ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHYLaura Emmerson2/15/2013Cover EssayMy love for anthropology started when I was exposed to readings such as JaredDiamond’s Guns Germs and Steel while enrolled in AP World History in high school.The term “anthropology” probably hadn’t even entered into my list of vocabulary wordsat that point. In the end of my high school career I participated in the AP EnvironmentalScience course, which introduced me to various environmental problems that can mostlybe contributed to anthropogenic causes. We learned how the West views naturalresources, for example, we read “Tragedy of the Commons”. In this class we wererequired to participate in some sort of environmental activity and I chose invasive speciesremoval. It sparked my interest in local community involvement with the environment.I continued my work in environment and human studies at Humboldt StateUniversity where I started my anthropology major by the end of my first semester. Thedegree seemed like the best middle ground between the sciences and humanities. Mysecond semester at HSU, I took Paradise Lost?, a class that exposed me to ancientsocieties’ impacts on the environment through the lens of archaeology. We explorednumerous hypotheses of how humans got to North America, how they might have killedoff entire populations of mega fauna, and how certain societies “collapsed”. The next twosemesters I took Intro to Physical Anthropology, Primatology, Ethnography, and theAnthropology of Religion and started my Natural Resources Minor. These classesrequired students to reach a higher level of thinking. I was able to read classic authorslike Darwin and Turner, and others from a vast array of subfields. Those two semesterswas when I had more of a physical anthropology emphasis and gained an interest inprimatology and conservation (which is where all of the conservation/ ethnoprimatologypapers come from in my annotated list).The next two semesters were those of travel. In the Summer of 2011, I attendedpart of the La Selva Primatology Field School and was able to do surveys and census runsto gain experience in the field. In the Fall of 2011 I lived in Mysore, Karnataka in SouthIndia. Here I read cultural, health, gender, and environmental works from a whole newSouth Eastern lens. The professors and texts (Shrinivas) provided a new way for me toview the world. During the last of the semester I was given an opportunity to stay withhost family in Coorg and casually study coffee culture and the farmers’ relationship to theland they were living and working on. The main influences for starting this project wasfrom all of the exposure to the interconnections of conservation, natural resources, andcultural identity traced from other classes and my own interests.The last three semesters I have taken/am taking Environment and Culture, Genderand Communication,Intro to Biology, Paleoanthropology, Egyptology, History ofAnthropology, Intro to Soils, Inscape and Landscape, and the Senior Capstone course; acombination of sciences, theory, and gender studies that has rounded my comprehensiveexperience as a interdisciplinary anthropologist. I also have had the opportunity to be aTA for a physical anthropology lab and a cultural anthropology course. Having thisopportunity has shown me the interworking of the anthropology department and has
given me a chance to put practical use to my skills and knowledge base that I have grownover the years. Through all of the work I have done and can be seen in the followingannotated bibliography, I am looking to have a career that can contribute to conservationand education through local, national, and global involvement.Annotated section:Egyptology Section (Most recent work in Anthropology: Cattle Paper)1. Nabta Playa and Its Role in Northeastern African PrehistoryThis article goes into the Early Holocene, talking about the discovery of the NabtaPlaya culture through archaeological sites found. It contributes to my interest in theorigins ofhumans involvement in domestication.Wendorf, Fred, and RmualdSchild. "Nabta Playa and its role in northeastern African prehistory."journal of anthropological archaeology 17.2 (1998): 97-123.2. Rethinking „Cattle Cults‟ in