcome (how does it behave?)
  13. 13. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date How to translate A. concepts into reality? • Maximize benefits, minise risks – allocate resources in propotion to risks to society (impact and likelihood) • Human rights – existing mechanisms • Governance (by EPRS): demand side market solutions; supply side market solutions; companies'self organisation; branches' self- regulation; co-regulation; and state intervention. • Global dimensions of algorithmic governance
  14. 14. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Ethics A Map of Ethical and Rights-based approaches From: Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University https://ai- hr.cyber.harvard.e
  15. 15. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Ethics A Map of Ethical and Rights-based approaches From: Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University (July’19 draft) https://ai- hr.cyber.harvard.edu/primp- viz.html
  16. 16. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Ethics A Map of Ethical and Rights-based approaches From: Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University https://ai- hr.cyber.harvard.e
  17. 17. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Ethics UNESCO World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST) Working Group on AI
  18. 18. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI - Digital Transformation: why, what and how? Laboratory of Ideas, innovative models Capacity Development Standard Setting Policy Advice Communication and Information • Human Rights • Access • Journalism • Digital skills Social and Human Sciences • Standard Setting for Ethics of AI • Ethical reflection • Social implications Culture • Diversity of Expression • Inclusion Natural Sciences • Disaster Risk Reduction • Climate Sciences Education • AI for Teaching/ Learning • EMIS • Preparing for the future of work
  19. 19. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Tentative Roadmap for Standard-Setting Instrument on human rights based, human centred Ethics of AI Done: Feasibility study; Recommendation by Executive Board to go forward Upcoming: Nov 2019: Decision by the 40th General Conference of UNESCO to launch the process Apr 2020: First meeting of Ad Hoc Expert Group (AHEG) to prepare a preliminary draft Apr-Jul 2020: Multistakeholder consultations on preliminary draft (including online) Followed by 8 steps of physical meetings and online consultations until: Nov 2021: Examination of final draft by the 41st General Conference of UNESCO More information at: https://en.unesco.org/artificial-intelligence
  20. 20. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date
  21. 21. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Cédric Wachholz, Chief ICT in Education, Culture and Science Section UNESCO Accountability in the Digital Age Thank you for your attention!
  22. 22. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Accountability gap- 1) of AI systems explainability, 2) pre-deployment 3) Governance decisions: When do we accept to replace human diginity, understood as the uniqzue chartisterics of a specific individual, which is the key aspect of discretion within decision making. =Y governance choise about the removal, reductino or reconfiguartion of discretion
  23. 23. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI – affecting HR, other types of societal harms Wider threats to all HR by new & emerging tech • Risks to privacy • potential for discrimation and inequality • wider threats to all HR posed by new and emerging technologies Address Risks throught the technology itself: • Algorithimc accountability • Make more transparent, more explainable
  24. 24. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Accountability - EC Accountability: AI systems should be auditable and covered by existing protections for corporate whistleblowers. Negative impacts of systems should be acknowledged and reported in advance. -closely linked to the principle of fairness -mechanisms be put in place to ensure responsibility and accountability for AI systems and their outcomes, both before and after their development, deployment and use. -Identifying, assessing, reporting and minimising the potential negative impacts of AI systems is especially crucial for those (in)directly affected. Due protection must be available for whistle-blowers, NGOs, trade unions or other entities when reporting legitimate concerns about an AI-based system. The use of impact assessments (e.g. red teaming or forms of Algorithmic Impact Assessment) both prior to and during the development, deployment and use of AI systems can be helpful to minimise negative impact. These assessments must be proportionate to the risk that the AI systems pose. -Trade-offs: Identifying, assessing, reporting and minimising the potential negative impacts of AI systems is especially crucial for those (in)directly affected. Due protection must be available for whistle-blowers, NGOs, trade unions or other entities when reporting legitimate concerns about an AI-based system. The use of impact assessments (e.g. red teaming or forms of Algorithmic Impact Assessment) both prior to and during the
  25. 25. 11/20/2019UNESCO 25 Dimensions of Accountability 1.Universal access 2.Liability for AI actions
  26. 26. 11/20/2019UNESCO 26 AI Activity in Africa and LAC
  27. 27. 11/20/2019UNESCO 27 Liability for AI Actions • Autonomous vehicles • Data collection • Algorithmic bias and discrimination • Disinformation and filter bubbles
  28. 28. 11/20/2019UNESCO 28 • Forum on AI in Africa • Ericsson and UNESCO initiative to scale up skill development in AI • Deep Learning Indaba AI and Fairness workshops • International Conference on Embedding AI in Education Policy and Practice • COMEST Study on the ethics of AI UNESCO’s Work
  29. 29. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Some issues to consider for addressing ethical implications of AI • Central ethical concerns, also for CIOs: 1. Ethical implications beyond algorithms: include technological and social AI ecosystems 2. The design of AI systems should be human centred and inclusive 3. Users: AI literacy & critical thinking 4. AI scientific practice and decision-making require human evaluation and control 5. Address gender and other biases from the outset Questions: 1. How will AI interact with datasets, IoT? How will AI results be used in societies? 2. Diverse development teams? Un-/concious biases built in? 3. Are users able to evaluate the validity of AI results? 4. How to address blackbox challenges from the outset? How to ensure transparency, explainability and also: accountability? 5. Which datasets used/ gaps exist – and how could they result in biases?
  30. 30. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Future action: when developing and deploying AI systems... -Build internal capacities on AI (understanding, ethics) -Ensure Long-term and consistent monitoring of AI systems • Launch an ethics review committee • Establish a mechanism to monitor and analyze the information produced by AI systems to identify new ethical risks • Set-up mechanism for follow-up action • Ensure diversity -Join, contribute to and use the standard setting process
  31. 31. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date
  32. 32. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date
  33. 33. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Accountability Gap Mind the Gap! Accountability is a key dimension of decision-making in human and artificial intelligence, and it is crucial to any democratic, tolerant and inclusive society.
  34. 34. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Policies
  35. 35. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date National AI Strategies Source: Planes-Satorra and Paunov (2019)
  36. 36. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date National AI Strategies: Main Objectives • Strengthen (national) research in AI • Strengthen capabilities in AI: infrastructures (high power computing; data; technical standards); skills • Support businesses’ adoption of AI (notably SMEs) • Boost the use of AI by public administrations • establish inclusive approaches and ethical standards
  37. 37. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date National AI Strategies: Main Instruments • Create new research centers • Fund chairs in universities • Sponsor new programs in Higher Education • Finance special funds for research and start-ups • Create incubators, hubs, clusters etc. • DARPA type of support for breakthrough innovation • Establish testing facilities • Fund research focused on ethical & societal issues • Create AI observatories (overall coordination and monitoring of policies)
  38. 38. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Provisional Conclusions • AI will be a major shaping factor in the future for economies and societies • AI is a key domain for government to influence • Governement are in the back seat at the moment • Europe is lagging behind the US and China, it needs to catch up fast
  39. 39. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Human Rights
  40. 40. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Human rights China’s “first cyber-dissident” has been sentenced to 12 years in jail Huang Qi set up a website that monitors human rights abuses. (BBC) + Here’s what the West gets wrong about China’s social credit system. (Wired)
  41. 41. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Ethics
  42. 42. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI – From Ethical Principles to Normative Standards Ms Dafna Feinholz, Chief, Bioethics and Ethics of Science and Technology Mr Cédric Wachholz, Chief ICT in Education, Culture and Science Section UNESCO
  43. 43. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI – From Ethical Principles to Normative Standards Ms Dafna Feinholz, Chief, Bioethics and Ethics of Science and Technology Mr Cédric Wachholz, Chief ICT in Education, Culture and Science Section UNESCO
  44. 44. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI - Digital Transformation: why, what and how? Laboratory of Ideas, innovative models Capacity Development Standard Setting Policy Advice Communication and Information • Human Rights • Access • Journalism • Digital skills Social and Human Sciences • Standard Setting for Ethics of AI • Ethical reflection • Social implications Culture • Diversity of Expression • Inclusion Natural Sciences • Disaster Risk Reduction • Climate Sciences Education • AI for Teaching/ Learning • EMIS • Preparing for the future of work
  45. 45. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date UNESCO’s Internet Universality and ROAM approach • ROAM approach • Protecting human Rights: freedom of expression, privacy, access to information • Openness • Inclusive Access to information • Multistakeholder approach • X-cutting issues
  46. 46. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Tentative Roadmap for Standard-Setting Instrument on Ethics of AI Done: Feasibility study; Recommendation by Executive Board to go forward Upcoming: Nov 2019: Decision by the 40th General Conference of UNESCO to launch the process Apr 2020: First meeting of Ad Hoc Expert Group (AHEG) to prepare a preliminary draft Apr-Jul 2020: Multistakeholder consultations on preliminary draft (including online) => UNESCO will reach out to you for your input! Followed by 8 steps of physical meetings and online consultations until: Nov 2021: Examination of final draft by the 41st General Conference of UNESCO More information at: https://en.unesco.org/artificial-intelligence
  47. 47. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Ethics A Map of Ethical and Rights-based approaches From: Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University https://ai- hr.cyber.harvard.e
  48. 48. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Ethics A Map of Ethical and Rights-based approaches From: Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University (July’19 draft) https://ai- hr.cyber.harvard.edu/primp- viz.html
  49. 49. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Ethics UNESCO World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST) Working Group on AI
  50. 50. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Some issues to consider for addressing ethical implications of AI • Central ethical concerns, also for CIOs: 1. Ethical implications beyond algorithms: include technological and social AI ecosystems 2. The design of AI systems should be human centred and inclusive 3. Users: AI literacy & critical thinking 4. AI scientific practice and decision-making require human evaluation and control 5. Address gender and other biases from the outset Questions: 1. How will AI interact with datasets, IoT? How will AI results be used in societies? 2. Diverse development teams? Un-/concious biases built in? 3. Are users able to evaluate the validity of AI results? 4. How to address blackbox challenges from the outset? How to ensure transparency, explainability and also: accountability? 5. Which datasets used/ gaps exist – and how could they result in biases?
