TS. NGUV£N VAN HIEN    AUTOCADCHO TU OONG HOA THIET KE     •  •   Sach dung cM sinh vien cac trllilng   kY thu(lt         ...
N gay nay khoa h9C kj thutjt phat triln rat nhanh chong, doi hoi m6i thanh vientrang xii h~i phdi thudng xuyin njp nht)t k...
CHUONG J                                         ?          -      ....                                     MO DAU VE AUTO...
vt!-c ley thu~t va trong silO xuilt. No thvc sv thay d6i v~ chilt trong cOng tac thii!t ki!, gia cOng va mang l~i nang sua...
• Dill dIng    ACADI2 can may co 6 cling. Vai ACADI2 <Ii. cling can t6i thitu 20MB b(> nha, nhtmgthea y~u cilu phai la 50M...
utllitles loaded                                      Hlnh I-I: MrmhlnhACADl2.       CUsor menu button                    ...
Donut                            Ellipse                            Polygon                            Rectangle          ...
• Ctfc c6ch~""h~ 41lm     + GO ~Ao-tQa dQ tuy~t d6i ella diem     + GO vllQ tQa dQ hrrmg d6i ella diem     + DUng -phim ch...
+ H~      d¢ IIg/(oi dllllg UCS :             f(j(j                                                   a     H¢ nay do b,!-...
LENHNEW                                                               Create New Drawing      U;nh NEW de bar dAu ban vema...
_ Trong d6 b<.tn chQn thl! rnl;lc chua t¢p ban ve dn matrong 0 "Directories".         •    _0 hQp "Files" b<;tn dung con t...
Report formal:                               (Examples)     I. Decimal degrees                           45.0000     2. De...
Sa1,l khi cho diem g6c trlii duai, ACAD nhac b<;m cho di~m g6c phai tren cua mien chunh~t gi6i h.l-n ve:                  ...
CHUONG 2                                ,        -     -                               CAC LI;NH VE CO BAN                ...
• each gqi l~nh PLINE til Menu;                             r-----------------~                                Screen Menu...
(ro.100)        pi           70                   P8      p                      70          P"                           ...
Enter tangent spec:          <chi duemg thti: nh~t,PI>   Entersecondtangentspec:      <-chi va~ duemg thu 3, P3>   Radius:...
•             Center/<Start pPint>:                      <coo di<!m PI>             Center/Encl/<Second point>:           ...
• G5 l~nh tir ban phim:             Command:                         polygon             Number of side< ... >:           ...
- Ve .lip bOi Ill" va 2 ban tr~c      Command:             ellipse      <Axis endpoint I>/Center: C      Center of ellipse...
Mouse, Thb1et). Khi di chuyen thi~t bj chi ditm (~n phfm pick chuot vaJe) ACAD se t~o ralo~t cae do~ thlkg fill ngan nOi n...
* Go l¢nh til: bim phim:            Command:           snap            Snap spacing or ON/OFF/ AspeclRfttate/Style< ...>: ...
De gqi l¢nh nay h.n- chi cful them dAu nh<iy "" tnr6c ten l¢nh c~n ra .thVc hi¢n.     Vi dJ,t: Dang dung l~nh PLINE rna b"...
+ OSI/ap t(rc 111m: hf}l1 co the dung OSNAPMODE ttk Ihoi (1 Mn) blmg dch h[im phim chuQt giua (3)hay lin phrm Shift+Niim c...
CHUONG3                    cAc      L~NH BIEN T~P               vA TRA c(tu    Trong khi t~o l~p ban ve b~ thuOng xuy~n ph...
* each gc;>i l~nh ERASE til Menu:                          ,------------------,                                    Screen ...
TRIM   Ch~t tia do~n thua ella d6i tuqng ve bdi cae c~nh dao dt (edge).   :I: each gQi l¢nh lRIM til Menu:                ...
COpy    4nh nay       de                  sao chep cae d6i tuqrtg Wi      vi trl maio   No gi6ng l~nh MOVE, chi ~hac Iild6...
Select object:      <chQn doi tuqng de scale>                 Base point:         <cho diem cO sCi>                  <Scal...
* G6 I~nh tu ban phim:                      Command:                     mirror                      Select object:       ...
ARRAY                        de      B<:Ifl dung l¢nh nay sao chep d6i tUQIlg thanh I ming g6m nhieu d6i tuqng cung ml)tla...
toan mang la 1600 va trong khi sao khong quay d6i hlqng, va hlnh sau co quay doi lUqng(hlnh 3-12).             Hlnh goc   ...
IDnh 3-14 minh hQa di~u do:                     •                         •                       •         .,.           ...
Tni loi P: de vat cho m~t da tuy~n Polyline.Truimg hqp nay gi6ng nhu l¢nh FILLET.     Chu y: Neu bl,m Ilfy cll) dai vat bf...
+ Nt!u b<.1.fi tni Uri B: Truang hqp nay b<:tn da d~nh nghia cac kh6i (BLOCK) vi d~ nhll:DIEM, DOAN, VUONG, v.v... rna muO...
Chu thleh: ACADl2 con e6 l~nh DDCH-PROP de bi.1n lhay d6i de d~e tinh ella d6i luqng qUHhQp tho,!-i nhl1 hlnh 3- 19 .     ...
. + S: stta Polyline thanh duemg cong trem c6 the dieu khitn dugc til cac dinh clla Polylinenhl1 la cac di~m khung. B"lO c...
NextiPreviouslBreaklinsertiMove/RegenlSlraighlenl                                               TangentIWilh/eXil<N>:     ...
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  1. 1. TS. NGUV£N VAN HIEN AUTOCADCHO TU OONG HOA THIET KE • • Sach dung cM sinh vien cac trllilng kY thu(lt (Tai bdn ldn flut hai) AUTODESK .. NHA XUAT BAN GlAo Dl,IC
