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Integrating National Tsunami Early
  Warning Systems towards Ocean-Wide
      System-of-Systems Networks




Matthias Lendholt [1], Martin Hammitzsch [1], Miguel A. Esbri [2]
         [1] German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Germany
                         [2] ATOS Research, Spain
Motivation
•   Increasing number of national tsunami early warning systems (TEWS)
•   Increasing number of Crisis Management Information Systems (CIMS)
•   Research about information systems

Do we design + develop + implement + deploy interoperable information
   systems that are capable of system to system communication?

Or do we create more and more isolated islands?
Overview
•   Introduction
•   Challenge
•   Results
•   Reference implementation
•   Outlook
UNESCO Tsunami Programme
•   UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Tsunami
    Programme:
    o Objective: The IOC Tsunami Programme aims at reducing the loss of lives and
      livehoods that could be produced worldwide by tsunamis.
    o Four Intergovernmental Coordination Groups (ICG) corresponding to the
      regions Pacific, Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Mediterranean have been
      established to address particular regional needs
UNESCO Tsunami Programme

•   Main objective IOC Tsunami Programme: The integration of national TEWS
    to ensure information exchange during tsunami events.
     ICG Implementation plans

•   IOC ICG/IOTWS, 2008: Implementation Plan
     “… the establishment of a coordinated regional warning system for the entire
     Indian Ocean basin, through the establishment of a network of National inter-
     operable Warning Centres.”
ICG Implementation plan
•   Goal: develop systems-of-systems
     o Based on Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
         • Legal aspects
         • Workflows
     o Standardized ICG warning products (bulletins)
         • Content: What, Where, When
         • Format: Plain ASCII text designed for FAX transmission
         • No protocols, technologies, encodings
     o Standardized ICG spatial reference schemas
         • Coastal Forecast Zones
         • Coastal Forecast Points
ICG/IOTWS Coastal Forecast Zones
•   Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZ) introduced to ensure interoperability
    between TEWS
Challenge
•   Develop a communication model to interlink/integrate national TEWS:
     1.   According to UNESCO IOC guidelines
     2.   Accounting UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR)
          recommendations
     3.   Based on standards of the emergency management domain
     4.   Applying system-of-systems engineering


• Best practices / design philosophy:
     o    Keep it simple
     o    No proprietary technology
     o    Open standards, open source software
Information gathering
 What are the needs and requirements?
 Which information must/must not be shared?
 Which technologies must/must not be used?

•   Experiences from preceding projects
     o GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System)
•   Literature work
     o   IOC / ICG guidelines, implementation plans, …
     o   ISDR recommendations
     o   Other TEWS related research
     o   Crisis Information Management Systems (CIMS) in general
•   Survey among experts
     o Questionnaires, Interviews, …
General
 public     Legal Aspects
                §§§




                              Cultural
                            background,
                              capacity
                              building




Operators   Technologies
Identified Workflows
1.   National Centres (NC) share sensor observations
2.   Wide Area Centre (WAC) runs ocean wide tsunami simulation
3.   WAC sends warning messages (IOC bulletins) to NCs




                            Wide Area Centre
National Centres
                         National Centre
National Centre             Thailand
   Sri Lanka




                    National Centre
                         Indonesia
Wide Area Centre Infrastructure
                             National Centre
National Centre                 Thailand
   Sri Lanka




                        National Centre
                             Indonesia
                                               Wide Area Centre
Earthquake Event
                          National Centre
National Centre              Thailand
   Sri Lanka




                     National Centre
                          Indonesia
                                            Wide Area Centre
Observation by NC
                          National Centre
National Centre              Thailand
   Sri Lanka




                     National Centre
                          Indonesia
                                            Wide Area Centre
Dissemination on National Level
                             National Centre
National Centre                 Thailand
   Sri Lanka




                        National Centre
                             Indonesia
                                               Wide Area Centre
Sending observations to WAC
                               National Centre
National Centre                   Thailand
   Sri Lanka




                          National Centre
                               Indonesia
                                                 Wide Area Centre
Forwarding to NCs
                          National Centre
National Centre              Thailand
   Sri Lanka