  51. 51. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Future action: when developing and deploying AI systems... -Build internal capacities on AI (understanding, ethics) -Ensure Long-term and consistent monitoring of AI systems • Launch an ethics review committee • Establish a mechanism to monitor and analyze the information produced by AI systems to identify new ethical risks • Set-up mechanism for follow-up action • Ensure diversity -Join, contribute to and use the standard setting process
  52. 52. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI – From Ethical Principles to Norrmative Standards Thank you for your attention! Ms Dafna Feinholz (d. feinholz (at) unesco . org) Chief, Bioethics and Ethics of Science and Technology Mr Cédric Wachholz (c. wachholz (at) unesco . org) Chief ICT in Education, Culture and Science Section UNESCO
  53. 53. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date
  54. 54. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date
  55. 55. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Seven system tenets for trustworthy AI: (UNESCO’s approach to be defined in standard setting process) •Human Rights and human control of technology •Privacy and data governance •Technical robustness and safety •Transparency and explainability •Diversity, non-discrimination and fairness •Human, societal and environmental wellbeing •Accountability
  56. 56. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Some questions to ask when developing and deploying AI systems • What type of datasets are being used to train AI systems? What are the gaps in these datasets and how this could result in bias or discrimination in results (special attention to gender, racial and cultural bias)? • What are the assumptions built into the design of AI algorithms? How diverse is the development teams? Are there biases that have been embedded into the algorithms by the developers, whether consciously or subconsciously? • How are the results produced by the AI systems used? Will they result in discrimination, deepen inequalities, or create new injustices in any way? Will they inadvertently harm our intended beneficiaries? Do users of these systems have a critical view of the results produced, so as not to take for granted that such results are always accurate or correctly reflect social and cultural reality? • These concerns require long-term and consistent monitoring of AI systems, and it is advisable that each organization should establish a mechanism to monitor and analyze the information produced by AI systems to identify ethical risks that may emerge. • Possibly through an ethics review committee, not only in the development phase, but also in the post-deployment phase of AI systems
  57. 57. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date UNESCO COMEST Working Group on ethics of AI • Human rights • inclusiveness • explainability • transparency • awareness and literacy • responsibility • accountability • democracy • good governance • sustainability • ... (https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000367823) UNESCO COMEST Working Group on ethics of AI
  58. 58. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date UNESCO COMEST WG on ethics of AI: human rights, inclusiveness, flourishing, autonomy, explainability, transparency, awareness and literacy, responsibility, accountability, democracy, good governance, sustainability (https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000367823)
  59. 59. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI - Digital Transformation: why, what and how? Communication and Information • Human Rights • Access • Journalism • Digital skills Social and Human Sciences • Standard Setting for Ethics of AI Culture • Diversity of Expression • Inclusion Natural Sciences • Disaster Risk Reduction • Climate Sciences Education • AI for Teaching/ Learning • EMIS • Preparing for the future of work • ‘Pragmatic’ AI: machines that are capable of independently performing tasks that would otherwise require human intelligence and agency • Challenges • Inequality • Deliberate/accidental violation of human rights • Transparency and accountability (blackbox + biases) • Speed and scope of regulation • Future of work
  60. 60. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI ethics DG EU lunch speaking points Intelligence artificielle Eléments de langage sur votre vision concernant les principes éthiques de l’IA L’IA produit des changements importants dans notre façon de comprendre, de concevoir et de mettre en pratique l’éducation, la science, la culture et la communication. Même si l’IA offre de nouvelles possibilités, diverses questions se posent, concernant le respect de la dignité humaine, l’équité, la démocratie, l’égalité d'accès aux ressources et aux avantages du progrès, le changement de la société. L’étude sur l’éthique de l’IA du Groupe de travail élargi de la Commission mondiale d’éthique des connaissances scientifiques et des technologies (COMEST) examine les questions d’ordre éthique relevant du mandat de l’UNESCO. Ses conclusions sont présentées dans le document du Conseil exécutif 206 EX/42. L’IA oblige à repenser le rôle sociétal de l’éducation. Les idées actuelles concernant « l’apprentissage tout au long de la vie » devront peut-être être étendues à un modèle d’éducation continue, comprenant l’élaboration d’autres types de cycles
  61. 61. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Ethics
  62. 62. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date G20 AI Principles Section 1: Principles for responsible stewardship of trustworthy AI 1.1. Inclusive growth, sustainable development and well-being 1.2. Human-centered values and fairness 1.3. Transparency and explainability 1.4. Robustness, security and safety 1.5. Accountability
  63. 63. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Disinfo online hate speech
  64. 64. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI deepfakes are now as simple as typing whatever you want your subject to say AI deepfakes are now as simple as typing whatever you want your subject to say https://www.theverge.com/2019/6/10/18 659432/deepfake-ai-fakes-tech-edit- video-by-typing-new-words Gesendet von Flipboard
  65. 65. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Forget fake news—nearly all deepfakes are being made for porn The internet hosts at least 14,678 deepfakes, according to a report by DeepTrace, a company that builds tools to spot synthetic media. But most weren’t created to mess with elections. Back to the beginning: Deepfakes arrived on the scene in late 2017. The word was originally used to describe AI-generated fake porn, but now it refers to any kind of manipulated video. This has stoked fears about the end of truth and the potential of deepfakes to swing elections. Now: Most of the videos aren’t about politics. A full 96% of deepfakes are still plain old fake porn. All the fake porn contains women, mostly famous actresses and musicians. Fighting back with law: The issue has caught the attention of legislators. In California, Governor Gavin Newsom just signed into law two bills that limit what people can do with deepfakes. One law makes it illegal to make and distribute a malicious deepfake of a politician within two months of an election. The second gets closer to how the manipulations are really being used. It lets people sue if their picture is used in deepfake porn without consent.
  66. 66. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Three threats posed by deepfakes that technology won’t solve The harm caused by deepfakes can’t be fixed without social and legal solutions, reports Angela Chen. Imagine: Wouldn’t it be great if a perfectly accurate deepfake detector existed, able to instantly label ever video that had been manipulated with AI? It might sound like just what we need: more technology to fight the growing problem. And it’s been the overwhelming response from technologists. Some bad news: Technology alone cannot address the main harms: disinformation and harassment. Why? Deepfake detectors can’t tell us what should—and shouldn’t—be taken down. Only better moderation can do that. They also might not help the people who need protection most: marginalized groups like women, people of color, and LGBT people. So we shouldn’t build any detection tools without consulting those most affected. Finally, deepfake detection comes too late to help victims. The damaging fake material is already out there. The answer? New laws. Read the full story here.
  67. 67. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Deepfakes could anonymize people in videos while keeping their personality AI could generate faces that match the expressions of anonymous subjects to grant them privacy—without losing their ability to express themselves. The news: A new technique uses generative adversarial networks (GAN), the algorithm behind deepfakes, to anonymize someone in a photo or video. How it works: The algorithm extracts information about the person’s facial expression by finding the position of their eyes, ears, shoulders, and nose. It then uses a GAN, trained on a database of 1.5 million face images, to create an entirely new face with the same expression and blends it into the original photo, retaining the same background. Why am I always the bad guy?: Face anonymization is typically used to protect the identity of people such as whistleblowers, in photos and footage. This technique would make it far safer for them and also allow them to convey their personality when speaking. It also demonstrates a new value proposition for GANs, which have developed a bit of a bad reputation.
