Practitioners often fail to apply textbook database design principles. We observe both a perversion of the relational model and a growth of less formal alternatives. Overall, there is an opposition between the analytic thought that prevailed when many data modeling techniques were initiated, and the pragmatism which now dominates among practitioners. There are at least two recent trends supporting this rejection of traditional models:
(1) the rise of the sophisticated user,
most notably in social media is challenge to the rationalist view, as it blurs the distinction between design and operation,
(2) in the new technological landscape where there are billions of interconnected computers worldwide, simple concepts like
consistency sometimes become prohibitively expensive. Overall, for a wide range of information systems, design and operation are becoming integrated in the spirit of pragmatism. Thus, we are left with design methodologies which embrace fast and continual iterations and and exploratory testing. These methodologies allow innovation without permission in that the right to design new features is no longer so closely guarded.