  2. 2. N gay nay khoa h9C kj thutjt phat triln rat nhanh chong, doi hoi m6i thanh vientrang xii h~i phdi thudng xuyin njp nht)t kiin thuc mCri, c6ng ngh? mCri. Tin h9C dangdUf1c ung dlfng r~ng riii va co hi~u qud cao trong cae linh v¥c cua dlii s6ng, trongkhoa hqe kj thutjt va quan [y, kinh doanh. Trang vi~c tl! dqng hoa thiet_ keva dilu khie"n san xuat, -tin hqc cung dang dU{1cling dlfng nhieu. Phon mbn AutoCAD cua hang Autodesk dang dU{1c sri dlfng ngaycang r~ng r{ii, diJc bi~t trong thilt kl cac ban vi kiln true, xdy d1fng, ve ca khi, di~ntu, hdng kh6ng, bdn dd, sa d6 v.v ... 6 Vi4t Nam nhieu lfnh VIfC san xmit, khoa hqc ky thUtjt va doi sling dang doi hoicac ky thutjt vien sri dl!ng ttIt phon mem AutoCAD trong cong vi?c cua minh. CU6n sach nay t{lO dieu ki~n cho b{ln dflc khai thac AutoCAD mt)t each de dang,co phucmg phap. No dUf/e duc kit III nhilng niim giang dflY cho sinh vien cac truang kythutjt va cae ca quan thilt ke~ T iii li¢u L·O 3 phon: - Phon mt)t: tll chucmg 1 den chuang 8, trinh bay cach ltjp ban vi phJng (2D); - {han hai: tll chuang 9 den chucmg 12, trinh bay cach t{lO ban vim6 hlnh kh6nggian (3D); each xudt m~t ban vima hlnh sang phdn mem khac va ra giay; ngoai rahuimg dan blJn dflC each tflo hinh anh dqng. - Phon ba: huimg dan thlfC hanh cac bai ttjp t6ng hqp dl b{ln dqe tlf hqc m~t eachde dang. Cuan sach nay nhu m~t giao trinh rna Cae b{ln t6 thl dung dl II! hlc va tham khaoling dl:ng rat thutjn /¢ trong thiet kl cae /Jan ve. Tuy nhien do trinh dq co hlJn, sach edn co thie" 501. mong b{ln dqc dong gop ykUn. Thu gop y xin gw ve dia chi: Nhd :coo, ban diao dlf.c· - 81 Tran HUng D{lO - HiJNri. HOfle theo di?n tho{li cua tac gid : 8693418. TACGIA 3
  3. 3. CHUONG J ? - .... MO DAU VE AUTOCAD 1.1. GIOI THI¢U AUTOCAD Trang th~p ky 90, vi¢c khai thac di~n tmio ia van d~ hang driu d~ nang cao nang sufit,.hi~u qu{ cang vi¢c (1 c;ic dan V! kinh te, ky thu~t. M¢t trang nhung l"inh VL!C (juan tn;mg euaTin h9c Ii! ky thu(11 do hQ<l Iren may tfnh ullg dl,mg trong de 110h VL!C khoa hQc ky thu~t (d~c hi¢t III blil vc hie! ke). Co ohieu h~ thong chuang Irinh da duqc xtlY d!I1g eho tl! d¢ng haa thiet ke. Nam 19X5 c6 cUQc Irico Jam v~ "Ky thu(11 may tfoh eha thiet ke xay dL!ng" t .... i thanh ph6 Chicago da gioi thi¢u ohieu h¢ thong phiin mem eho thiel ke Irq giup bang may tfnh kha mo.toh. VI dl,lllhu: - H¢ thong SAP (Structural Analysis Programs) cua My, de C(lp den phuong phap philolu hilu h•.1n va ky thu<~t kct cau trang nganh x[ty dl,Ing. - H¢ CHARVITE ella hang Le Mousieur Consultant eua Phap M thiet ke, tfnh toan vave de mai khung nhiL Di).e bi~t h¢ nay co th~ "dQe" ban ve. - H¢ SSCAD eua hang Space Structure Internation Corporation cua My de tfnh tmin,thiet ke va II! d¢ng hoa ehuydn IU giai do""n thiet ke den dieu khien cac thiet bi che t<,to(CAD/CAM). - HG AUSTIN (Automated Structural Design lntergrated System) cua NhQ.t dung de thietkc eho nh~l 100 tdng. - H¢ BUILDS (Building Design System) eua NamTrieu Ti~n dung de t1nh toan ket c:iuthep, be-tong, nen mong va, tfrih,kh6i luqng. gla thanh, ve ban ve. - H~ MICROFEAP cola lMiLan dung trohg thi€t k~ ktt cau h~thanh. dam. "im. - H~ phan m~m CADKEY eua hang CADKey vll h¢ AutoCAD eua hang AutoDesk elLaMy duqe su dl,lng rAt n)ng rai tr~n.the gi6LNhung h¢ AutoCAD Iii. hang dang dan dau v~h~ th6ng thiet ke trq gi6p bang rnaY tlnh. No Ia phan mem riil m<,tnh, cung cfip cac IGnh Mt<;lo l~p ban ve chinh xae, nhanh eh6ng va sua dOi dugc ngay. AutoCAD con cho pticp nguoi thiet k€ d!ch ehuyen, sao ehep, tay x6a. lhu phong va sap d~t cae d6i tuqng ve. Noco the xufft ban ve ra gifiy qua lTI"l.y ve (Piotter) hay may in (Printer) bang d.e C[1lI l~nhdan gUm. D[ly In. h¢ thong ma cho phep nguoi su dl:mg 11,1 1<;.0 them cae tiGn feh. cae ung dl;lng rieng va giao tiep vai cae phan mem khac. Cho nen kha nang (mg dl;lng ella AutoCAD la ratr¢ng rai. C6ng ngh~ thiet kc va gia eong duqe trq giup eua may tfnh (CAD_Computer AidedDesign. CAM_Computer Aided Manufacturing) dang duqe sir dl,lng nhi~u trong cae I1nh 5
  4. 4. vt!-c ley thu~t va trong silO xuilt. No thvc sv thay d6i v~ chilt trong cOng tac thii!t ki!, gia cOng va mang l~i nang sua"t lao d¢ng cao h<1I1, chilt lUQIlg t6t h<1I1 . •AutoCAD thuOng duqc ling d~ng trong cac finh V1!c sau: ve kien trUc, xay dvng, ve ky thu~t ca khi, -di¢n tir, O-t6, h~mg khOng, ve ban d6, thitt kt studio nha hat, quay phim, ve cae~itu trang ,tri, thiep mai v. v... AutoCAD dii duqc nghi~n cUu nhi~u u) nhiing nam 80, wi nam 1987 phitn ban 10 (Release 10) eq ban daqc hoan thi¢n. Cho toi nay dii co phi~n ban 12, 13, 14 duqc ph6 bii!n khfip the giOi. 0 Vi¢t Nam AutoCAD cGng dang duqc Urig d1ng trong nhi~u finh V1!c; nhu du sii d;lng AutoCAD dang tra thanh ca"p thiet d6i voi nhieu ngam. 1.2. MO DAU vt AUTOCAD 1.2.1. So db quan h~ ngulri . may trong to d(lng bOa YO thiet ke I nhi¢m Vt;I thiet ke I J I ngum thiet ke I I J giao di~n ngum - may (inteface) + - philn om!m h~ th6ng - ph:in mem chuyen dmg ~ ca sa d6 hQa - m~y vi!! (Plotter) MAYTiNH W. dii li~u - may in (Printer) , ket qua 1.2.2. Yeu du thi€t bi de ch~y AutoCAD .. May tinh (Computer) VaiAutoCAD release 12 (viet tfit laACAD12) doi hoi may I01,li IBM ho~c tuang thich, co b¢ nho RAM t6i thieu 4MB, nhmg thea y~u cau la phai 8MB, d6ng thai may phai co b~ d6ng xii ly toan thl!C sv Co-processor 8087. Cho n~n co the dung may AT 386 dllqc cai th~m Co-processor 8087. ho~c may AT486. AT586 thi t6t han. V"i ACADl4. may can t6i thi.!" 8MB RAM. may AT586 va chay trong WINDOWS-95 hay WINOOWS-NT4.x. .. Man hinh V 6i ACAD 12 nen dung card man hlnh c6 b¢ nho 1MB tra Jen, ho~c c6 th~ dung 2 man hinh: m¢t man hinh Graphics va mQt man hlnh lext. 6