  68. 68. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Here's how social media firms should tackle online hate, according to ph Policing online hate groups is like a never-ending game of whack-a-mole: moderators remove one neo-Nazi page on Facebook, only for a The scale of the problem: The team examined the dynamics of “hate communities” on social media platforms Facebook and VKontakte The current approach is broken: Their model predicts that policing within a single platform, like Facebook, can actually make the sprea What can be done? The researchers suggested some policies which might help: — Ban relatively small hate clusters, rather than the largest. These are easier to locate, and eliminating them can help to stop the larger c — Ban a small number of users chosen randomly from online hate clusters. This avoids banning whole groups of users, which results in o — Platform administrators should promote the organization of clusters of “anti-hate” users to counteract hate clusters. — Introduce an artificial group of users to sow division between hate groups. These sorts of battles could bring down large hate clusters t How likely is it? Some of the policies, especially the latter two, are pretty left field. But given current approaches are so profoundly ineffe
  69. 69. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date A new tool uses AI to spot text written by AI AI algorithms can generate text convincing enough to fool the average human—potentially providing a way to mass-produce fake news, bogus reviews, and phony social accounts. Thankfully, AI can now be used to identify fake text, too. The news: Researchers from Harvard University and the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab have developed a new tool for spotting text that has been generated using AI. Called the Giant Language Model Test Room (GLTR), it exploits the fact that AI text generators rely on statistical patterns in text, as opposed to the actual meaning of words and sentences. In other words, the tool can tell if the words you’re reading seem too predictable to have been written by a human hand. The context: Misinformation is increasingly being automated, and the technology required to generate fake text and imagery is advancing fast. AI-powered tools such as this may become valuable weapons in the fight to catch fake news, deepfakes, and twitter bots. Faking it: Researchers at OpenAI recently demonstrated an algorithm capable of dreaming up surprisingly realistic passages. They fed huge amounts of text into a large machine- learning model, which learned to pick up statistical patterns in those words. The Harvard team developed their tool using a version of the OpenAI code that was released publicly. How predictable: GLTR highlights words that are statistically likely to appear after the
  70. 70. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Yes, FaceApp could use your face—but not for face recognition There’s a lot that the viral photo-editing app could do with a giant database of faces. The context: FaceApp, a photo-editing app that uses AI to touch up your face, has been around since 2017, but a new feature that “ages” users has catapulted it back into popularity. The concern: It’s amassed more than 150 million photos of people’s faces since launch—and its terms of service stipulate that the company can use the photos however it wants, in perpetuity. The company behind it, Wireless Lab, said it deletes most images from its servers within 48 hours of upload, and doesn’t share data to third parties. Despite this, some Democratic members of the US Congress are now calling for an FBI investigation into the company. Should they be? It’s highly unlikely they’re being used to train face recognition algorithms. However, there are other ways to use a giant database of faces. Read more on the possibilities here. Does it matter? There are many other open-source databases of face photos that may or may not already include your likeness. FaceApp just highlights how much we’ve already lost control of our digital data. 7 Privacy concerns over FaceApp have been overblown If the face-ageing app scares you, you should really stop uploading your image anywhere online. (Wired UK) + It has pretty much exactly the same terms and conditions as Facebook. (Wired) + The US Senate Minority leader Chuck Schumer has called for a national security investigation (why???) (Reuters)
  71. 71. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Facebook isn’t doing enough to tackle misinformation, say fact-checkersFull Fact, a charity that has been part of Facebook’s third-party fact-checking program for six months, says the company needs to be more transparent and expand the program to its other platforms, like Instagram. Background: It’s the first public report from a Facebook fact-checker so a useful insight into how that process is working behind the scenes. You can read it here. How the process works: Facebook users flag posts they suspect are false. They’re then reviewed by Full Fact, which labels whether they are true or not. If false, the post won’t disappear but it will be shown to fewer people, by appearing lower down in their news feeds. Facebook is paying for the initiative, but it’s run by independent non-profits and charities. Read between the lines: Although the document is written using diplomatic language, it’s clear that Full Fact has some major concerns. Specifically, it says it’s worried that Facebook is rapidly increasing the scale of the fact-checking scheme to cover 42 languages worldwide, before it can adequately speed up the response, or volume of content handled. It says Facebook does not share enough data with fact-checkers for them to evaluate the content or impact of posts. Recommendations: Full Fact makes 11 recommendations, which you can read here. They’re mostly technical feedback for Facebook, including a call for a “more context needed” rating, a rating for satire or pranks, and new tools which can flag repeatedly- posted harmful content.
  72. 72. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Monopoly creator/ Entrance barrier? To which extend do laws/regulation on, e.g. 24h cleaning of hate & violence inciting speech on social media platforms, do represent a business barrier for new market entries, as only the big techs can address (through tech and humans) these requirements?
  73. 73. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Election hackers targeted 50 states in 2016. Here’s how the US will prep for 2020. Election hackers targeted 50 states in 2016. Here’s how the US will prep for 2020. In 2020, all state voter databases will be protected by sensors that alert the federal government to hacking attempts, reports Patrick Howell O’Neill. Back in 2016: Russian hackers likely targeted all 50 states in various ways during the 2016 election, a Senate report found. The findings highlighted numerous failures on the part of the US government, but there’s no evidence the activity resulted in any data or changed votes. Better planning: For the 2020 elections, 100% of voter databases will be covered by “Albert sensors” designed to spot malicious activity. These will provide intrusion detection and reporting. Go further: Democratic senator Ron Wyden is calling on Congress to establish mandatory, nation-wide cybersecurity requirements. Read the full story here. + Also: British hacker Marcus Hutchins avoided up to 10 years behind bars, receiving no prison time and one year of supervised release after being charged with creating
  74. 74. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date A new tool uses AI to spot text written by AI AI algorithms can generate text convincing enough to fool the average human—potentially providing a way to mass-produce fake news, bogus reviews, and phony social accounts. Thankfully, AI can now be used to identify fake text, too. The news: Researchers from Harvard University and the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab have developed a new tool for spotting text that has been generated using AI. Called the Giant Language Model Test Room (GLTR), it exploits the fact that AI text generators rely on statistical patterns in text, as opposed to the actual meaning of words and sentences. In other words, the tool can tell if the words you’re reading seem too predictable to have been written by a human hand. The context: Misinformation is increasingly being automated, and the technology required to generate fake text and imagery is advancing fast. AI-powered tools such as this may become valuable weapons in the fight to catch fake news, deepfakes, and twitter bots. Faking it: Researchers at OpenAI recently demonstrated an algorithm capable of dreaming up surprisingly realistic passages. They fed huge amounts of text into a large machine-learning model, which learned to pick up statistical patterns in those words. The Harvard team developed their tool using a version of the OpenAI code that was released publicly. How predictable: GLTR highlights words that are statistically likely to appear after the preceding word in the text. As shown in the passage above (from Infinite Jest), the most predictable words are green; less predictable are yellow and red; and least predictable are purple. When tested on snippets of text written by OpenAI’s algorithm, it finds a lot of predictability. Genuine news articles and scientific abstracts contain more surprises. Mind and machine: The researchers behind GLTR carried out another experiment as well. They asked Harvard students to identify AI-generated text—first without the tool, and then with the help of its highlighting. The students were able to spot only half of all fakes on their own, but 72% when given the tool. “Our goal is to create human and AI collaboration systems,” says Sebastian Gehrmann, a PhD student involved in the work. If you're interested, you can try it out for yourself.
  75. 75. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Congress’s first deepfakes hearing is today. Here's what you need to know. With the election approaching, lawmakers need to do something about the explosion in manipulated media, writes Karen Hao. What’s happening: The House of Representatives will hold its first dedicated hearing on deepfakes today. In parallel, Representative Yvette Clarke will introduce a bill on the same subject. A hot topic: There’s growing alarm over manipulated media after a doctored video of Nancy Pelosi—edited to make her appear drunk— spread online last month, and an AI-generated deepfake of Mark Zuckerberg was uploaded to Instagram this week. The proposed law: It would require creators of deepfakes to automatically add watermarks to forged creations, and force social media firms to build better manipulation detection into their platforms. Finally, it would fine or jail people who create malicious deepfakes. Read the full story here.
  76. 76. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Privacy
  77. 77. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Surveillance 3 How London became a test case for using face recognition in democracies It’s the second most-CCTV monitored city in the world, after Beijing. (FT) + Another city in the US plans to ban it: Cambridge, Massachusetts. (Gizmodo)
  78. 78. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Today, we’re looking at how competition evolves AI agents, a prediction about an impending face recognition ban, and a technique that anonymizes people without removing their personalities. You can view our informal archive here. A face recognition ban is coming to the US. San Francisco and Oakland, California, and Somerville, Massachusetts, have outlawed certain uses of face recognition technology, with Portland, Oregon, potentially soon to follow. That trend will soon spread to states, according to Mutale Nkonde, a Harvard fellow and AI policy advisor, and there will eventually be a federal ban on some uses of the technology. Exactly what kind of uses will be banned, it’s not yet clear: while some cities have banned police departments form using it, Portland’s focus is restricting use by the private sector. And the debate is not confined to the US. In the UK, there is growing concern over the use of live face recognition after it emerged that a property developer had been collecting images of people’s faces in an area of London for two years without informing them. Read more here.
  79. 79. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date RESEARCH Hidden in plain sight. Deepfakes are taking a lot of heat these days, so I’m highlighting an interesting positive application of the technology: the anonymization of vulnerable people, such as whistleblowers, in photos and videos to protect their identity—without losing their ability to express themselves. The technique first extracts information about the anonymous subject’s facial expression by finding the positions of their eyes, ears, shoulders, and nose. It then uses a deepfake algorithm, trained on a database of 1.5 million face images, to create an entirely new face with the same expression. The new face is blended into the original photo, retaining the same background. The technique is still highly experimental. It often trips up when the face is partially occluded or turned at particular angles; it’s also very glitchy for video. But it has the potential to replace traditional anonymization techniques, such as blurring and pixelation, which run the risk of being incomplete (i.e., the person’s identity can be discovered anyway) or completely stripping away the person’s personality (i.e., by removing facial expressions). Read more here. If you come across interesting research papers or AI conferences, send them my way to algorithm@technologyreview.com.
  80. 80. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date A data leak has exposed the unchangeable biometric data of over 1 million people You can always change your password. Your fingerprints and face are another story. A data leak has exposed the unchangeable biometric data of over 1 million people You can always change your password. Your fingerprints and face are another story. A major breach discovered this week in the UK includes fingerprints of over 1 million individuals, face recognition information, and other personal info from Suprema, a security firm used by UK police, banks, and military contractors, according to a report in the Guardian. Biometrics: This incident is different to most data leaks because it strikes at the heart of one of the big fears and criticisms about the increasing use of biometrics: You can change your username and password with a couple of clicks. Your face is forever. The source: Suprema runs Biostar 2, a biometric lock system controlling access and surveillance in secured buildings. The leak was discovered by Israeli researchers Noam Rotem and Ran Locar and the cybersecurity firm vpnMentor. Approximately one week after discovery earlier this month, it was fixed (although Suprema did not acknowledge it).