Early Egypt: Towards a Prehistoric Perspective onthe Narmer PaletteThis article describes the transition from the Predynastic to Dynastic culture inEgypt and the importance of pastoral life and it’s incorporation into religion. It comparesEgypt with other Neolitic cultures outside of Egypt. Used to evaluatehuman/environmental transitions during times of domestication.Wengrow, David. "Rethinkingcattle cults in early Egypt: Towards a prehistoric perspective on theNarmer Palette." Cambridge Archaeological Journal 11.1 (2001): 91-104.3. A Natural History of Domesticated MammalThis book goes through the different domesticated mammals. It traces back thereasons behind domestication and their origins. Used as a guide when looking at variouscultures’ usage of animals.Clutton-Brock, Juliet.A natural history of domesticated mammals.Cambridge University Press,1999.Reference Gems:4. Guns Germs and SteelThis is a book by Jared Diamond, a professor of geography at UCLA, who writesof humans’ separate progression on different continents when introduced to agriculture,advances in technology, the spread of germs along with a new age, and the consequencesof these. This book was one of my first introductions to the subject of Anthropology, firstread in my sophomore year in high school, for AP history.Diamond, J. M., &Ordunio, D. (1997).Guns, germs, and steel (p. 157). New York: Norton5. CollapseThis is a book by Jared Diamond, a professor of geography at UCLA, who writesof how ancient societies collapsed and how that reflects on todays societies and what it
means for the future. It was assigned for an archaeology course at HSU, included as oneof the sparks that got me interested in how humans interact and effect their environmentand how it effects them culturally.Diamond, J. M. (2006).Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. Penguin Group USA.6. Tragedy of the CommonsThis piece is one of the original works of the environmental movement. It holdsthat individuals deplete shared resources (humans act on self-interest) even though theyare aware that the shared resource is meant to be used in the long term. Along with GunsGerms and Steel, this is one of the first readings that exposed me to my interest inhuman/environmental interacts and I subconsciously use it frequently.Hardin, G. (1968). Tragedy of the commons.Science, 162(3859), 1243-1248.7.Once and Future Giants: What Ice Age Extinctions Tell Us About the Fate ofEarths Largest AnimalsThis book explores reasons for mega faunal extinctions during the last ice-age andhow it can be related to today’s world. She brings up controversial topics such asreintroducing top predators into regions that are in need. After hearing Sharon speak atHSU, I was introduced to how looking at the past can help manage animals and discoverideas previously considered incredulous to be possible.Levy, S. (2011). Once and Future Giants: What Ice Age Extinctions Tell Us About the Fate ofEarths Largest Animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.8. Development of Society in India: An OverviewSeeing that Shrinivas is the “Father of Indian Shrinivassocial anthropology” I usethis as a reference to expose other countries interpretations of anthropology.Shrinivas, M. N. (1987). Development of sociology in india: An overview. Economic &PolticalWeekly, 22(4), 135-138.9. The Ritual Process- Planes of Classification in a Ritual of Life and DeathOriginallypublished by Victor Turner in 1969, this chapter gives examples andoutlines the process of ritual and it’s significance in anthropology. I use this workconstantly when looking at ritual-based phenomena.Turner, V. W. (1995). The ritual process: Structure and anti-structure. Aldine.-----------Interests Include: Natural Resources, Local Economy,EnvironmentalAnthropology, Conservation, Zoos/museums, Evolution,Archaeology,Gender, Evolution, Primatology, Interdisciplinary10. The Mammoths‟ DemiseThis article goes go into detail about different hypotheses for why mammoth andother mega faunal species faced their demise during the last ice age. For my studies I useit as an example for covering multiple sides for archaeological evidence, for it touchesupon the overkill, climate change, and disease hypotheses.
