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Asheville school mushroom program


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Asheville school mushroom program

  1. 1. Finding and Identifying Mushrooms Sheila Dunn Asheville Mushroom Club
  2. 2. Why Study Mycology?• Define mycoremediation and give a few examples of how fungi can save the world
  3. 3. What is a Mushroom?• Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of certain fungi -the apple, not the tree.• Classified in the Fungi Kingdom
  4. 4. How Mushrooms are Categorized• Most mushrooms are Basidiomycetes. Specialized cells called basidia produce spores (basidiospores)• Some mushrooms (e.g., morels and cup fungi) are Ascomycetes; they produce spores differently, within tube-like cells called asci
  5. 5. How Spores Are Released•How are they spread?
  6. 6. Mycelium• Spores form hyphae, which in turn form long chains called “mycelium”• When conditions are "just so"- mycelium generate new hyphae which, within several weeks, will develop into a mushroom• What are these conditions?
  7. 7.
  8. 8. What We’ll Do Today• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC – Spring – Summer – Fall – Winter
  9. 9. Where to Get Mushrooms• Grow them (inoculate logs or other substrates)• Go on a foray
  10. 10. Where and When to Look• Don’t’ foray along busy roadsides or in polluted areas (for edible mushrooms)• Watch out: national forests might prohibit• In WNC, March through November• 1-3 days after rain
  11. 11. Foraying• Basket and knife• Waxed paper bags or little paper bags. Why not plastic?• Collect the entire mushroom, including any underground parts
  12. 12. What We’ll Do• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC – Spring – Summer – Fall – Winter
  13. 13. Edible Wild Mushrooms • Over 10,000 mushroom species in the US • About 250 are edible • Some mushrooms are difficult to identify correctly, requiring years of experience,Some mushroomshavent even been many reference books named yet! and sometimes microscopic analysis
  14. 14. Where to Begin???
  15. 15. Types of Mushrooms: Not Just Cap and Stalk• What does a typical mushroom look like?• Some mushrooms look like balls; marine coral; cups or saucers; shelf-like growths on trees, logs or stumps; sponges; bushes; or even cauliflower.
  16. 16. Shapes
  17. 17. Other Shapes: Puffballs
  18. 18. Other Shapes: Shelf Fungi
  19. 19. Other Mushroom Shapes
  20. 20. Preliminary Mushroom ID• Where found (ground, tree)• Season found• Shape• If cap and stem: – Gills, pores, teeth – Stem• Spore print…color
  21. 21. Beginners ID• Note the season• Note where the mushroom was growing: on a tree? on moss? in leaf litter?• Note the size, color• Look under the cap for gills, pores, teeth
  22. 22. Identification Keys and Books • http://www.rogersmushro • www.ashevillemushroom • ID Books – Bill Roody – David Aurora
  23. 23. Identification Keys• Most start with shape – Cap and stem• Today, we’ll focus on preliminary identification of mushrooms with caps and stems
  24. 24. Cap and Stem Mushrooms • Note young and mature forms • Note veil
  25. 25. Step 1. Look Under The Cap• Gills- Agaricales, such as Amanita• Pores – Boletales, such as Boletes, Suillis, etc.• Crevices - Chanterelles• Teeth - Hydnum• These all distribute spores for reproduction
  26. 26. Types of Gills Widely Spaced Giving off milky liquid Closely Spaced Crowded
  27. 27. How Gills are Attached to the Stem
  28. 28. Gilled Mushroom Example: Russula• Stems breaks like chalk• Turtles and squirrels love ‘em!
  29. 29. Look Under the Cap: Pores
  30. 30. Mushrooms with Pores: Boletes
  31. 31. Some Boletes Stain When Touched
  32. 32. Identifying Boletes• Pore color• Bluing when bruised• Stem – Reticulated – Dotted
  33. 33. Look Under the Cap: Crevices,Not Gills, Not Pores, Not Teeth Chanterelle Lobster Mushroom
  34. 34. Look Under the Cap: TeethExample: Hydnum
  35. 35. Getting a Spore Print
  36. 36. Spore Prints: Color Helps Identify
  37. 37. Spore Print Color? Guess……
  38. 38. Look at the Stalk for Veils• Look for a ring of tissue (technically called an annulus) on the upper stalk.• Is there a cup-like sac (a volva) around the very base of the stalk? – Feature of the Death Cap (Amanita phalloides) and Destroying Angel (Amanita virosa) mushrooms.)
  39. 39. Rings on Stem Annulus: Evidence of a partial veil
  40. 40. Patches or Warts on Cap • Check for a universal veil: Shreds, patches or warty material on the stalk, cap, or hanging from the cap margin.
  41. 41. More Evidence of a Veil: Volva• Tissue around entire button• Ruptured by the growing mushroom• May leave warts/patches on cap• E.g., amanita
  42. 42. What We’ll Do• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC – Spring – Summer – Fall – Winter
  43. 43. Morels: Early Spring Spring edible
  44. 44. Stropharia rugoso-annulata Wine capSpring, Summer Edible
  45. 45. Best Edibles: Summer • Chanterelles • Lactarius • Boletes • Lobster (late) • Sulfur Shelf (late) Chicken of theChanterelle Woods
  46. 46. Chanterelles Often confused with Jack O’ LanternSummer Fall edible
  47. 47. Beware of Jack O’ Lantern! Chanterelle- no true gillsJack O’ Lantern- true gillsGlows in the darkGrows in clusters on tree base
  48. 48. Lactarius volemus corrugis indigo hygrophoroidesSummer edible
  49. 49. Beware: Non-Edible Lactarius!• Lactarius piperatus• Lactarius deliciosus• Both are peppery hot• What do all lactarius have in common?
  50. 50. Lobster Hypomyces lactifluorum MushroomSummer Fall edible
  51. 51. Chicken of Woods Laetiporus sulphureusSummer Fall edible
  52. 52. Best Fall Mushrooms• Hen of the woods• Oyster mushrooms• Puffballs• Common grocery store mushroom• Hydnum• Herecium
  53. 53. Grifola frondosa / maitake Hen of the Woods; Great EdibleFall Edible Medicinal
  54. 54. Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatusSummer Fall Winter edible
  55. 55. Puffballs Calvatia gigantea Lycoperdon perlatumSummer Fall edible
  56. 56. Agaricus campestris: Grocery Store Mushroom Meadow mushroomFall Edible
  57. 57. Hydnum umbilicatum Hedgehog mushroomSummer Fall Edible
  58. 58. HericiumErinaceus / lions mane coralloidesSummer Fall edible Medicinal
  59. 59. Time Permitting• Other cool shelf mushrooms in WNC• Mushroom poisoning
  60. 60. Trametes versicolor (Turkey tail)Year round Medicinal
  61. 61. Fistulina hepatica / beefsteak polyporeSummer Fall Edible
  62. 62. Mushroom Poisoning• 2% of all mushrooms• Most not fatal• 4 types of toxins:1. Protoplasmic (Amatoxins)– cell destruction followed Amanita virosa by organ failure2. Neurotoxins Destroying Angel (Psilocybin)– sweating, coma, convulsions, hallucination Psilocybe
  63. 63. Poisonous Mushrooms: Amanita Amanita virosa:Amanita phalloides Destroying Angel
  64. 64. Amanitas: Do Not Eat!!
  65. 65. Questions?Thank You!