                     National Centre
                          Indonesia
                                            Wide Area Centre
Running ocean wide tsunami forecast
                     IOC bulletin
                           National Centre
National Centre               Thailand
   Sri Lanka




                      National Centre
                           Indonesia
                                             Wide Area Centre
Delivery of warnings to NCs
                               National Centre
National Centre                   Thailand
   Sri Lanka




                          National Centre
                               Indonesia
                                                 Wide Area Centre
Dissemination on National Level
                             National Centre
National Centre                 Thailand
   Sri Lanka




                        National Centre
                             Indonesia
                                               Wide Area Centre
Information Encoding
1. Sensor Observation exchange
    SWE (Sensor Web Enablement) messages
      • XML
      • OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) Standard
      • Used by GITEWS and many others sensor related information systems
2. Ocean wide bulletins
    CAP (Common Alerting Protocol)
     • XML
     • OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards)
     • Widely used in Canada, US and Australia
3.Envelope / addressing
    EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language-Distribution Element)
      • XML
      • OASIS
Example message: EDXL-DE envelope
<EDXLDistribution xmlns='urn:oasis:names:tc:…'>
<distributionID>urn:org:dews_online:WAC.IO:CAP6_1</distributionID>
  <senderID>urn:org:dews_online:WAC.IO</senderID>
  <dateTimeSent>2011-03-10T17:50:28.202+00:00</dateTimeSent>
  <distributionStatus>Actual</distributionStatus>
  <distributionType>Report</distributionType>
  <keyword>
    <valueListUrn>http://www.dews-online.org/urn/c2c</valueListUrn>
    <value>BULLETIN</value>
  </keyword>
  <contentObject>
    <contentDescription>CAP message generated by DEWS WAC.IO</…>
    <incidentID>urn:org:dews_online:WAC.IO:6</incidentID>
    <incidentDescription>Tsunami Warning</incidentDescription>
    <xmlContent>
      <embeddedXMLContent>
        <alert xmlns='urn:oasis:names:tc:emergency:cap:1.1' xmlns:xsi='…'>
          <!-- CAP payload with Tsunami bulletin embedded here-->
        </alert>
      </embeddedXMLContent>
    …
<alert>
  …

 <info>
    <category>Safety</category>
    <event>TsunamiWarning</event>
    <responseType>Shelter</responseType>
    <urgency>Future</urgency>
    <severity>Severe</severity>
    <certainty>Likely</certainty>
    <onset>2011-04-24T21:18:15.015+00:00</onset>
    <senderName>urn:org:fosslab:centre:WAC.IO</senderName>
    <parameter>
      <valueName>MinTimeOfArrival</valueName>
      <value>2011-04-24T21:18:15+0000</value>
    </parameter>
    <parameter>
      <valueName>MaxSeaSurfaceHeight</valueName>
      <value>1.81</value>
    </parameter>
    <area>
      <areaDesc>QUILON</areaDesc>
      <geocode>
         <valueName>EX_BOX_ID</valueName>
         <value>19</value>
      </geocode>
    </area>
  </info>
</alert>
Reference Implementation
•   Messaging:
     o Asynchronous communication
     o Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)
     o Apache Active MQ


•   GUI Client
     o Command and Control User Interface (CCUI)
     o Eclipse Rich Client Platform (programming language: Java)


•   Encodings
     o XML Schema + Java XML Beans
Participation at IOWave 10/2011 in Jakarta
Conclusion
•   Simple and robust communication model
     o   Follows UNESCO IOC/ICG guidelines
     o   Accounts UN/ISDR recommendations
     o   Based on open standards (OGC, OASIS)
     o   Reference implementation
           • Open source MOM
           • Standard compliant (xml schema)
           • Tested/Validated at IOC exercise



•   Deployment is not a technological problem
     o Longsome decision processes on high levels (political processes)
     o Development of information systems not driven by IT experts
Outlook
•   TRIDEC: EU project focussing on TEWS in Mediterranean
     o Project partner: Turkey – system is running there
     o Cooperation with ICG/NEAMTWS
     o Evaluation which countries are interested to participate