  81. 81. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date 2 Apple contractors are listening in to Siri recordings 👂 And they hear drug deals, people having sex, and medical information. (The Guardian) + Amazon workers listen to people talking to Alexa, too. (TR) + Oh, and Google also does this. (TR)
  82. 82. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date A hacker stole the personal data of 100 million Capital One customers . A hacker stole the personal data of 100 million Capital One customers The alleged hacker behind one of the biggest ever cyberattacks on a bank boasted about what she'd done on Twitter and on Slack, according to the FBI. The news: A hacker stole the personal data of 106 million US and Canadian Capital One customers, the firm revealed last night. A suspect, Paige A. Thompson, was arrested by the FBI yesterday, about two weeks after the company first identified the breach. Thompson, who now faces up to five years in prison, allegedly breached Capital One’s data on a cloud service thanks to a misconfigured web application firewall. Capital One is an Amazon Web Services customer and she’s a former AWS employee. Online trail: Thompson allegedly talked about the breach on a personal Slack account, and effectively admitted to hacking the company in direct messages on Twitter. Prosecutors claim that she also posted data to a GitHub account that linked directly to her real identity. A GitHub user who spotted the data alerted Capital One earlier this month which kickstarted the investigation. The aftermath: Information dating from 2005 to 2019 was stolen including Social Security numbers, bank account numbers, credit scores, names, and addresses. No credit card account numbers or login credentials were compromised.
  83. 83. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Computers can’t recognize emotions by only looking at your face Emotion recognition is a $20 billion industry, but a new study says the most popular method is deeply flawed, reports Angela Chen. How humans work out emotion: We use facial expression, but also body language, where the person is, and much more. When computers do the same, they only focus on the face, and that’s a major flaw. That’s why, according to an important new study, most claims made by “emotion recognition” companies are wrong. The industry: It’s big business. Huge companies like Microsoft and Apple, as well as specialized startups like Kairos and Affectiva, are all taking part. It’s used for recruitment, spotting fraud or terrorists, and advertising. Oversimplified: There has been growing pushback against the belief that facial expressions are easy giveaways to feelings. In fact, it’s very hard to use facial expressions alone to accurately tell how someone is feeling, a group of scientists concluded. Read the full story here.
  84. 84. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date What happens when a country’s entire adult population is hacked?After a massive hack in Bulgaria, the prime minister called the attacker a “wizard,” but cybersecurity experts said the security was simply inadequate. The hack: A 20-year-old man was arrested in Sofia, Bulgaria, on Tuesday afternoon and charged with an unprecedented hack of the country’s tax authority, ending with the theft of sensitive personal records from nearly every adult in Bulgaria, according to local reports. The suspect, whose name is Kristiyan Boykov, according to Bulgarian media, faces up to eight years in prison. Police say others may have been involved. The country’s officials have spent the week revealing and apologizing for the pillaging of Bulgaria’s National Revenue Agency (NRA) in June, Reuters reported. Personal and financial data for millions of taxpayers was leaked by email to local journalists. The data leak includes names, addresses, income and earnings information, and personal identification numbers, totaling 21 gigabytes and extending back over a decade. In the email, the hacker described the Bulgarian government as corrupt. (Indeed, Bulgaria ranks as the most corrupt country in Europe, according to Transparency International.) The reaction: Prime Minister Boyko Borissov called Boykov a “wizard” and said the country should hire people like him. Security professionals in Bulgaria are disputing the compliment and say the vulnerability never should have been exposed. “It was alleged in the press that internal sources say the attack was an SQL injection,” said Bozhidar Bozhanov, an executive at the Bulgarian security company LogSentinel. “SQL injections are easy to detect and somewhat easy to exploit. Protecting from SQLi should have been done on many levels. First, in the software requirements. Second, during acceptance tests. And third, during operation by regularly scanning publicly facing services for vulnerabilities. Apparently none of this has been done.” The facts: There is a gap between the hacker’s claims and what the Bulgarian government says happened. The facts are still being determined. The hacker claimed to have stolen data from over 5 million Bulgarians. The country’s entire population is around 7 million. Finance Minister Vladislav Goranov said 3% of the NRA’s databases were impacted. Although the number is in the millions, it’s not clear how many individuals Goranov believes are affected, but he said financial stability was not in danger. Goranov apologized to Bulgarian citizens in front of the country’s parliament. Vesselin Bontchev, a cybersecurity researcher and assistant professor at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, said the suspect left a mountain of digital traces that led to his arrest. “I can’t say the hacker was a ‘wizard,’” Bozhanov said. “If he indeed got caught so quickly, it means he was sloppy rather than a mastermind.” The consequences: The scope of this attack is vast, and the number of unanswered questions remains significant. The email the hacker sent to journalists with the leaked data came from a Russian email address. No one is quite sure what that means yet, but given the tension between Russia and Europe, especially in cyberspace, it’s a detail that’s attracted immediate attention. Closer to home, the Bulgarians are looking at their government and wondering what went so badly wrong. “We have to note that NRA is one of the most technically advanced administrations in Bulgaria,” Bozhanov said. “This issue may or may not be representative of the entire stack of technologies and services inside, but the fact that so much data was breached hints that few operational- security best practices were followed.” The big open questions include who was behind the attack, and whether it was an individual, a group, or even a nation-state. Criminals, activists, and governments use hacked data in entirely different ways that can spell distinct forms of trouble for the Bulgarians affected by this breach. One thing is clear: a reckoning has arrived for Bulgaria’s cybersecurity. Whether the government recognizes it or not, outside hackers certainly will.
  85. 85. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Facebook has promised to leave up a deepfake video of Mark Zuckerberg The firm's emerging policy on deepfakes seems to be to leave them up, but flag they are fake. The news: A deepfake video of Mark Zuckerberg was uploaded to Instagram, which Facebook owns, earlier this week. In the clip, Zuckerberg talks about being "one man, with total control of billions of people’s stolen data, all their secrets, their lives, their futures." He adds: "I owe it all to Spectre." You can watch it here. Who made it? It was created by artists Bill Posters and Daniel Howe in partnership with a UK-based advertising company called Canny, as part of an exhibition at a documentary festival. An emerging policy: Last month, Facebook decided not to remove a video of Nancy Pelosi which had been doctored to make her seem drunk. Instead, it said that if found to be fake, disclaimers would be added to videos, and they’d be ranked further down people’s news feeds. This seems to be Facebook’s new rule: leave manipulated videos up, but flag they’re fake. A growing problem: The speed and ease with which anyone can now make and spread a deepfake has alarming implications, and policymakers are increasingly wising up to the issue. Tomorrow the US will hold its first ever hearing on deepfakes, and house representative Yvette Clarke will
  86. 86. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Quantum computing to hack…ello, Weekend Readers! arely a week goes by without some new mega-hack that’s exposed huge mounts of personal data. The threat posed by such cyberattacks is forcing overnments, militaries, and businesses to take a keen interest in the idea of quantum internet. o what is it? The quantum internet won’t replace the way most of us share formation. Cat videos, witty memes, and your vacation pictures will live on in e world wide web. But for more sensitive information like credit card details, ealth records, and government data, quantum’s unique attributes could help eep things far more secure. ut with every new technology comes drawbacks. Can we address quantum chnology’s shortcomings before it handles the world’s most sensitive data? What is quantum computing? Let’s start with the basics. What is a quantum computer? How it works, why it’s so powerful, and where it’s likely to be most useful first.
  87. 87. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Data
  88. 88. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Private Data should not be owned and sold
  89. 89. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Data from brain-Facebook is funding brain experiments to create a device that reads your mind.Big tech firms are trying to read people’s thoughts, and no one’s ready for the consequences. The news: In 2017, Facebook announced that it wanted to create a headband that would let people type at a speed of 100 words per minute, just by thinking. Now, the social-media giant has revealed that it has been financing extensive university research on human volunteers. How? It’s developing “speech decoders” able to determine what people are trying to say by analyzing their brain signals. It’s important research as it can help show if a wearable brain-control device is feasible. Eventually: Facebook wants to create a wearable headset that lets users control music or interact in virtual reality using their thoughts. The ick factor: It’s an early example of a giant tech company being involved in getting hold of data directly from people’s minds. To some neuro-ethicists, that means we are going to need some rules, and fast, about how brain data is collected, stored, and used. Read the full story here.
  90. 90. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date New Tech: Quantum comput...
  91. 91. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date The fundamental nature of computing is changing. AI, neuromorphic chips, edge computing, 5G, quantum computing, and the internet of things are making it possible to solve problems in entirely new ways
  92. 92. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Facebook wants to build a mind-reading wristband Facebook is buying a brain-machine interface startup to further its ambitions in the field The news: Facebook has agreed to buy CTRL-labs, a New York-based startup that is working on methods for people to communicate with computers using brain signals. The deal is worth about $1 billion, according to CNBC. The company: CTRL-labs only launched four years ago. There isn’t a ton of public information about its technology and its research, but it claims it has made a wristband which can turn brain signals into input for a computer. How well it works, remains to be seen. Brain-computer interfaces of the sort used by people who are paralyzed typically require a lot of training to work effectively and even then they are sluggish and prone to errors. Elon Musk’s Neuralink is trying something similar, but its interface is actually fitted inside the user’s brain. What? It might seem a strange acquisition for a social media company, but in fact, it makes a lot of sense. In July, Facebook revealed it has been financing extensive university research on human volunteers.