The mammoths demise.(1999, September/October).Discovering Archaeology11. Bipedal Body: The Downside of UprightBipedal Body goes into the problems that bipedal humans must face and some ofthe benefits of those sacrifices. I use this information when looking at how humans’development effects our success as a species.Ackerman, J. (2006, July). Bipedal body: The downside of upright. National Geographic12. Sustaining biodiversity conservation in human-modified landscapes in theWestern Ghats: Remnant forests matterIn the Western Ghats there is much conservation to be had and this article viewsthe agro effects on the land. I use this article in from the biology field to bring add to theinterdisciplinary work that I strive for.Anand, M. O., Krishnaswamy, J., Kumar, A., & Bali, A. (2010). Sustaining biodiversityconservation in human-modified landscapes in the Western Ghats: Remnant forests matter. BiologicalConservation, 143(10), 2363-2374.13. Womb as Oasis The Symbolic Context of Pharaonic Circumcisionin RuralNorthern SudanIn this essay, Janice Boddy conducted an ethnography on circumcision in womenand the cultural aspects that lead up to the event and the events following. I use thisarticle in an overall collection of gender works. It helped me remain relativist whenreading something that clashes against my morals.Boddy, J. (1982). Womb as oasis: The symbolic context of pharaonic circumcision in ruralNorthern Sudan. American Ethnologist, 9(4), 682-698.14. Language, Culture and Environment: My Early YearsIn this narrative article, Harold C. Conklingoes into his work as an ethnologistand goes into the value of bringing other disciplines into the field. I have found thatlooking at a anthropologist talking about his work has been beneficial, for I also believestrongly in incorporating other fields for the most comprehensive work.Conklin, H. C. (1998). Language, culture, and environment: My early years. Annual review ofanthropology, 27(1).15.Climate and Culture: Anthropology in the Era of Contemporary Climate ChangeThis review aims to collectively represent the local to global contexts of climatechange with a focus on culture. I use it as a lens to link climate and culture in a world thatis inevitably shifting to globalization.Crate, S. A. (2011). Climate and culture: anthropology in the era of contemporary climate change.Annual Review of Anthropology, 40, 175-194.16. Are We in Anthropodenial?This discovery magazine article looks at how we might be underestimatinganimals’ mental and emotional capacities. I use it when looking at human/animalconnections and how humans are more related to other animals than we typically think.de Waal, F. (1997, July 01). Are we in anthropodenial?.Discover, Retrieved fromhttp://discovermagazine.com/1997/jul/areweinanthropod118017. Ethnoprimatology and the Anthropology of the Human-Primate Interface∗This review examines the interconnection between non-human primates and
humans since they are now often in close quarters. Looking at how the two interrelate canbe beneficial for both conservation and for the relationship among all primates.Fuentes, A. (2012). Ethnoprimatology and the Anthropology of the Human-Primate Interface*.Annual Review of Anthropology, 41, 101-117.18. Human-Environment Interactions: New Directions in Human EcologyThis work goes into the new topics under human ecology such as cultural ecology,human adaptability studies, and human behavioral ecology. Papers like this that delveinto how humans interact with their environment will be useful for conservation effortsGalvin, K. A. (n.d.). Human-environment interactions: New directions in human ecology.Informally published manuscript, Colorado State Unviersity.19. Can Natural History Museums Capture the Future?The Natural History museum system has been a resource to engage/educate thepublic in natural history. This article questions their role and their transition into the 21stcentury and what must in order to be the most effective. I use this article when evaluatingnatural history museums because I would like to work in a field in order to inform andinvolve the public in the natural world.Krishtalka, L., & Humphrey, P. S. (2000). Can natural history museums capture thefuture?.BioScience, 50(7), 611-617.20.Evaluating the Conservation Mission of Zoos, Aquariums, Botanical Gardens,and Natural History MuseumsCollection-based institutions have been used for conservation and this article triesto remind academia of how to effectively use these resources and how to get funding fordifferent purposes. It will be useful in providing a different lens in which to approachconservation.Miller, B., Conway, W., Reading, R. P., Wemmer, C., Wildt, D., Kleiman, D., ... & Hutchins, M.(2004). Evaluating the conservation mission of zoos, aquariums, botanical gardens, and naturalhistory museums. Conservation Biology, 18(1), 86-93.21: Exploring Cultural Drivers for Wildlife Trade via an EthnoprimatologicalApproach: A Case Study of Slender and Slow Lorises (Loris and Nycticebus) inSouth and Southeast AsiaThis article documents findings of the non-human trade in Asia by talking withpeople with direct and indirect relation to the market and how it can relate toconservation. This article has been one of my prime conservation articles.Nekaris, K.A.I.; Shepherd, C.R.; Starr, C.R; andNijman, V. 2010.Exploring Cultural Drivers for Wildlife Trade via an EthnoprimatologicalApproach : A CaseStudy of Slender and Slow Lorises (Loris and Nycticebus) in South and Southeast Asia. AmericanJournal of Primatology.22.Subsistence and Market: When the Turtle CollapsesNietschmann published this article in the seventies about the Misikito Indians inCentral America whose turtle populations were being diminished by industrial fishingpractices and had to shift from simply relying on the reptiles for subsistence, were forcedto use turtles for profit. This article is important because it shows how the current usageof natural resources has shifted human roles in the global economy.Nietschmann, B. (1987). Subsistence and Market: When the Turtle Collapses. Conformity andConflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 265-274.