  5. 5. • Dill dIng ACADI2 can may co 6 cling. Vai ACADI2 <Ii. cling can t6i thitu 20MB b(> nha, nhtmgthea y~u cilu phai la 50MB. Ngoai ra vi~c xit 15 thea ch€ dQ b" nha ao (Virtual ,Memory)cho n~n doi hoi dung h.tQOg dia tr6ng cang nhi~u cang t6t. • 6 tfia mem: dn co 6 dia mem m~t dQ cao. • Thilt b! vao: chUQt (mouse) ho~c b!lO di~n tit (Tablet). * H~ dieu hanh: h~ dieu hanh PC_DOS, MSJ)OS (Version 3.3 ho~c mai hem). • Thill bi xuat ban vira: co thi dung may ve (Plotter) ho~ may iu (Printer). 1.2.3. Giao di~n AutoCAD a. KhOi diing AU/DeAD co 2 cach d6 khiri d~ng AutoCAD : 1- Khffi dQng bang file acad.exe: Gia sit AutoCAD duqc cai d~t vao 6 ctffig C: vai t~nthu mlc la ACAD, b~n hay go tu ban phim 4i dau nhac cua DOS: C:> CD ACAD ,J <vao thu m~c ACAD> C: ACAD > acad,J <ch~y file .cad.exe> 2- KhiJi dOng bang file b61~nh (Batch file) c6 duOi .BAT; VI d~ .el2.b.t; b~n chi vi~cgo t~n "ac12" t~i defu nhAc h¢ th6ng: C:> acll ,J Chu y: Khi b<).n dii t!).o Batch file dlchl,lY ACAD. thi ACAD dn khbi d{)ng bang ten Batch file d6. Dtra; day la m~t VI d~ ~o n~i dung file b.tch viri ten "ACI2.BAT de khai d~ngACADI2: SET ACAD=C:ACA1JI.SUPPORT;C:ACAD FONTS;C:ACAIJADS SET ACADCF(M;:ACAD SET ACADDRV=C:ACAJN)RV C:ACADACAD.EXE 1% 2% SET ACA[):= SET ACADCFG= SET ACADDRV:::: DOng thu 1,2, 3 d~t cac bien mOi troang cho AutoCAD. DOng thtl 5,6,7 de x6.cae bien.mOi truUng da cM d~t sau khi thoat khbi AutoCAD. b. Man hinh Au/oCAD D6i vOl ACADI2 man hloh la man blnh graphics, xem hlob I-I. Man hlnh do h9 AutoCAD bao g6m cac pMn s.u day: 1· Viing dol h<)a (Graphics area) 2 - Dong I~nh (Command line): 11 noi ~ao l¢nh va hi¢n cae nhAc nha. No nam dum aday man hlnh. . 3 - Dong tr~ng th.U (Status line): lJ tr!n diJ;ih man hlnh. N6 thOng bao tn:mg thai hi~nthai cua ban ve. Vi dl,l t~n lap hi~n thail cac mode xac dinh t93 dQ con tro (Cross hair). a 4 ~ UCS icon: H bieu tuqng v6cta h~ th6ng t(;la ~. N6 n~m g6c duai - trni cua manhlnh. S -,Screen Menu: nam ben ph3i m~n hlnh, dung-d~ vao l~nh bang con chuQt (Mouse)h~~c bang bang di~n tu (Tablet). Mu6n g9i l¢nh. ~ dua con tro chu¢t t6i kich sang I~nhcin ch9n va bam phim tnii chu¢t (pick button, hlnh 1-2), ho~c in Enter. 7
  6. 6. utllitles loaded Hlnh I-I: MrmhlnhACADl2. CUsor menu button 6 - Pull-Down MenuPick bullon Enter button UI thl!e dcm trilj xu6ng va cae hl)p tho<;li, Khi b""n II dua con tro chul)t len dong tr.lng thai (status line), man I hlnh hj~n ra dong Menu Bar, bt),Jl chc,m m(lt menu se hi~n ra bllllg menu Inii xu6ng (hlnh 1,-3), Tll menu lraJ xu6ng b""n chon J¢nh bfmg each di con tro chu,, kfch sang ten l¢nh va btlm phfm trili chu(lt (Pick button) ho.)e 5n Enter. - Th~/c don con lro (cursor menu) L D6i vai chul)t 3 mit bam, b5m nut gina (ho~c rin Ilnh 1-2. V" Shifl+nut phai) se hi¢n ra h"p cursor menu. c. each )lio 1~llh di A lIloeAD IJ",lc hi~n Khi b duai day mall hlnh hi~n ra lai nhAc "Command:" tlre la AutoCAD dang san sangti€p nh~n It;nh ella b<;lll dua ra. B<,ln c6 the V30 l~nh bfing 2 each sau day: I - Vao l~nh tu ban phim: bf,m go ten l¢nh tll ban phfm sau d6 an Enter ho~cSpace-bar de AutoCAD thlfc hi~n. 2 - Vilo I~nh tit Menu: bq.n dung chuQt ho~c lh.blet chi cho AutoCAD bi€t bf,m mu6nve b duu va vc di gl. oci Hl.In dieu d6 bq.n hay chuyen con tro laj Screen Menu fJ ben phaim~m hlnh, di con Iro kich sang I~nh va bt"m phfm Imi chu(ll (Pick). 8q.n cung c6 the dua contro tai dong menu-bar b tren dinh man hlnh, kich sang m"t menu b.ln mu6n, nhay phfmPick ehu", sc hi¢n ra Pull-Down Menu de bq.1l chqn J¢nh. Neu dung phfm ehu", thu 3 (gifra) ella ehu(lt ho~c An Shifl+phfm phai ChUQI, AutoCADse dua ra Ihlfc dcm con Iro (Cursor menu) de b.ln gQi I~Jlh OSNAP (xem chucmg 2,li€12-12).8
  7. 7. Donut Ellipse Polygon Rectangle Insert ... 3D Surfaces Hatch ... Text Dimensions Hlnh 1·3: Pull-Down Menu ellll ACADI2. B<,ln c6 th~ l~p l~i mQt I~nh vtra Sil d~mg b~ng each an phlm chuQt ben phai ho~c Enter,ho~cSpace-bar. d. Sil d(lflg cac ky t(t lUlu khidn, cac phim chrlc nang, go tilt l¢nh Ngoai cae phfm Enter, Space/wr hay phfm chuQt, cae eh{rc nang dieu khi6n con g6m 2phfm: Ctrl+ mQt phim khac. Ctrl + C : M huy bo 1 l~nh; Ctrl + G = F7 : M b~t/dl ch€ di) hi~n l..oi (GRID); Ctrl + 0 ::: F8 : b~t/tat eh€ d¢ ve th~ng dung/nam ngang (Orlho mode); Ctrl + B = F9 : M b,H/," ch€ d6 lao l..oi (SNAP); Ctrl + 0 ::: Fl : chuy~n Itl man hlnh Text sang mim hlnh Graphics va nguqe If,li; F6 : b~t/tat vi~c hi¢n tQa do t~i di6m con Iro dtmg. * Cac l¢nh co the go tat A::: l¢nh are M::: Move C :::: Circle P:::: Pan E :::: Erase PL:::: PLine L:::: Line R::: Redraw LA:::: Layer Z:::: Zoom e. Cach vdo dii: lieu a SU dl;lng h¢ don vj do chieu dai va do g6e deu cho dl..mg Ih~p phan. Trj s6 dua tir banphfm vao Ht s6 nguyen hay s6 c6 mang dtlu cham th~p ph1)n. G6c co g6c 0 huang sang philiva ehieu tang ella g6e theo chieu nguqc veti chicu quay kim dOng hO. C6 th~ vao dO li¢u til ball phim, vao b~ng phfm ehuQI, tablet va eae phlm djeh chuytnsqi t6c (Cross hair). 9