  93. 93. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Are brain implants the future of thinking?
  94. 94. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Google researchers have reportedly achieved “quantum supremacy” The news: According to a report in the Financial Times, a team of researchers from Google led by John Martinis have demonstrated quantum supremacy for the first time. This is the point at which a quantum computer is shown to be capable of performing a task that’s beyond the reach of even the most powerful conventional supercomputer. The claim appeared in a paper that was posted on a NASA website, but the publication was then taken down. Google did not respond to a request for comment from MIT Technology Review. Why NASA? Google struck an agreement last year to use supercomputers available to NASA as benchmarks for its supremacy experiments. According to the Financial Times report, the paper said that Google’s quantum processor was able to perform a calculation in three minutes and 20 seconds that would take today’s most advanced supercomputer, known as Summit, around 10,000 years. In the paper, the researchers said that, to their knowledge, the experiment “marks the first computation that can only be performed on a quantum processor.” Quantum speed-up: Quantum machines are so powerful because they harness quantum bits, or qubits. Unlike classical bits, which represent either a 1 or a 0, qubits can be in a kind of combination of both at the same time. Thanks to other quantum phenomena, which are described in our explainer here, quantum computers can crunch large amounts of data in parallel that conventional machines have to work through sequentially. Scientists have been working for years to demonstrate that the machines can definitively outperform conventional ones. How significant is this milestone? Very. In a discussion of quantum computing at MIT Technology Review’s EmTech conference in Cambridge, Massachusetts, this week before news of Google’s paper came out, Will Oliver, an MIT professor and quantum specialist, likened the computing milestone to the first flight of the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk in aviation. He said it would give added impetus to research in the field, which should help quantum machines achieve their promise more quickly. Their immense processing power could ultimately help researchers and companies discover new drugs and materials, create more efficient supply chains, and turbocharge AI. But, but: It’s not clear what task Google’s quantum machine was working on, but it’s likely to be a very narrow one. In an emailed comment to MIT Technology Review, Dario Gil of IBM, which is also working on quantum computers, says an experiment that was probably designed around a very narrow quantum sampling problem doesn’t mean the machines will rule the roost. “In fact quantum computers will never reign ‘supreme’ over classical ones,” says Gil, “but will work in concert with them, since each have their specific strengths.” For many problems, classical computers will remain the best tool to use. And another but: Quantum computers are still a long way from being ready for mainstream use. The machines
  95. 95. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Quantum Computing The time is now to understand and plan for new capabilities in AI and quantum computing. We're curating a program that brings our coverage at MIT Technology Review to life and highlights the executives, technologists, and innovators you need to know. Register for EmTech MIT to assess emerging risks and industry impacts.
  96. 96. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Quantum computing to hack…ello, Weekend Readers! arely a week goes by without some new mega-hack that’s exposed huge mounts of personal data. The threat posed by such cyberattacks is forcing overnments, militaries, and businesses to take a keen interest in the idea of quantum internet. o what is it? The quantum internet won’t replace the way most of us share formation. Cat videos, witty memes, and your vacation pictures will live on in e world wide web. But for more sensitive information like credit card details, ealth records, and government data, quantum’s unique attributes could help eep things far more secure. ut with every new technology comes drawbacks. Can we address quantum chnology’s shortcomings before it handles the world’s most sensitive data? What is quantum computing? Let’s start with the basics. What is a quantum computer? How it works, why it’s so powerful, and where it’s likely to be most useful first.
  97. 97. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Other Applications
  98. 98. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Can Silicon Valley revolutionize mental health care? Apps can democratize access, but they could also distract people who need serious help from seeking it. (The Guardian)
  99. 99. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AGI
  100. 100. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date
  101. 101. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Microsoft is investing $1 billion in OpenAI to create brain-like machines The AI lab gets to throw Microsoft’s supercomputing and cloud computing muscle at its bid to build artificial general intelligence (AGI). The news: Microsoft says OpenAI will help it jointly develop and train new AI technologies for its Azure cloud computing service. They’ll also work together on OpenAI’s mission to try to achieve AGI—machines with the capacity to learn tasks the way human beings do. Show me the money: OpenAI began as a nonprofit research lab in 2015 with the mission of developing safe AGI. But AI models need mountains of data to crunch, and that requires expensive computing power. So earlier this year, OpenAI set up a new for-profit arm to help pay for its work. Moonshot: Many AI researchers believe AGI is unachievable. OpenAI may try to reach it by scaling existing deep-learning approaches rather than by developing new ones. There’s no guarantee that will work, so Microsoft’s billion-dollar bet is a risky one. —Martin Giles
  102. 102. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date CI – AI team meeting – 23 May
  103. 103. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Draft Agenda: 1. Moving forward on parallel tracks: • Overall results framework – presentation to CI leadership • Resource mobilisation • Joint planning for C/4 and C/5 • AI - Information and Knowledge Sharing 2. Draft key messages (Prateek) 3. AOB (mutual updates,++) 4. Next steps
  104. 104. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Contexte - Vision of inclusive Knowledge Societies, - Elevate debate – - AI and other frontier technologies is currently and will be transforming every aspect of our lives, and of UNESCO’s areas of competence; - There are two aspects: How to harness technologies - The digital revolution is harnessed for the SDGs, but raises questions on the future of learning and work, risks to exacerbate inequalities, climate change, to reinforce gender ++ biases, infringe on human rights (e.g. privacy) and - Absolutely requires international, multistakeholder cooperation. - Intersectorality - – implementation, AI task team - -ICTinED - S-Africa: Digital skills – computational thinking
  105. 105. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date - Vision of inclusive Knowledge Societies, - AI and other frontier technologies is currently and will be transforming every aspect of our lives, and of UNESCO’s areas of competence; - There are two aspects: How to harness technologies - The digital revolution is harnessed for the SDGs, but raises questions on the future of learning and work, AI risks to exacerbate inequalities, can have a positive, but also negative climate change, to reinforce gender ++ biases, infringe on human rights (e.g. privacy) and - Absolutely requires international, multistakeholder cooperation. 2) Access to the Internet - Hardware, infrastructure – we are working with partners, in the BBCom - Access requires soft component: Capacities, - Intersectorality: meaningful, for results orientation - -Cooperation with - – implementation, AI task team, ethique - -ICTinED - S-Africa: Digital skills, media and information literacy – computational thinking
  106. 106. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date IPAI • support and guide responsible adoption of AI • facilitate international collaboration in a multistakeholder manner • to monitor and draw on work being done worldwide • provide a mechanism for analysis, foresight, and policy development in the area of AI.
  107. 107. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date UNESCO work
  108. 108. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date The role of AI in the mandate of UNESCO In 2018, UNESCO established an inter-sectoral Task Team working on artificial intelligence, lead-facilitated by the CI Sector. The main objectives of UNESCO’s initiative on AI are to: (1) foster a human-centred development and application of AI that respects human rights and ethical principles (2) address the impact of AI on the fields of competence of UNESCO; (2) promote the use of AI and its potential to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). UNESCO’s strategic positioning, compared to other international organizations working on AI (e.g. OECD, African Union, European Commission, IEEE, Council of Europe, etc.), lies within its universal reach, its ability to bring together the perspectives of developing countries on an equal footing with those of developed countries, and its multi-stakeholder approach. UNESCO's action in the field of AI is fully aligned with the Organization's two global priorities: Africa and gender equality. In particular, it aims to ensure that the African continent is actively involved in the development of AI and can fully harness its potential. UNESCO will work to develop digital AI-related skills for women and girls and will seek to combat the reproduction of gender-related social biases in AI applications.
  109. 109. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date UNESCO undertook with partners groundbreaking research on combatting gender bias in applications using artificial intelligence. The publication titled ‘I’d blush if I could’ shares the first United Nations agency recommendations regarding the gendering of AI technologies, imploring companies and governments to closer attention to how, when and whether AI technologies are gendered and, crucially, who is gendering them. Serving UNESCO’s global Priority Africa, and as a follow-up to the UNESCO Forum on AI in Africa held in Morocco, UNESCO organized capacity building workshops for the technical community on Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights at the Deep Learning Indaba, the annual gathering of the African Machine Learning Community at Kenyatta University in Kenya, attended by 700 experts. (Capacity Building Workshop for Human Centered AI in Africa ) AI is changing the landscape of work and learning and UNESCO investigated the next Generation of Competencies required for the new digital era we are embarking on. The intergovernmental Information for All Programme organized with partners the 15th edition of the World Conference on Intellectual Capital for Communities at UNESCO Headquarters to discuss AI and the next generation of competencies for employability of workers and closely linked, the future of learning. UNESCO facilitated the consensus building of 67 Ministers, Deputy/Vice Ministers and government officials and over 300 participants from 105 Member States, who
  110. 110. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date UNESCO’s work on shaping a human centered AI is strongly aligned with the UN system-wide strategic approach for supporting capacity development on artificial intelligence, the report of UN Secretary General’s High Level Panel on Digital Cooperation and the Outcomes of UNESCO’s different AI events in HQs, Forum on Artificial Intelligence in Africa. Highlights include: • Eleven awareness raising and capacity building activities have been initiated around the world including in Africa since the last Executive Board. • Four new AI publications in Education, Science, Communication and Information and Gender have been published. • Funds are being mobilized for the possible development of a standard setting instrument on AI, capacity development and policy advice for AI.