*23. Anthropology and the Conservation of BiodiversityThis article states the purpose of anthropologists in supporting populations offarmers and indigenous people. Through looking at the local usage of the land, the localcommunity can be linking it to national and international agencies/organizations goals.This work is extremely helpful in my goal of conservation,which starts in serving localpopulation goals and being knowledgeable of them.Orlove, B. S., & Brush, S. B. (1996). Anthropology and the conservation of biodiversity.AnnualReview of Anthropology, 329-352.24. “The First Americans”This article presents numerous possibilities of how humans migrated to NorthAmerica and pushes back the previous dates that were placed for when it started. Like theMammoth article, I look to this work and similar ones to show how different approachesto theories and evidence is beneficial to the field.Pringle, H. (2011, November). The first Americans: Mounting evidence prompts researchers toreconsider the peopling of the new world Scientific American,25.Strategies for Self-organization: Learning from a Village-level Community-basedConservation Initiative in IndiaThis article investigates the interworking and value of self-organization at thecommunity level. The authors contribute the findings to be useful for natural resourcemanagement and conservation, which would benefit the people and the environment.Along with being in India and seeing some of the community organization take place,this article has been relevant to my emphasis in natural resource usage andShukla, S. R., & Sinclair, A. J. (2010). Strategies for self-organization: learning from a village-level community-based conservation initiative in India. Human Ecology, 38(2), 205-215.26. Applied Historical Ecology: Using the Past to Manage For the FutureA team of historical ecologist wrote about their endeavors into looking into thepast and how it can influence the interpretation of data today. Looking at the timelinepattern of fires in forests and the collection of biota in packrat middens, the authors wereable to show the importance of baselines in work. I chose this work because they explainhow “historical perspectives increase our understanding of the dynamic nature oflandscapes and provide a frame of reference for assessing modern patterns and processes,”an interest and focus of mine in anthropology.Swetnam, T. W., Allen, C. D., & Betancourt, J. L. (1999). Applied historical ecology: using thepast to manage for the future. Ecological applications, 9(4),1189-1206.27. Applying Behavioral Ecology and Behavioral Economics to Conservation andDevelopment Planning: An Example from the Mikea Forest, MadagascarThis article goes into how to conserve land while still upholding the economy thatthe locals are used to. They express the importance in “understanding how rural peoplethemselves judge the value of their activities,” which often goes without research. I usethis work to gain an insight into how governments need to be able to understand wherethe locals culture and how it affects their usage of natural resources.Tucker, B. (2007). Applying behavioral ecology and behavioral economics to conservation anddevelopment planning: An example from the Mikea forest, Madagascar. Human Nature, 18(3),190-208.
28. Neanderthals ... Theyre Just Like Us?The Neanderthals were thought to be outcompeted by humans, but recent studiesshow that they might have mingled with Homo sapiens. I use this article whenresearching the potential of crossbreeding and what it means for the primate order. Itmight change the way we look at the way humans interact with their environment.Zielinski, Sarah. "Neanderthals ... Theyre Just Like Us?." National Geographic .N.p., 12 Oct2012. Web. 15 Feb 2013.29. American Anthropological Association (AAA) Blog“The American Anthropological Association (AAA) created this blog as a serviceto members and the general public. A forum to discuss topics of debate in anthropologyand a space for public commentary on association policies, publications and advocacyissues.” It’s useful as it keeps me up to date with anthropological happenings.http://blog.aaanet.org/30. Savage Minds“Savage Minds is a collective web log devoted to both bringing anthropology to awider audience as well as providing an online forum for discussing the latestdevelopments in the field. Savage Minds was founded in 2005 and has been going strongever since.”I use it to keep up with more inclusive space for anthropology.http://savageminds.org/(If I could change this I would add Darwin and Wallace! I completely forgot about them)