  8. 8. • Ctfc c6ch~""h~ 41lm + GO ~Ao-tQa dQ tuy~t d6i ella diem + GO vllQ tQa dQ hrrmg d6i ella diem + DUng -phim chul)t, tablet chi diem + DUng phim di chuyen tr~n b~m phim + Diing Object snap (bilt d6i tuqng) d~ neo con tro vai d6i tuqng dii ve. Duai day trlnhbay cae each cho diem hang t<;>a d¢ thuang dung trong thi¢t k€: • T(}a dl) tuy~t d61 T<;>a d¢ tuy~t d6i til tr~ 56 thl!c ella cae t<;>a d¢ x,Y,z so ~Oi gae o. B~n co the bb qua tqs6 z, hie c1y AutoCAD them van gia tri z bang tQa d¢ hi¢n thai Vi d~ : 3, 12.5 (x=3, y=12,5) • T(}a dt) tuong d(ji TQa d¢ wang d6i Hl tQa d¢ so vOi diem dii chi d!nh truuc do. De cho tQa d¢ tlIang d6ib~n phai them dau @ (At-sign) phfa tnlOc tQa d¢: @X2,Y-2 so vai diem trl16c do (Xl,Yl) lam goc. Vi d1,l: 010 P2: @S.S, -to, n~u diem chi d~nh tnIac dola Pl(lOO, 50), lhi tQa dQ luangd6i do llIang dUoI1g vai tQa d¢ tuy~t d6i la (105.5, 40). • TiJa dt) clfC tuang dOl TQa d¢ C,!C dlIqc cho biing ban kinh p va g6c quay <po TQa dl) c,!c tlIang d6i dlIqc chonhlI sau: @ p < <p Vi d1,l: @ 10< 30.5, nghia la p=lO, goc d~nh hlICmg c.p=30030so voi di~m vira chi d~nhlrU6c do. • T!Ja dt) tr~: vi d1,l cho 8<45, 20 nghia ta p=8, c.p=45° va z=20. • TfJa til! cciu,: vi d1,l cho 8<45<30 nghia ia p=8, <p=45° va goc so voi m~t phfuJg (x,y)11130° . • H~tfJa~ co 2 h~ th6ng toa d~: wes (World Coordinate System) 10 h~ toa d~ tM gi&i bay h~toa d~ chuiln; h¢ thu hai lit ues (Usre Coordinate System) lit h~ tQa d~ ngum dung "10 ra. + Hf t9a dr) the gim WCS: la h¢ tQa dt) chmin c6 dinh. Do 1; h¢ tQa dl) D~-cac thangg6c, trong d6 tfl:lc X nam ngang, trI,lc y thang dUng so v(ri man hinh, con m,.c z vuOnggoc voi x,y. M~t ph~ng (xy) dlIqc gQi la mi).t ph1lng kic!n t~o (Constuction Plane), xemhlnh 1-4. y Y(jt pha,q kien tQo Hlob 1-4 Mloh 1-510
  9. 9. + H~ d¢ IIg/(oi dllllg UCS : f(j(j a H¢ nay do b,!-n tl! t!-o va co the d~t bal ky vj 111 nao b<;ln mu6n. No giup b~n ve die d6itlCQl1g 3 ehi6u (3D) mqt each de. dang. S6 luqng cae UCS HI kh6ng hqn chc. Cho nen trenm6i ni~t elJa v~t th~ 3 chi6u bZ.1n d~t mQt UCS rieng de dua v6 ve trong 2 chi6u (2D) mqtdeh d~ dang. H~ tQa d6 duqc djnh huang bang bi~u tltqng (Coord inate System Icon). Bl;Inhay xem vi d~1 hinh J -50 tren. Chi cluj: D~ xJ.c dinh huang dUOng lr~lc z, nglfoi ta dung LJuy I ttl: b~n lay phili. Hay d~l1 bim lay phai 0 vitri sao cha ng6n cUi dqc theo chieu duang tryc x, ng6n Iro d<;IC chi6u dUOllg y, va ng6n giiJa g~p l~i vuOng g6cv6i ng6n cui va ng6n fa sc chi lmOng dUOllg ln~c z . 1.2.4. Cae I¢nh ti¢n ich (Utility Commands) LENH HELP HAY ? Trong ACAD co hoTl 100 l~nh vai nhieu ll!a ch9n (O ptions). ACAD cu ng cap l ~nhHELP de eho b<;ln ro chi tiet ve tUng 1~l1h hOi!-c danh sach to~m b¢ cae I¢nh cua ACAD. Vi dlr De xem chi tiet ve l¢nh ZOOM, b~n go vao dong l¢nh sau: Command: help Command name (Return for List): zoom Sau khi vao l¢nh, man hinh xufft hi¢n hqp tho,!-i HELP. Trong do co cac m~c: + Hel p Item (nwc can trq glup): h<.lIl c6 the g5 ten l¢nh vao. + Index: khi b<;ln barn vao phfm Ihdex ACAD li¢t ke ra tat d. dc I¢nh va d.c bien. B,!-ncJ1Qn ml,lc dn xem va nilan vuo OK. Li;:N H FILES L¢nh nay d~ hi¢n ra dc FILES trang tllu rnl,lc, ho~c de x6a, dOi ten, sao chep cac files: Command: files Sau khi vao l ~nh se hi¢n ra hQp Iho~i co nQi dung nhu tren (hlnh 1- 6). File Utilities List files ... ] I Copy tile... II Rename file ... I IDelete tile ... I IUnlock file ..] I E~it I Hinh 1-6: Ifl)p Iho<.li ti9n fch FILE ctm ACAD12 _ Li;:NH SHELL (SH) L¢nh nay eho phcp b:~m tht!c hi~n e<l.c li¢n Ich eua h¢ di6u hlmh DOS lrong khi van con dang 0 t[ong m6i truang ACAD. Com mand: sh DOS command : (b~n vao ten l ~n h cua DOS) De tro ve ACAD b,!-n hay go EXIT. Li;:NH STATUS (TRANG THAI) L¢nh nay th6ng bao tr~ng thai hl9n thai cua blm vi!: klch thtroc bim ve, kieu dUOng net, lap ve vv... II
  10. 10. LENHNEW Create New Drawing U;nh NEW de bar dAu ban vemaio Sall khi gQi I¢nh n ~y mQl hQptho<.ti "Create NCi Drawing" xuahien nhu hlnh 1-7 .. lJololype:;; ] Ic"c::_ _ _ _ _ _ _--- d D~ d~t ten eho ban ve m6"i b~n No Prolotype og6 ten bim ve vao 6 "New DrawingName", duOi t¢p tin ban ve o Retain as Default".DWG" ACAD tu them vao. Neub~n danh dau "x" VaG 6 " No proto~ type" rue la b~n kh6ng dlmg b~m ve I Ne. Orowing N,med = c - = =,--------- ,,=11 mftu rieng nao, ACAD se It! dQng dua vao eho ban vi! mai mt)t ban ve W iCancel1 m&u theo aead.pat. Nell b~n mu6n ban ve mai co slr d~mg bim ve mau rieng da: e6, bi.lI1 can nhan phfm Hlnh 1-7: H¢p tho.li voi I~nh NEW cila ACADt2. ehllQt vao 6 " Prototype", rai dua ten t~p mfill (d 6 rna va dUOng dAn neu dn) va~. San vB mau nay da: duqe djnh d~ng ve doo vi do, giai h~n ve, khung ban ve, d~t cae lap ve, die tham s6 kfeh thucre ... ehn thich: Khi eho bien FILEDIA gia trj 0, ACAD12 kh6ng dltd r:I h(Jp thol)i. Khi d6 b,!n vao ten banve moi eho dong nh~c snu: Enter NAME of Drawing: 8l)n eh(;m I lrong 3 deh tra lai sau: a. Go ten bim ve van (tlee Iii dung bim vi; m~lI m~e djnh trong acad.pnt) b. GOlen ban vi! mm = len ban ve lmiu (VI d~: True 1= MAU2) c. Go Itn han vi; m6i = (IUC la b.1Il khong dung ban ve mau nito. vi d~. Trucl=). LENHOPEN L¢nh nay d~ 111& mQt bim ve dfi co ra dci so~n thao. Sau khi gQ i I~nh OPEN, hi~n ra hQp tho.!i nhu hlnh 1-8. Open Drawing File t:!ame: 1··dWg Q.irectOlies: d:acadsampfe I. OK I engine.dwg • I, Cancel .. I housepln.dwg nozzle3d.dwg pentagon.dwg planplOf.dwg !Jpe II psfilpal.dwg psglobe.dwg uhadow.dw • find File... Lisl Files 01 Type: Oriyes: DRead Onl/ Mode hl ",IO",ra",wi", ,,. W ,--)_""I G ng"· Oc:..: 1121 d: graph Ipu Ii.] D ~elecllnilial View H1nh 1·8: H¢p tho,!-i l~nh OPEN ell<! ACADI2. 12