  111. 111. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Key messages - COM • AI could open up tremendous opportunities for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Its applications enable innovative solutions, improved risk assessment, better planning and faster knowledge sharing. • Many actors—businesses, research centres, science academies, United Nations Member States, international organizations and civil society associations—are calling for an ethical framework for AI development. While there is a growing understanding of the issues, related initiatives need more robust coordination. This issue is global, and reflection on it must take place at the global level so as to avoid a ‘pick-and- choose’ approach to ethics. Furthermore, an inclusive, global approach, with the participation of United Nations funds, agencies and programmes, is required if we are to find ways of harnessing AI for sustainable development. • UNESCO priorities must also guide our international action in this area. It is essential to ensure that Africa fully participates in transformations related to AI, not only as a beneficiary but also upstream, contributing directly to its development. In terms of gender equality, we must fight against the biases in our societies to guarantee that they are not reproduced in AI applications. Finally, we must empower young people by providing them with the skills they need for life in the twenty-first century for integration in a changing labour market.
  112. 112. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Réunion d'information sur le rôle de l'UNESCO dans le domaine de l'intelligence artificielle Moez Chakchouk UNESCO Assistant Director General Communication & Information
  113. 113. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date UNESCO & IA • Le domaine de compétence de l'UNESCO est centré sur l'être humain, • L’intelligence artificielle (IA) a un potentiel énorme pour: - Aborder les questions les plus cruciales pour l'humanité, notamment en matière d’éducation, de sciences, de culture, de médias, d'accès à l'information, d'égalité des sexes et de lutte contre la pauvreté. - Promouvoir la réalisation des Objectifs de Développement Durable, - Favoriser de nouvelles opportunités de développement tout en respectant les valeurs humaines universelles et les principes éthiques.
  114. 114. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Le travail de l'UNESCO en matière d'IA • L’IA a un impact sur toutes les activités de l'UNESCO— tous les secteurs sont impliqués et engagés. • Coordination intersectorielle — Un groupe de travail mené par le Secteur de la Communication & de l’Information (CI), a été créé en 2018, comme secrétariat. • Lancement d'une étude par un groupe de travail multidisciplinaire composé d’experts, afin d'exploiter l'importance des normes éthiques mondiales en matière d'IA. • Advocacy and Public Information inclut l’édition spéciale du Courrier de l’UNESCO sur l’IA (parut en juillet 2018) et le site Web intersectoriel sur l’IA (en.unesco.org/artificial- intelligence). • Organisation d’évènements sur l’IA afin de sensibiliser les Etats membres et de souligner l'importance du travail à accomplir par l'UNESCO en collaboration avec d'autres parties prenantes, notamment les organisations internationales.
  115. 115. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Bhanu’s Key themes for the paradigm shift  Access to information and knowledge  Bridging the AI divide through policy development and capacity building  The ethical implications of AI  Opening up tools, processes and contents on AI  Rights to freedom of expression and privacy  Journalism and media development  Internet governance in the AI world
  116. 116. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Which paradigm shifts do we want to introduce in AI? • From Fragmentation to coherence to implementation – Holistic and multidimensional approaches – From policy formulation to policy IMPLEMENTATION • From thinking ICT and AI are the solution, to knowing when and how they can enhance – From technology focus to needs of stakeholders • From teaching digital skills to using AI to enhance (FoE, learning) – acquiring 21st century skills • From relying on others on selfs – From sales driven to national capacities to plan and evaluate offers • From imported solution to creating local, AI literate environments – From Push or Pull to Push and Pull – From an abstract wish to be part of the new AI wave, to an awareness, understanding, capacity and interest
  117. 117. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Which paradigm shifts do we want to introduce in AI? • Awareness raising: From AI awareness to a basic understanding of AI opportunities and risks • Capacity development: From random… to use of guiding principles • From a government developed AI policy/strategy to a multstakeholder involvement • Member States are developing / adopting AI policies in line with international frameworks (ROAM)…
  118. 118. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Which paradigm shifts do we want to introduce in AI? • AI improve access and knowledge • From a simplified vision of AI, to an AI that follows ROAM principles • Key themes for the paradigm shift • • Access to information and knowledge • Bridging the AI divide through policy development and capacity building • The ethical implications of AI • Opening up tools, processes and contents on AI • Rights to freedom of expression and privacy • Journalism and media development • Internet governance in the AI world •
  119. 119. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Which paradigm shifts do we want to introduce in AI? • Access to information and knowledge • Bridging the AI divide through policy development and capacity building • The ethical implications of AI • Opening up tools, processes and contents on AI • Rights to freedom of expression and privacy • Journalism and media development • Internet governance in the AI world
  120. 120. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Paradigm shifts: -From expert knowledge to policymaker awareness and a more in depth understanding of policymakers of AI potential -From digital divie Address AI digital and knowledge divides: • Processes • tools Upstream capacity building: • Two chairs • Category 2 Center -Assess AI – readiness -Capability approach: • Commitment • Analysis of policies, whitepapers • Capacity (to use AI tools) Which paradigm shifts?
  121. 121. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date RESEARCH: -Mapping of standard setting work: -IGO -National policies -AI – readiness: -The state of public policy development -multistakeholder -Research on ongoing technological developments -Openess source libraries -Data localisation -What is the -Who owns the data Joint observatory: -Map OECD’s and UNESCO indicators…
  122. 122. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date LONGER VERSION PRESENTED TO ROK IN MARCH 2019
  123. 123. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date PROPOSED ENTRY POINTS WITH ROK ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOCUS AREA Bridging the AI Digital and Knowledge Divides FUNDING NEEDS FOR 2020-2021 CURRENT PARTNERS 1) Raising awareness/ building capacities of highest-level decisionmakers on AI opportunties and risks in UNESCO’s field of competence a) Awareness raising about opportunties, risks, ways forward for highest-level decision makers (Prime ministers, 50 ministers) b) Capacity building for policymakers, including parliaments; developing plans for AI enabling environments, using the AI policymaker toolkit c) Facilitate international, regional, and national AI cooperation for SDGs, with a focus on LDCs, Africa, SIDS; advise on where to invest scarce resources; how to share tools, facilitate collaboration 2,5 million USD - Member States - International and Regional organizations -Private sector -Technical community -Civil Society and Academia
  124. 124. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date PROPOSED ENTRY POINTS WITH ROK ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOCUS AREA Bridging the AI Digital and Knowledge Divides FUNDING NEEDS FOR 2020- 2021 (USD) CURRENT PARTNERS 2) Resource portal (selected, trusted information) - Mapping of existing principles and standards concerning AI - Mapping of ecosystem of AI (and stakeholder groups) - Development of the Indicator Suite, a tool for assessing nationally the AI enabling environment in UNESCOs fields of competence - Mapping of national and regional AI strategies and their integration into complementary (innovation++) policies - Guidance to Open Ressources, tools, funding opportunties - Pool of trusted experts 1,600,000 USD - Member States - International and Regional organizations -Private sector -Technical community -Civil Society and Academia
  125. 125. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date PROPOSED ENTRY POINTS WITH ROK ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOCUS AREA Bridging the AI Digital and Knowledge Divides FUNDING NEEDS FOR 2020-2021 (USD) CURRENT PARTNERS 3) Policymaker Suite: - Development of policymaker guidelines (UNESCO and transversal themes, e.g. data governance); - Decision maker essentials - Constantly updated policymaker toolkit, including MOOC 4) Open consultations on the ethical dimensions of Artificial Intelligence (online and regional) (In case of EXB and GC decision, USD 1,3 million to develop a standard setting instrument) 5) UNESCO Communication on AI (tools,++) 1,8 million 300,000 (1,3 million) 300,000 - Member States - International and Regional organizations -Private sector -Technical community -Civil Society and Academia -COMEST and IBC
  126. 126. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date PROPOSED ENTRY POINTS WITH ROK ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOCUS AREA Bridging the AI Digital and Knowledge Divides FUNDING NEEDS FOR 2020-2021 CURRENT PARTNERS 6) Concrete AI projects, including: -Digital AI skills for youth, particularly for girls & women in Africa -Using AI to foster citizen science (e.g hydro-climatic monitoring); use of big data, cloud computing and AI in geosciences, -Ensuring inclusive and equitable use of AI in education for vulnerable groups, leveraging AI to enhance education and learning-Support the development of digital and AI skills with focuses on women and girls in African countries -Support the development of local AI experts and AI developers through reinforcing the capacities of public TVET and HE institutions of the developing countries in integrating AI and coding training into the programmes -Build the capacity of policy makers and education managers in understanding the potential benefits and risks of AI for education, and improve their capability of planning and coordinating AI in education policies and programmes 4 million - Member States - International and Regional organizations -Private sector -Technical community -Civil Society and Academia -COMEST and IBC
  127. 127. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date SHORT VERSION PRESENTED TO ROK IN MARCH 2019