•   Indonesia: Evaluation of the system with real data

•   Convince IOC/ICGs to rely on open standards (Cap, EDXL)

•   Long term: official IOC CAP profile for tsunami bulletins
Thank you!
matthias.lendholt@gfz-potsdam.de
www.gfz-potsdam.de




                           Acknowledgements
DEWS project www.dews-online.org
Funded in FP6, 2007-2010

TRIDEC project www.tridec-online.eu
Funded in FP7, 2010-2013

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ISCRAM 2012 #123

  • 1. Integrating National Tsunami Early Warning Systems towards Ocean-Wide System-of-Systems Networks Matthias Lendholt [1], Martin Hammitzsch [1], Miguel A. Esbri [2] [1] German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Germany [2] ATOS Research, Spain
  • 2. Motivation • Increasing number of national tsunami early warning systems (TEWS) • Increasing number of Crisis Management Information Systems (CIMS) • Research about information systems Do we design + develop + implement + deploy interoperable information systems that are capable of system to system communication? Or do we create more and more isolated islands?
  • 3. Overview • Introduction • Challenge • Results • Reference implementation • Outlook
  • 4. UNESCO Tsunami Programme • UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Tsunami Programme: o Objective: The IOC Tsunami Programme aims at reducing the loss of lives and livehoods that could be produced worldwide by tsunamis. o Four Intergovernmental Coordination Groups (ICG) corresponding to the regions Pacific, Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Mediterranean have been established to address particular regional needs
  • 5. UNESCO Tsunami Programme • Main objective IOC Tsunami Programme: The integration of national TEWS to ensure information exchange during tsunami events.  ICG Implementation plans • IOC ICG/IOTWS, 2008: Implementation Plan “… the establishment of a coordinated regional warning system for the entire Indian Ocean basin, through the establishment of a network of National inter- operable Warning Centres.”
  • 6. ICG Implementation plan • Goal: develop systems-of-systems o Based on Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) • Legal aspects • Workflows o Standardized ICG warning products (bulletins) • Content: What, Where, When • Format: Plain ASCII text designed for FAX transmission • No protocols, technologies, encodings o Standardized ICG spatial reference schemas • Coastal Forecast Zones • Coastal Forecast Points
  • 7. ICG/IOTWS Coastal Forecast Zones • Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZ) introduced to ensure interoperability between TEWS
  • 8. Challenge • Develop a communication model to interlink/integrate national TEWS: 1. According to UNESCO IOC guidelines 2. Accounting UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) recommendations 3. Based on standards of the emergency management domain 4. Applying system-of-systems engineering • Best practices / design philosophy: o Keep it simple o No proprietary technology o Open standards, open source software
  • 9. Information gathering  What are the needs and requirements?  Which information must/must not be shared?  Which technologies must/must not be used? • Experiences from preceding projects o GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) • Literature work o IOC / ICG guidelines, implementation plans, … o ISDR recommendations o Other TEWS related research o Crisis Information Management Systems (CIMS) in general • Survey among experts o Questionnaires, Interviews, …
  • 10. General public Legal Aspects §§§ Cultural background, capacity building Operators Technologies
  • 11. Identified Workflows 1. National Centres (NC) share sensor observations 2. Wide Area Centre (WAC) runs ocean wide tsunami simulation 3. WAC sends warning messages (IOC bulletins) to NCs Wide Area Centre
  • 12. National Centres National Centre National Centre Thailand Sri Lanka National Centre Indonesia
  • 13. Wide Area Centre Infrastructure National Centre National Centre Thailand Sri Lanka National Centre Indonesia Wide Area Centre
  • 14. Earthquake Event National Centre National Centre Thailand Sri Lanka National Centre Indonesia Wide Area Centre
  • 15. Observation by NC National Centre National Centre Thailand Sri Lanka National Centre Indonesia Wide Area Centre