  11. 11. _ Trong d6 b<.tn chQn thl! rnl;lc chua t¢p ban ve dn matrong 0 "Directories". • _0 hQp "Files" b<;tn dung con tro chuQt kfch sang ten t¢p va bam phfm pick chuQt dechQn t¢p can ma. Ho~c b<.tn cGng co the g5 ten t~p vao 0 nho "Filcs"a ph fa du6i . _ Ban danh dau "x" vao 0 "Select initial view" d~ hien anh bim ve ra xem tntoc. _ N6u b<.tn danh dffu "x" vao 0 "Read Only Mode" th1 ban ve duqc rna ra chi d~ xern m~lkhOng sua d6i duqc. _ Cu6i clll1g b~n bam vao OK t~p tin b~m ve do se dUQc ma ra. _ Tntang hqp b"-l1l khOng rnu6n rna ban ve ra nu-a, hay nhay chuQt vao 0 "Cancel". LENH CAT BAN vii (GHI LEN DIA) Co 2 each cat bim ve khac nhau nlm sau: 1- Command: save cat ban ve vai ten cO Illc gQi ra. 2- Command: save as HQp tho<.ti hi¢n ra b<.ln eho ten file va duang d§.n moi de cat bun ve. LENH THOAT KHOI ACAD (L~NH QUIT) Command: quit Sau khi v~o I¢nh QUIT mallhlnh xufit hi¢n hQp tho;:ti de b<.ln Drawing ModilicationIl!a chQIl (hlnh 1-9). + Save changes ... : c6 cat r:o"""""7,...",Th;C;CU"1rrent drawing has been ~ch.:.:a~ng~e.:.:d._ _-,nhling thay d6i ella ban vekhong. + Discard changes: bo qua lliscard Changes I£.n~el. Command Icac thay dOi, khOng cat. + Cancel command: hily bo Hlnh 1-9: HQp thO.li l¢nh QUIT ella ACADI2.I¢nh QUlT LENH UNITS L¢nh nay d€ xac d!nh don V! ve (do chieu dai, do goc, dQ chinh xac). Command: units Units report formats: (Examples) 1. Scientific 1.55E+0 1 2. Decimal 15.50 3. Engincaring 1_3.50" 4. Architectual l 3.1/2" 5. Fractional (h6n sO) 15.1/2 Enter choice, I to 5< ... >: 2 D6i voi tieu chuan Vi¢t Naill (TCVN) ch9n 2 (h¢ met). V6i eac h!a chQn 1,2,3 thlxuat hi¢n dong nh~c sau day de b"tn ch9n ti€p s6 so e sau da"u phay (dau cham trongti€ng Anh): Number of digits to right of decimal point (0 to 8)< ... >: (cho s6 s61e sau dau phfiy thap phan, til I den 8). Neu chQn chuc nang 4, 5 lh. nhlic nho tiep Sf Iii: Denominalor of smallest fraction to display(l, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16,32 or 64)< ... >: (b.ln chQn mall s6 Clla ph.1n ph~n so nha nhAt). Sau do I~nh UNITS thOng bao tiep de b,!n chQn dan V! do goc nhu sau: 13
  12. 12. Report formal: (Examples) I. Decimal degrees 45.0000 2. Degree/Minutes/Seconds 45 d O 0" 3. Grad 50.0000 g 4. Radiant 0.7854 r 5. Surveyors units (dan vi ban dO) N 45d 0 0" E Enter choice, I to 5< ... >: 2 Theo TCVN b<.ln nen chQn 2 (d,,/phlit/gity). Sau do ACAD nhflc nhe, tiep de b",n chQns6 chO hien lhi phfin Ie clla gOc: Number of fractional places for display of angle(O to 8)< ... >: Bfty giu ACAO nhk nhi1 ehQn huang chuan ella g6c: Direction for angle 0: (huang ella g6c 0) East 3 oclock = 0 North 12 oclock = 90 West 9 oclock = 180 South 6 oclock = 270 Enter direction for angle 0< ... >: (b,111 chQn goc 0° bang go 0, hay chQn 90, 180,270). Cu6i cimg de chon chitu duang clla gOc, ACAD nhac nhc,: Do you want angles measured clock wise?< ... >: Il.::m tnl lai "Y" la d6ng y gOc do thea ehieu quay kim d6ng h6, ho~e uN" thea chitunguqc I""i (TCVN cho goc ducmg quay nguqc chitu kim d6ng h6). Chu thieh: Units Control 1- ACADt2 con dlla ra Mnh DDUNITSde hi¢n hQp IhO<,li eho b:ln h!achQnlhco cae Units AnglesnQi dung 1tt(1I1g Ilf nhu Iren. xem hlnh 1-10. 2- li~l 1.2.3 tr~n dAy dii Irinh bay 2 o .scientific ® Decimal Degreescach SQi J¢nh Clla AutoCAD: m¢1 la go lenI¢nh lit ban phim; hai Iii van Itnh tit Screen ®[~etlm~:!J o Deg/Min/SecMenu ho~c Menu Bar. 0 drty muOn gQi lenhUNITS tit Menu la lam nhu sau: bl!-n dung o ,Engineering o .GradschuQI kfch sang SE111NG tren MenudQC(Scn:cn Menu), ho~c tTen Menu ngang o Architectural o Badians(Menu &tr), sau d6 di con Iro t6i Mnh o fractional o SuryeyorUNITS va nhay phfm pick chu(ll v1.o d6. Tabieu thi qu6 Ir"inh gqi I~nh UNITS tit Menu erecision: Precision:nhu sau: Screen Menu> SE1TJNG > Units 10.0000 IiI 1 0 IiI Menu &tr> SE1TJNG > Units Control OK II Cancel II12he ctlon ... llllelp ... I L$NII LIMITS IIlnh 1-10: Htlp thoai I~nh DDUNITS Clla ACADI2. L¢nh nay dtmg de d~1 giai h<,lnvung ve (khO bim vel. Command: limits ON/OFF/<Lowcr left corner>< ... >: - Dap rn~c d!nh: cho diem gOc tn,i duai - ON/OFF: neu Ira lui ON b~n chi ve duoc iJ ben lrong mU!n giai h<.tn LIMITS; con tnilui OFF b<;11l co lh~ ve c;l trong va ngoai LIMITS da d(ll.14
  13. 13. Sa1,l khi cho diem g6c trlii duai, ACAD nhac b<;m cho di~m g6c phai tren cua mien chunh~t gi6i h.l-n ve: Upper right comer<. ..>: (cho diem g6c phai tren) Ghi ehu: Sau khi d~t gim h""n vi! bdi I¢nh LIMITS , b~ c6 the dUa tOIm bl) gioi h{ln ve d6 ra man hlnlJb~ng I¢nh ZOOM vl1i li,a ch9n ALL; m~t idt<k khi xu:rt ban ve ra in du<;x: chfnh dc LIMITS dii d~t. 1.2.5. T~o b:ln ve khm thuy (Prototype Drawing) Vice dau lien khi l~p 1 bim ve 1a 1<.to moi truOng cho ban ve chua cae thOng tin ban dau.Do la~ dcm vi do. giai h.ln bim ve, t~o lap, d~t lum, kieu ghi kich thuOc, kieu chiL. nhUngthong tin do thuOng it thay dOi d6i v6i nguo; sir d:lng, cho nen thuOng d~t chung thanh 1 fileva gqi la ban vi" khtli thuy (Prototype Drawing - PD). Sau nay mlli khi I~p ban ve mm b~ngqi ten ban ve khai thuy ra dung d~ tranh nh~p di nh~p l~i mi?t 10.lt cac thong tin ban dau ave moi tCUang ban viS (xem l¢I1h NEW tiet 1.2.4 treng chuoog nay). Trong ACAD ding co san ban ve khai thuy trong file acad.dwg nhlffig co mQt s6 thOngtin khOng pho. hqp vai tieu chuAn Vi¢t Nam, b.ln dn d~t l.1-i . • Cdc butte t~o ban vi khtli thuy (PD) nhu sau 1- Xac I~p don vi ve, dung ~nh UNITS. 2- D~t gim h~ ve (Ung voi khO gilly A4, A3, ... ), dung I~nh LIMITS. 3- f1iin th! toan be> gi6i h.l-n ve ra man hlnh, dung I¢nh ZOOM h!a chqn ALL. 4- Ve khung ban ve, khung ten, dung l~nh LINE ho~c PLINE (xem chuong 2, tiet 2-2va tiet 2-3). 5- D~t cac thOng s6 khac: * D~t lucri ve, dung l¢nh SNAP va GRID (chuong 2, tiet 2-12) . • Tao lap cho ban ve, dung l¢nh LAYER (xem chuong 6, tiet 6-2). * T.lo kieu ghi kich thuac vai cac bien kich thuGC b.ln chqn, dung l¢nh Dim VAR. * Tl!lo cae kieu viet chil, dung l¢nh STYLE (xem chuoog 5, tiet ·5- f ). 6- ott gill han vo khiJi thuy (PD), dung l¢nh SAVE AS. Ghi ehu: cae b!,ln mm h9C AutoCAD ehi dn bim vi! khOi thuy l~p theo cac buUc 1, 2, 3, 4, 6. 15