  128. 128. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date PROPOSED ENTRY POINTS WITH ROK ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOCUS AREA Bridging the AI Digital and Knowledge Divides FUNDING NEEDS FOR 2020-2021 CURRENT PARTNERS 1) Raising awareness/ building capacities of highest- level decisionmakers on AI opportunties and risks in UNESCO’s field of competence 2) Resource portal (selected, trusted information) 3) Policymaker Suite 2,5 MUSD 1,6 MUSD 1,8 MUSD - Member States - International and Regional organizations -Private sector -Technical community -Civil Society and Academia
  129. 129. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date PROPOSED ENTRY POINTS WITH ROK ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOCUS AREA Bridging the AI Digital and Knowledge Divides FUNDING NEEDS FOR 2020-2021 CURRENT PARTNERS 4) Open consultations on the ethical dimensions of Artificial Intelligence (online and regional) 5) UNESCO Communication on AI (tools,++) 6) Concrete AI projects 1,3 MUSD 300 K USD 4 MUSD - Member States - International and Regional organizations -Private sector -Technical community -Civil Society and Academia -COMEST and IBC
  130. 130. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date EVENTS 1 3 0
  131. 131. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Awareness raising and capacity development events... Across UNESCO Sectors events were organized for awareness raising and capacity building for a human centered AI Capacity Building Workshop for Human Centered AI in Africa UNESCO organized two workshops on Artificial Intelligence and Fairness at the Deep Learning Indaba 2019, the annual gathering of the African Machine Learning Community at Kenyatta University in Kenya. UNESCO advocated for human Rights centered, Open, Accessible and Multistakeholder driven development of artificial intelligence as outlined in its study “Steering AI for Knowledge Society: A ROAM Perspective”. Agenda Building on AI for African Development at TICAD7 UNESCO and Japan co-organized a discussion on AI for Africa at the Seventh Tokyo International Conference for African Development to discuss opportunities and challenges of AI and UNESCO’s role in AI. IFAP organized Conference on AI and Next Generation of Competencies The 15th edition of the World Conference on Intellectual Capital for Communities, organized at UNESCO Headquarters, highlighted the importance of human capacity building as a critical element in efforts to ensure employability. AI Examined from a ROAM Prism at IAMCR 2019 in Madrid At the annual conference of the International Association for Media and
  132. 132. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Evènements 2018 de l’UNESCO sur l’IA 11-12 sept 2018 « L’intelligence artificielle au service des droits humains et des objectifs de développement durable: Promouvoir des approches multi- acteurs, inclusives et ouvertes » 14 nov 2018 Discussion sur « L’intelligence artificielle au service du progrès des sociétés de savoir et de la bonne gouvernance ». L’UNESCO à l’UM6P, Benguérir, Maroc « Forum sur l’intelligence artificielle en Afrique » Siège de l’UNESCO, Paris, France 13 déc 201812-13 déc 201815 nov 2018 Tables rondes: « l’Intelligence artificielle: réflexion sur sa complexité et sur son impact dans la société » « L'édition du génome : pourquoi l’éthique s’impose » Siège de l’UNESCO, Paris, France « L’intelligence artificielle: un nouvel environnement de travail pour les créateurs ? » Siège de l’UNESCO, Paris, France Forum sur la Gouvernance de l’Internet (IGF) L’UNESCO à la Fondation Mozilla, Paris
  133. 133. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Prochains évènements de l’UNESCO sur l’IA 22 janv 2019 Global Governance of AI Roundtable 2019 10-12 fév 2019 Conférence internationale “Towards a Trusted Artificial Intelligence for Human Progress” Siège de l’UNESCO, Paris, France Semaine de l’apprentissage mobile "Augmented Human Intelligence and Humanity" Siège de l’UNESCO, Paris, France 17-19 avr 20194-8 mar 20194 mar 2019 "Tech Futures: Hope or Fear?” debate on Ethics of New Technologies and AI. Réunion d'information sur l'impact de l‘IA dans les domaines de compétence de l'UNESCO, en présence des Etats membres et des ADGs Siège de l’UNESCO, Paris, France « Les innovations digitales autour du monde » Forum NETEXPLO Sommet mondial des gouvernements en partenariat avec l'UNESCO, l'OCDE et al à Dubaï, EAU Siège de l’UNESCO, Paris, France
  134. 134. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date IFAP Carribean Forum on AI Indeed, the Caribbean Forum in Jamaica would be an excellent opportunity to scale- up CI’s action in the field of Artificial Intelligence, reflect on related issues from the perspective of the SIDS and to work together with our colleagues at HQ and at the other UNESCO Offices in the sub-region. Likewise, your possible participation in this event would be certainly one of the highlights of the Conference and would strongly contribute to its success. In this respect, your field visit to Jamaica would be a great honour for our Cluster Office to learn about the latest developments on UNESCO’s programme priorities for the next biennium. Equally, it would be a unique opportunity for us to have a direct dialogue with you on our work in the Caribbean sub-region and to receive your good counsel. We will liaise with our colleagues at headquarters about the possible dates and will be pleased to submit you a joint proposal for your consideration.
  135. 135. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date UNESCO Sectors
  136. 136. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Coopération internationale • Plusieurs initiatives ont déjà été menées et la coopération est nécessaire: - Stratégie des Nations Unies sur les technologies pionnières au service du développement durable, y compris le sommet mondial AI4Good de l'UIT à Genève, - OCDE, « Des politiques meilleures pour une vie meilleure » — Groupe de travail d’experts AIGO, - Commission Européenne, « Vers un cadre éthique partagé pour l’IA » — Groupe d’experts de haut niveau sur l’IA, - Conseil de l’Europe, « Vers une IA éthique et responsable pour les droits de l'homme, l'Etat de droit et la démocratie », - L’IEEE, « L’initiative mondiale pour les considérations éthiques en IA et des systèmes autonomes ».
  137. 137. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Éthique des sciences et des technologies : • Éthique des sciences et des technologies : - Plus de 20 ans de travail en bioéthique et éthique des sciences et des technologies. - 2 organes consultatifs indépendants : 1. COMEST, la Commission mondiale d'éthique des connaissances scientifiques et des technologies; 2. IBC, le Comité international de bioéthique. Le CIGB – Comité intergouvernemental de bioéthique (36 Etats membres) examine le travail de l’IBC. - Pouvoir de convocation de tous les États membres pour débattre d'un cadre normatif international de coopération. - Une philosophie mondiale, pluraliste, pluridisciplinaire et multipartite.
  138. 138. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Universalité et gouvernance de l’Internet: - Approche multipartite des normes et règles de gouvernance : société civile, universitaires, secteurs public et privé. - Fossé numérique et absence de politiques en matière d’open data = rareté des données alimentant les avantages potentiels de l’IA. - Aborder l’universalité de l’Internet par le biais des principes D.O.A.M. : les Droits humains, l'Ouverture, l'Accessibilité, et la participation de Multiples acteurs. - Mesurer les Indicateurs de l’Universalité de l’Internet (IUI) afin d’exploiter l’état de préparation des Etats membres et d’encourager les décideurs politiques des PMA à adopter des politiques adéquates en matière de développement et d’utilisation de l’IA.
  139. 139. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Education et renforcement des capacités : - Garantir une utilisation inclusive et équitable de l'IA dans l'éducation des groupes vulnérables, tout en promouvant l'égalité des sexes dans l'IA; - Tirer parti de l'IA pour améliorer l'éducation et l'apprentissage, notamment en promouvant l’intelligence collective liant l’humain à la machine, en exploitant un système d’apprentissage intelligent pour l’apprentissage et l’évaluation, et donner aux enseignants les moyens d’enseigner l’IA efficacement. - Promouvoir le développement des compétences en IA pour améliorer sa vie professionnelle et personnelle, en mettant l’accent sur les innovations des jeunes dans le développement d’applications de l’IA pour atteindre les O.D.D. - Utilisation transparente et vérifiable des données relatives à l’éducation par le biais de partenariats multipartites, en préservant la confidentialité des données et la vie privée des élèves. - Publication de rapports (sur l’éthique sur la robotique, le big data et la santé) soutenant les décideurs politiques et les différentes parties prenantes, en fournissant des conseils sur les questions éthiques.
  140. 140. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Les sciences, la technologie et l’innovation : • Politique, capacité, application • S’attaquer au fossé scientifique en promouvant la science ouverte et l’innovation ouverte (open data, ressources scientifiques ouvertes comme l’informatique en nuage etc.) et l’accès universel au savoir scientifique. • Suivi des tendances politiques liées à l’IA, telles que les stratégies nationales d’IA, dans le cadre de la fonction de suivi mondial des O.D.D. 9.5, centrées sur l’inclusion et la diversité. • La formation et la recherche en IA dans les pays en développement doivent progresser parallèlement aux progrès technologiques. • L’IA doit soutenir les Etats membres dans leur gestion de l’eau, à la réduction des risques de catastrophe, au changement climatique, à la surveillance de la biodiversité, etc.
  141. 141. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Patrimoine culturel & créativité : - Promouvoir la diversité des expressions culturelles dans un environnement d’IA, - Favoriser la créativité numérique via l’usage des technologies de l’IA, - Contribuer à la préservation du patrimoine culturel et faire face aux menaces par le biais de la numérisation et de l'utilisation des systèmes d'IA, - Lutter contre le trafic illicite d'objets culturels et contre la destruction de biens culturels.
  142. 142. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Médias & accès à l’information - Des médias indépendants et pluralistes afin de diffuser les bonnes informations et de sensibiliser les citoyens aux questions liées à l'IA, - L'éducation aux médias et à l'information (MIL) pour construire des sociétés du savoir inclusives et faire face aux menaces qui pèsent sur les processus démocratiques et le développement pacifique (discours haineux, désinformation, discrimination, etc.), - Promouvoir l'accès à l'information publique (données publiques ouvertes, REO), - Protection des droits fondamentaux : liberté d'expression, vie privée, accès à l'information, etc.
  143. 143. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date - Forum des femmes « Daring Circle » sur l’IA et les sexes (14 novembre 2018); - Document sur les implications des assistants numériques pour l’égalité des sexes (à paraître en mars 2019); - Note d’orientation sur la promotion des compétences numériques pour les filles et les femmes (à parution le 8 mars 2019).