  • 16. Dissemination on National Level National Centre National Centre Thailand Sri Lanka National Centre Indonesia Wide Area Centre
  • 17. Sending observations to WAC National Centre National Centre Thailand Sri Lanka National Centre Indonesia Wide Area Centre
  • 18. Forwarding to NCs National Centre National Centre Thailand Sri Lanka National Centre Indonesia Wide Area Centre
  • 19. Running ocean wide tsunami forecast  IOC bulletin National Centre National Centre Thailand Sri Lanka National Centre Indonesia Wide Area Centre
  • 20. Delivery of warnings to NCs National Centre National Centre Thailand Sri Lanka National Centre Indonesia Wide Area Centre
  • 21. Dissemination on National Level National Centre National Centre Thailand Sri Lanka National Centre Indonesia Wide Area Centre
  • 22. Information Encoding 1. Sensor Observation exchange  SWE (Sensor Web Enablement) messages • XML • OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) Standard • Used by GITEWS and many others sensor related information systems 2. Ocean wide bulletins  CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) • XML • OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) • Widely used in Canada, US and Australia 3.Envelope / addressing  EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language-Distribution Element) • XML • OASIS
  • 23. Example message: EDXL-DE envelope <EDXLDistribution xmlns='urn:oasis:names:tc:…'> <distributionID>urn:org:dews_online:WAC.IO:CAP6_1</distributionID> <senderID>urn:org:dews_online:WAC.IO</senderID> <dateTimeSent>2011-03-10T17:50:28.202+00:00</dateTimeSent> <distributionStatus>Actual</distributionStatus> <distributionType>Report</distributionType> <keyword> <valueListUrn>http://www.dews-online.org/urn/c2c</valueListUrn> <value>BULLETIN</value> </keyword> <contentObject> <contentDescription>CAP message generated by DEWS WAC.IO</…> <incidentID>urn:org:dews_online:WAC.IO:6</incidentID> <incidentDescription>Tsunami Warning</incidentDescription> <xmlContent> <embeddedXMLContent> <alert xmlns='urn:oasis:names:tc:emergency:cap:1.1' xmlns:xsi='…'> <!-- CAP payload with Tsunami bulletin embedded here--> </alert> </embeddedXMLContent> …
  • 24. <alert> … <info> <category>Safety</category> <event>TsunamiWarning</event> <responseType>Shelter</responseType> <urgency>Future</urgency> <severity>Severe</severity> <certainty>Likely</certainty> <onset>2011-04-24T21:18:15.015+00:00</onset> <senderName>urn:org:fosslab:centre:WAC.IO</senderName> <parameter> <valueName>MinTimeOfArrival</valueName> <value>2011-04-24T21:18:15+0000</value> </parameter> <parameter> <valueName>MaxSeaSurfaceHeight</valueName> <value>1.81</value> </parameter> <area> <areaDesc>QUILON</areaDesc> <geocode> <valueName>EX_BOX_ID</valueName> <value>19</value> </geocode> </area> </info> </alert>
  • 25. Reference Implementation • Messaging: o Asynchronous communication o Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) o Apache Active MQ • GUI Client o Command and Control User Interface (CCUI) o Eclipse Rich Client Platform (programming language: Java) • Encodings o XML Schema + Java XML Beans
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. Participation at IOWave 10/2011 in Jakarta
  • 30. Conclusion • Simple and robust communication model o Follows UNESCO IOC/ICG guidelines o Accounts UN/ISDR recommendations o Based on open standards (OGC, OASIS) o Reference implementation • Open source MOM • Standard compliant (xml schema) • Tested/Validated at IOC exercise • Deployment is not a technological problem o Longsome decision processes on high levels (political processes) o Development of information systems not driven by IT experts
  • 31. Outlook • TRIDEC: EU project focussing on TEWS in Mediterranean o Project partner: Turkey – system is running there o Cooperation with ICG/NEAMTWS o Evaluation which countries are interested to participate • Indonesia: Evaluation of the system with real data • Convince IOC/ICGs to rely on open standards (Cap, EDXL) • Long term: official IOC CAP profile for tsunami bulletins
  • 32. Thank you! matthias.lendholt@gfz-potsdam.de www.gfz-potsdam.de Acknowledgements DEWS project www.dews-online.org Funded in FP6, 2007-2010 TRIDEC project www.tridec-online.eu Funded in FP7, 2010-2013