  14. 14. CHUONG 2 , - - CAC LI;NH VE CO BAN .,2.1. POINT: YO di.!m * each gQi I~nh POINT til Menu: .-----------------, Screen Menu> DRAW> Point Menu Bar > ORAW > Point * Go l¢nh tu b~m phfm: Command: point Point <eha tQa dQ ella diem> ACAD12 dtmg bien POMODE xac djnh caed~ng diem khac nhau va bien PDSlZE xac djnh Point Style _ _kfch thucrc di<!m nhu b<mg sau da.y (hloh 2~ I):2.2. UNE: VO drrang th~ng, drrang gap + X khuc thang 0 0 -$- l2l: () * Okh goi l~nh LINE til menu: Screen Menu> ORA W > Line D D $- J2,1 [1J Menu Bar > DRAW > Line * Go l¢nh Ilr ban phfm: D D -$- f.2l [J Command: line From point: <e1lO diem dau> Point ,S.ize: 15_0000 I" To point: <ellO di~m tiep thee> ® Set Size Belative to Screen To point: <eho diem tiep thee, o Set Size in Absolute Units ho~c U, C, Enter> Bi)1l g6 U neu muon bo do~n th&ng vua ve; g5 OK I Cancel I 1 tldp ... IC de dong kin ducrng gap khuc. Vi d~: hloh 2-2. Hlnh 2-1: H9P Ihm_li ella l~l1h POINT trong Command: line ACADI2. From point: 100,120 To point: @ 40<60 P2 To point: @40<-60 -60 To point: c To point: .J2.3. PUNE (POLYLINE) L~nh oay de ve da tuyen (Polyline) g6m caedo~n thang va cae eung tron noi tiep nhau_Chung eo the cho d¢ r¢ng net, lo~i ducrng net P1L-~ ________ ~ P3khae nhau(ducrng lien, duemg dU!, duemg cham (100,120)gach ... ). Hinh 2-216
  15. 15. • each gqi l~nh PLINE til Menu; r-----------------~ Screen Menu> DRAW> Pline Menu Bar > DRAW > Pline • Go l~nh til blm phim; • Command: pline From point: <cho diem dliu> Current line width is 0.0000 <~ r¢ng hic;n thai la 0> ArdClose/HalfwidthILengtblUndolWidtbl<End point of U"e>: • Dong nMc dO Ung viti vidofln thdng, cac lila chQn de ve nhu sau: + aWn A: chuyen ti:r ve dUCmg thing sang ve Clog tron n6i tiep. + aWn C: dOng kin da tuyl!n l~i. + ChQn H: de nh~p vaG mra be r"ng net ve. + ChQIl L: de ve do~n thing co chien da:i du<;IC dua VaG va co cung d¢ nghieng vCri dof,lllth~ng tnrac d6.Nt!u tnJac d6 13, eung tron thi dof,lll th~ng mm tie? xuc v6i cung tron do. + Ch9n U: x6a do~n vila ve tnrac do. + Chqn W: chi dinh be r{mg net ve cho do~n til!p theo. + M~c d!nh: ~n cho tl?a dl) diem thi do la mut thu 2 eua do~n. • Ntu vi c:ung trim thi dong nhac.: senhu sau : Angle/CEnter/CLoselDirectionIHalfwidtb/LinelRadiusiSecond . pointiUndolWidtbl<End point of arc>: + aWn A: cho goc Om eua eung tron. + ChQn CE: cho tAm cung trOn. + ChQn D: chi ra hU6ng ve cung tron Iii hUOng ti€p tuy€n t~i diem d<iu cung trOn. + awn R: cho ban kinh cung tIim. VI dw hlnh 2·3 Command p1ine.J From point: 70,150 Current line width is 0.0000 <~ r(mg hi¢n theJi HI. 0> Arc/Close/LengthlUndo/Width/<End point of line>: @70,0 Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>: a Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius,lSecondpoint/ Undo/Width/<Ilnd point "f arc>: @6O<·90 Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/LinelRadius/Second point/Undo/Width/<End point of arc>: 1 Arc/Close!Halfwidth/LengthIUndo/WidtbJ<End point of line>: @·70,0 Arc/Close/Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>:. @20<90 Arc/Close/Halfwidth!LengthlUndo/Width/<Ilnd point of line>: a Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second point/Undo/Width/<End point of arc>: r Radius: 10 Aogle/<End point>: @0,20 Aogle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second QOintJJndoJWidh/<End lOin, of arc>: I Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<Bnd polm 0 ,=>.. c 17
  16. 16. (ro.100) pi 70 P8 p 70 P" PS ffinh2-3 mnh 2·42.4. CIRCLE: VO duilng tron * each gQi l¢nh CIRCLE til Menu: ,-----------------~ Screen Menu> DRAW> Circle Menu Bar > DRAW > Circle • Go l~nh til ban prom: Command: circle L¢nh circle d~ ve duemg trOll thee cae each x.ac dinh khac nbau: • Cho 14m va ban klnh (hinh 2-4): Command: circle 3P/2P{ITR/<Center point>: 75,50 <cho tfun, vi dV 75.50> Diameter/<Radius>: 30 <cho D ho~c R, vi dl,l cho R=30> • CII. 14m va tI/lllng klnh: lUang !f nbu Wn. • Clio 3 tJilm (3P) Command: circle 3P/2PfTIR/<Center>: 3P First i><>int: <chQ .rnem tM nMt> Second point: <cho diem thil 2> Third point <cho diem thll 3> • Cho 2 tIilu mul ella ~I tt/lilng klnll (2P) Command: circle 3P/2P{ITR/<Center point>: 2P First point on Diameter: <cho mut thO 1 ella duemg kfnh> Second point on Diameter: <cho mut thil 2 ella duang kinh> • Ve tI/lllng IrOn litp xue v;; 2 tI/lllng eho /rUUc (ITR) Vi du: hlnh 2-5 Command: circle 3P/2P{ITR/<Center point>: TIR (ho~c T ) Enter tangent spec: <chi dUCmg thtl ohAt PI> Enter second tangent spec: <chi duCmg thtl 2 Hi P2> Radius: 34 Command: .J 3P/2P{ITR/<Centerpoint>: TIR
  17. 17. Enter tangent spec: <chi duemg thti: nh~t,PI> Entersecondtangentspec: <-chi va~ duemg thu 3, P3> Radius: 752.5. ARC: Vi! cung tron ,.I",-,,}"."-",,-". * Oich gQi l¢nh ARC tilMenu: I Screen Menu> DRAW> Arc Menu Bar > DRAW > Arc • * Go I¢nh til ban phim: Command: arc Vi! cuog tr«)n theo cac each nhtl sau: .Cung tr~n qua 3 diim (hlnh 2-6) Hlnh 2·5 Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> PO Center/End/<Second point>: <cho diem P2> PO End point: <cho diem P3> - Diim d(iu (Start), tam(Center), diim cud! (End): PiS,C,E Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: C Center: <cho tam> Angle/Length of chord/<End point>: <cho dit!m cu6i P2> - Diim dau, tlim, g6c om (Include Angle): S, C, A Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: C Center: <cho tam> Angle/Length of chord/<End point>: A Include Angle: <cho goc Om> - EJiim dau, tam, chieu dai cung (Length oj chord): S, C, L Command: arc Center/<Start point>: «ho diem PI> Center/End/<Secondpoint>: C - Center: «ho tam> Angle/Length of chord/<End point>: L Length of chord: <cho chieu d~i cung> - Diim ddu, diim cudi, ban ktnh: S, E, R Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <coo diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: E End poind: <cho diem cu6i P2> Angle/Direction/Radius/<Center point>: R <l Radius <cho ban kinh> - EJiim dciu, diim cutfi, goc dm: S, E, A Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> 19