  144. 144. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Priorité Afrique et intelligence artificielle - Déclaration finale du Forum sur l’IA en Afrique, Benguérir (Maroc) le 13 décembre 2018, comprenant la promotion d’une IA centrée sur l’être humain, fondée sur les droits de l’homme et les valeurs éthiques et appelant à une collaboration entre l’UNESCO, l’Union Africaine et les communautés économiques régionales pour: o Soutenir la création d’un forum africain d’association et d’institutions sur l’IA, réunissant les principaux acteurs publics et privés de l’IA; o Elaborer une stratégie continentale pour l’IA, étayée par l’Agenda 2063; o Organiser des forums sous-régionaux sur l’IA. - Prochain forum sous-régional sur l’AI pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest et Centrale en 2019.
  145. 145. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date - L’initiative de l’UNESCO avec Microsoft et d’autres partenaires à l’élaboration d’un indice de préparation à l’IA dans l’éducation et à la formation des décideurs politiques sur l’IA dans l’éducation. - Initiative avec Ericsson et d’autres partenaires à l’élaboration d’un référentiel de programmes de formation à l’IA et soutien des institutions ETFP à développer ou réformer des programmes de formation sur l’IA. - Du 18 au 22 février 2019, le nouveau Centre des technologies quantiques (Centre for Quantum Technologies) du CIPT accueille sa première école avancée sur la physique quantique omniprésente (Advanced School on Ubiquitous Quantum Physics) : la nouvelle révolution quantique, destinée aux scientifiques des pays en développement. - Le programme de l’UNESCO et de l’Université de Kyoto sur l’Homme et la Biosphère soutient la Réserve naturelle intégrale du Mont Nimba en Guinée (inscrite au patrimoine mondial) à améliorer la préservation des chimpanzés grâce à l’usage des drones pour combattre les braconniers.
  146. 146. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date - L’IA pour les sociétés du savoir du point de vue des D.O.A.M.. Une publication sera prête lors du lancement de la Conférence internationale sur l’IA en mars. - Traduire les principes D.O.A.M. en normes et politiques sur l’IA, recherche de base « Vers l’universalité de l’Internet et des sociétés du savoir à l’ère du numérique: opportunités et défis de l’IA ». La recherche sera présentée lors de la conférence du mois de mars sur l’IA. - La faisabilité d’un centre de catégorie 2 placé sous l’égide de l’UNESCO à l’Institut Josef Stefan (Slovénie) a été établie afin de soutenir les objectifs de l’UNESCO et d’utiliser l’IA dans le cadre des O.D.D.. - La Chaire de l’UNESCO pour l’IA et la fondation Knowledge4All ont préparé une carte de l’écosystème pour le développement de l’IA. Les résultats ont été présentés lors de l’IGF et lors de la conférence sur l’IA au Maroc.
  147. 147. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date - Première version des principes directeurs en matière d’éducation, lesquels seront lancés lors de la Semaine de l’apprentissage mobile. - Le Programme hydrologique international de l’Université de Californie ont développé l’application GWADI GeoServer en 2005 pour estimer les précipitations en temps réel dans le monde entier, en utilisant des réseaux neuronaux artificiels. Il est utilisé dans le monde entier pour la planification et la gestion des situations d'urgence, par exemple pour suivre les tempêtes et préparer des bulletins quotidiens contenant des informations actualisées sur les conditions d'inondation et de sécheresse pour les communautés locales. - Un projet conjoint avec Sciences Po Paris développe une méthodologie afin de cartographier l’engagement de l’IA, la capacité et la création de l’IA. Le projet a initié un processus de collecte de données pour le continent africain. - Un atelier de renforcement des capacités sur les questions techniques, les mythes entourant l'IA et l'impact de l'IA sur les O.D.D. sera conjointement organisé par le Secteur CI et HRM. L'atelier s'inscrira dans le cadre de la Semaine de l'apprentissage mobile et sera animé par la Chaire de l’UNESCO pour l’IA et la Chaire UNESCO « Analytics and Big Data ».
  148. 148. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Merci de votre attention Moez Chakchouk UNESCO Assistant Director General Communication & Information
  149. 149. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Education New skills jobs
  150. 150. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date EDUCATION Are You Developing Skills That Won’t Be Automated? by Stephen M. Kosslyn The jobs of the future will depend on emotion and context.
  151. 151. 11th & 12th July 2019 The World Conference on Intellectual Capital for Communities - 15th Edition - How will AI impact jobs? 151 The warehouse example Humans are not replaced → Their activity is modified Who receives the benefit ? Sources: McKingsley Global Institute, E. Reynolds MIT The robot nurse Lack of medical staff Humans are not directly replaced → job was not occupied TARDIS EU project Training young NEET No recruitement Human-AI collaboration
  152. 152. 11th & 12th July 2019 The World Conference on Intellectual Capital for Communities - 15th Edition - How will AI impact jobs? Two situations can be observed: 1. Robots that replace human workers • Does what a human being could do • Not necessarily cheaper • Pre-existing cost reduction policies 2. Creation of new jobs, transformation • Market extension • New skills and competencies 152
  153. 153. 11th & 12th July 2019 The World Conference on Intellectual Capital for Communities - 15th Edition - Conclusions • AI still needs us • Domain experts • Programmers • Data collection • AI will not replace us, but… • Companies invest in AI products to increase their profit • People must decide what to do with AI • Transformations will occur • New jobs, new skills • No massive disappearance of jobs due to AI only 153
  154. 154. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date154 1 How has skills demand changed historically? 2 What skill shifts can we anticipate in the next 15 years? 3 How can companies and policy makers address the skill mismatch?
  155. 155. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date There have been large-scale upskilling episodes in the past century 155 SOURCE: Claudia Goldin, “America’s graduation from high school: The evolution and spread of secondary schooling in the twentieth century,” Journal of Economic History, volume 58, number 2, June 1998; National Center for Education Statistics; McKinsey Global Institute analysis High School Movement (1910–40) GI Bill (1944–present) 80 100 0 20 6 2 4 0 8 40 10 60 301900 40 197010 20 50 60 Million college students College enrollment High school enrollment % of enrolled 14- to 17-year- olds
  156. 156. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date All jobs now increasingly require digital skills 156 NOTE: Figures may not sum due to rounding; 1 Brookings defines a digital score based on 2 digital components of O*NET (overall knowledge of computers and electronics required by a job and the centrality of computers to the overall work activity of the occupation) as an index from 0 to 100. High score is above 60, medium score is between 33 and 60 and low score is lower than 33 SOURCE: Brookings analysis of Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) data Employment by levels of job digitization, 2002–2016 56% 30% 40% 48% 23% 5% 2002 2016 Medium1High1 Low1 Example occupations Nurses Lawyers Auto mechanics Construction Cooks Software developers Financial managers Assembly line workers
  157. 157. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Looking ahead, by 2030 AI will alter the nature of most jobs 157 SOURCE: McKinsey Global Institute analysis of FTE time is at risk Only ~15% of FTE time needs significant retraining About ~45%
  158. 158. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date158 Higher cognitive, socio- emotional and tech skills will be in high demand
  159. 159. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Our unique bottom-up methodology is based on 3 input factors 159 Physical and manual Basic cognitive Higher cognitive Social and emotional Technological We mapped workforce activities to skills We defined 5 workforce skill categories We collected qualitative inputs to corroborate our results >3,000 business leaders From 7 countries Across 14 sectors ~800 occupations Across all sectors Skills assessment 25 skills in total ~2,000 activities 10 activities for a retail sales person
  160. 160. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date AI will require more technological, social and emotional skills… 160 All sectors +67% in basic digital skills +91% in advanced IT skills and programming United States and Western Europe -14 -15 8 24 55 Change in number of hours 2016-30, % -26% in general equipment operation and navigation skills -14% in craft and technician skills -7% in basic numeracy, literacy and communication skills -21% in basic data input and processing skills +18% in complex information processing and interpretation skills +34% in creativity skills +29% in leadership and managing other skills +33% in entrepreneurship and initiative taking skills Total hours, billion Technological skills Higher cognitive skills Social and emotional skills Physical and manual skills Basic cognitive skills 650 31 18 22 18 11 Hours in 2016 % of time Large portion time spent today in physical and basic cognitive skills… …but in the future, time spent on these skills is going to decrease while skills such as tech, social and emotional will grow NOTE: Western Europe: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom. Figures may not sum due to rounding SOURCE: McKinsey Global Institute analysis
  161. 161. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date The impact varies by sector 161 SOURCE: McKinsey Global Institute analysis -40% less 80% more Number of hours worked United States and Western Europe, Percent change in time spent using skill Retai lSkill category Technological skills Higher cognitive skills Social and emotional skills Physical and manual skills Basic cognitive skills Manufacturin g Banking and insurance Energy and mining Healthcar e
  162. 162. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Cédric Wachholz, Chief of ICTs in Education, Science and Culture Section, UNESCO Challenges and Opportunities of Artificial Intelligence for SDG 4
  163. 163. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Content 2 Improving Learning outcomes 3 Preparing for an AI driven world 4 Six Challenges in Education and AI 5 UNESCO work 1 SDG 4 – key statistics Conclusion6
  164. 164. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Sustainable Development Goal 4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
  165. 165. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Why Education matters? Education - a Human Right! Helps achieve other SDGs Breaks Cycle of Poverty, reduces Inequalities Empowers people to live healthy and sustainable lives Fosters Tolerant and Peaceful Societies
  166. 166. UNESCO Event / Name / other Date Key Statistics Access and Quality

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