  18. 18. • Center/<Start pPint>: <coo di<!m PI> Center/Encl/<Second point>: E End poind: <cho diim cu6i P2> Angle/Direction/Radius/<Center point>: A Include Angle: <cho g6c ()m> • Dilm tlDu, dilm COOl, hUt1ng phdt min: S, E, D Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: E End poind: <cho diem cu6i P2> AngleIDirection/Radius/<Center point>: D Direction from start point <cho huang g6c quay +, hay -> - Ve cung tron n6i tiep v6i mQt duimg dti cho Giii su truac do ta d3: ve 1 duemg thAng hay 1 cung tron, trong l¢nh ARC nell ta ENTERa dong nhlic da.n tien thl cung tron ve fa se n6i tiep voi duemg dli co. Vi dl!-: hloh 2-7 (11(1.10) Command: line From point: 45,50 To point: 120,50 To point: .J - Command: arc Center/<Start point>: .J End point: @liO<45 Hinh 2-72.6, TRACE L¢nh ntly de ve dO<p1 thing, duang gap khuc co be r~ng net dugc chQo tnroc . • Cich g9i I~nh 1RACE tlr Menu: rl--Sc-ree-n-M-en-u->-D-R-A-W->-T-ra-c-e-- ... G5 l¢nh tu ban phim: P3 P2 60 Command: trace VI d~: hlnh 2-8. Command: trace Trace width< ... >: 2.4 <ho be rQng neD From point: 70,90 To point: @ 50<30 To point: @ 60,0 PI (70,90) . To point: .J Hinh 2·8 Trong I~nh nay n€u ta d~t bi€n h~ th6ng FlLEMODE la ON (I) thl net ve duqc tod{lm ben troog; n6u d~t OFF (0) thi net kh6ng duqc to Mn trong.2.7. POLYGON: Vi! da giac d~u >II each gQi l¢nh POLYGON til Menu: ~-------------. Screen Menu>DRAW>Polygon Menu Bar > DRAW >Polygon20
  19. 19. • G5 l~nh tir ban phim: Command: polygon Number of side< ... >: <cho s6 c~nh da giac> Edge/<Center of polygon>: <cho Him P, ho~c cho d¢ dai c~> L¢nh Polygon de ve da giac d~u bang cac cach sau: + Neu cho tam P, ACAD nhac nha tiep: Incribed in circle/Circums cribed abaut circle< ... >: <b<,m tra Uri. I se ve da tra. giac n¢i titp, 1m C ve da giac ngo~i ti~p duang tron> Radius of circle: <cho ban kinh dUCmg ttim > B~n cho diem la dinh hay diem giita e<,mh da giac 1a toy truemg hqp ve n¢i ti~p hay ngo~itiep; neu b<.m cho 1 s6 thi d6 13. d¢ dai c<,mh day polygon nam ngang. + Ntu chl!n E de ve da giac deu bOi 1 c~nh, vai dong nhac nhu sau: Edge/<Center of polygon>: E First Endpoint of edge: <cho dinh I cua e~nh> Second Endpoint of edge: <cho dinh 2 eua c~nh>2.S. DONUT (DOUGHNUT) a L¢nh nay ve hinh vanh khuyen co t6 mau tmng neu bi~n FILEMODE d~t la ON(1);con d~t gia tri bien do Iil OFF(O) thi kh6ng t6 mau. * each gQi l¢nh OONUT tir Menu: ,-----------------~ Screen Menu>DRAW>Donut Menu Bar > DRAW > Donut • G5 l¢nh tit bim phim: Command: donut Vi d~: hinh 2·9. Command: donut Inside diameter< ... >: 25 Outside diameter< ... >: 35 Center of doughnut: 130,110 Center of doughnut: .J mnh 2·92.9. ELLIPSE: Ve .lip • each g9i I~nh ELUPSE til Menu: ~--~---------, Screen Menu > DRAW> Ellipse . Menu Bar > DRAW > Ellipse • GO I~nh til bhn phim: Comm<qld: ellipse ACAD dua ra nhi~u ea.ch ve e1ip nhu sau: - V ...lip /Ttlngcij.p ban ~c chlnh Command: ellipse _I <Axis endpoint 1>/Center: <eho diem mut thu 1 ella true> Axis endpoint 2: <cho diem mut thu 2 eua ~c d6> <Other axis distanee>/Rotation: <eho diem P3 thl ACAD coi ban true thu 2 Is khoang each til tAm den P3, neu cho 1 s6 thi do I. d¢ dai ban In!c thtl 2> (hlnh 2-10). 21
  20. 20. - Ve .lip bOi Ill" va 2 ban tr~c Command: ellipse <Axis endpoint I>/Center: C Center of ellipse: <cho tam P clla elip> P~ ________-p~________~P2 Axis endpoint: <cho PI Ul mut tI1,lc thu I:> <Other axis distance>!Rotation: <cho n. mut~c2> - Ve elip ming 1 ~c va pilip quay mnh 2-10 Command: ellipse <Axis endpoint I>/Center: <cho dau mut PI cua I tI1,lc> Axis endpoint 2: <cho P2 Hi mut thu 2 clla tI1,lc do> <Other axis distance>/Rotation: R Rotation around major axis: <cho goc quay> TI1,Ic chinh PIP2 do xem nhll dllCmg kinh cua 1 vong him. vong trim nay dllqc quay dim()t goc va dllqc chieu len m~t ph~g ban ve thanh e1ip. - Vi" dip ltJ hinh chieu cua 1 vong tron trongkinh chieu trl;lc do Neu b<;tn chc;m Isometric Style clla I¢nh SNAP.thi khi d6 l~nh ELLIPSE nh~c nha: <Axis endpoint l>/Center/lsometric: I Center of circle: <cho tam e1ip> <Circle Radius>/Diameter: D <cho ban II kinh ho~ duang kinh, vi d9 cho duang kinh D> Circle Diameter: <cho d~ d3i dlkinh> y x IDoh 2-11 Hl mOt vi du ve hinh ch~u truc do cllakh6i l~p phuong v~ cae ~ong tron n/)i, til!p IItn cAem~t cua n6 tro thanh clic elip. , mnb 2--112.10. SOLID ~nh nay cho phep vo mien phllng tb mau khi bien h¢ th6ng F1LLMODE Ja ON; neugia hi bi€n d6 Iii OFF thl mien ve kh6ng dugc t6 m~lU. * C3.ch gQi l~nh SOLID tir Menu: 1- Screen Menu> DRAW> Solid " Go l¢nh tir ban phim: Command: solid First point: <cho diem PI> Second point: <cho diem P2> Third point: <cho diem P3> Fourth point: <cho diem P4> Third point: .J2.11. SKETCH: Vi! duang tl do L¢nh SKETCH (ve phac) cho phep b~ ve-cac dUCmg tv do bOi cac thiet bi chi dier22
  21. 21. Mouse, Thb1et). Khi di chuyen thi~t bj chi ditm (~n phfm pick chuot vaJe) ACAD se t~o ralo~t cae do~ thlkg fill ngan nOi nhall thea duemg di chuy~n cua b~ . ... Oich gQi l¢nh SKETCH ti1 Menu: ,-------:--1 Screen Menu > DRAW> Sketch * G6 l¢nh tit ban phfm: Command: sketch Record increment< ...>: <cho d¢ dlti buCJc tang> Sketch Pen eXit Quit Record Erase Conect B~ tro vilo 11,f8 chQn nao b~n mu6n tIen dong nhac do: + P: M nMc "bUt" 1M (up) khOng vo dil b~ di chuyin con trl>; N~u h~ "but"xu6ng(down) b~n se ve duqc. + R: .de ghi l~i ta":t ca cae duang dii ve phac thilnh duemg cO dinh. + X: thacit khoi H~nh sketch va ghi l~i cae duemg dii ve phac. + Q: thoat khoi l¢nh sketch va kh6ng ghi 1<}i cae duemg da: ve phac . . + E: <Ie xoa di mC?t do~n duang da ve ke tiI v~ tn b~ chQn too cu6i. + C: cho phep b~n nOi 1<;ri vilo duemg ve phic vUa rOi saD khi b~ da nh~ "but" len. Ch6 y: De khOng anh huimg toi duUng ve phtlc, khi dung l¢nh ~KETCH b~ nen tat eMd¢ SNAPMODEva ea ORlliOMODE. Vi d~: vo duemg ky hi~u m~t d.t tay nilm b;ng gO (hlnh 2-12) Command: sketch Record increment< ... >: 1 <cho d¢ dhl bu6c di cua con trl?> Sketch Pen eXit Quit Record Erase Conect Den day b~ hay d~t con tro tOi diim bcit dau vi: va ~ phim tnii chu¢t, re chu¢t theoduemg w.ri gO muOn ve. .D~n chiS nao muOn ngat th1 :in phim tnii chu¢t Ian thO 2. Vi: xongmu6n ghi l~i V30 ban ve, b~ hay go R. Hlnh2-lZ2.12. cAc L~NH TRt;i GUlP Kill Vii. SNAP D~t luCri. cho con trO. Khi di con trl> n6 chi bat vao cac mat IU6i. . • each goi l¢nh SNAP va GRID tiJ Menu: Screen Menu> SETTING> Snap/Grid Menu Bar>SETTING>Drawing Aids>h¢p tho~i Snap/Gdd ... 23
  22. 22. * Go l¢nh til: bim phim: Command: snap Snap spacing or ON/OFF/ AspeclRfttate/Style< ...>: B~n dap dong nhac nay bOi cac 1tpl chQn nhu saU: + Snap spacing: v~o 1 sO thl dO 13. khoang cAch cac mat hroi theo phucmg x, y. + ON/OFF:b~t/t~t ch~ dO Ium snap. + A: de d~t bm.1c dich chuyen ngang v~ dQC khac nhau. Sau do ACAD nhac ti~p: Horizontal spacing: <cho bu6c dich ngang> Vertical spacing: <cho bUl.1c dlCh dQC> + R: de quay chi~u ch~y con trO quanh 1 diem, c6 dOng nh&< ti€p: Base point< ...>: <cho diem Cel sa , roc 1a trun xoay> Rotation Ang1e<...>: <cho g6c xoay> + S: de ch~n snap thoo 2 kieu: Standard (chuiin) hay Isometric (thuimg dung de vo hlnhchieu t~c do): . Snap spacing or ON/OFF/Aspec/Rotate/Stye< ... >: S Standard/ Isometric< ...>: <chqn I hay s> Dum da.y la 2 vi d1,l dung l¢nh ELLIPS veti Iva chqn Style·lsometric cua SNAP de vehinhchi~u tI1,lc do vu6ng g6c deu (hlnh 2-13a), va.hinh chi€u t~c do dUng deu (hlnh 2-13b)cua 2 v~t th~. Trong khi dang dung l~nh khac cilaACAD, b~n c6 the b~t ON hay tilt OFF ch€ d~ SNAPbfulg each :In phim F9 hay Ctrl+B . . I lfmh 2-138 Hinh 2-13b GRID De hi¢n lu6i ra man hlnh, thucrng ket hl1P veti SNAP. Command: grid Grid spacing or ON/OFF/Snap/Aspec< ..•>: <dap Mmg II! nhl11~nh SNAP> De di6u khien GRID hoat d~rig hay tilt di. b~n ~n phim F7 hay Ctrl+G. TRANSPARENT Trong khi dang thvc hi~n mt)t l¢oh nao do clla ACAD b~ co the gQi l~nh Transparentthl ACAD cho b~n kha nilllg thoat ra th~c hi¢n eae ¢nh khac ella ACAD va sau do tu tra ve I;nb cu. . 24
  23. 23. De gqi l¢nh nay h.n- chi cful them dAu nh<iy "" tnr6c ten l¢nh c~n ra .thVc hi¢n. Vi dJ,t: Dang dung l~nh PLINE rna b"" mu6n ra dung l~nh SNAP. Command: PLINE From point: 93,85 To point: snap »Snap spacing or ONfOFFI Aspect!Rotate/Style<... >: <h<;ln cho h!a chc;m cho SNAP> Resuming PLINE command. To point: ORTHO L¢nh nay de mdlt~t ch~ d~ ve ole duang th~ng dUng ho~c nam ngang. B.n chu y nmg~nh ORTHO khOng c6 lac dffig khi vao ch€ do Objecl SNAP. Hay dung phim F8 hay Clrl+O M bAt! tAl ch€ dO ortho. Command: ortho ON/OFF<... >: OSNAP (OBJECT SNAP) Khi h<;m hat d~u ve m~t d6i tUQIlg moi m~ mu6n no neo t.li dAu mut clla m~t duang, haydi qua dit!:m giiIa ella m~t d01,ln th~g, vu6ng g6c vcJi m~t duang. neo vao diem giao nhauella 2 duang nao d6 ... , l¢nh OSNAP giup h<;ln thVc hi~n di~u do chinh xac va rAt ti~n lqi. * each gqi I~nh OSNAP tir Menu: ,----------------------, Screen Menu> SE1TING > Osnap Menu Bar > SETTING > Objecl SNAP * G5 l¢nb til ban phim: Command: osnap Object snap mode: B<;mtra 1m dong nhac bang c<ic Iva chqn sau day(go 3 chiI c<ii dllu): + CENter: neo v~o tam duang tnm. + ENDpoint: neo Vlo d~u mut cua 1 dUang g~n con tro nhAt. + INTersection: neo vao giao diem cua 2 duang. + MIDpoint: neo vao diem gifra clla dol,Ul thang hay cung tron. + NEArest: neo vao diem gful con tro nha:t cua d6i tuqng ve. + PERpendicular: neo v~o c.han duang th!ng g6c clla m~t duang Ve tit mi?t diim mai taiduimgdo. + TANgent: neo v~o ti~pdi-em clla m~tduang tron khi ve tum~t diem mcJi tai tiep tuyenva; duimg tron do. + QUAdrant: neo vao. diem chia c~c cung ph&! tu duang tron gcin con tro nhAt. + INSert: tlm diem xen c~a kh6i(BWCK), h<* diem ~I d~u cua 10XL + NODe: neo vao diem dU<!C vo bin l¢nh POINT. + QUIck: tAng nbanh vi~c xac djnh d6i tuqng. + NONe: tat e<ic IJ.!3 chqn clla OSNAP. Ghi c!au: + osnap thuitrr.g trJ!C: ACAD12 e61¢nh bDOSNAP~e dung Mp thOl;li de d~nh eae)va chqn osnap. ho~cg9i l~nh ti::r Menu bar> setting> Object snap (hlnh 2-14). Khi b~ dii d.e ~jnh ml)t Osnap thubng tfIC. n6 set6n .t~ miii cho Mn khi ~n thao ga di. 010 ntn khi dung xong. b~ ntn th3.o ga ~i ~~ n6 khOng anh huOngden cac I~nh kMc.
  24. 24. + OSI/ap t(rc 111m: hf}l1 co the dung OSNAPMODE ttk Ihoi (1 Mn) blmg dch h[im phim chuQt giua (3)hay lin phrm Shift+Niim chui)t phili (2) lie Kunt hi¢n Menu dlUt)1 de: b,.Ul ch9n OSNAP (hlnh 2-15). B,!n clingcOlhe gQi Osnap modes IUC thai b~ng each dung con Ira chi Vll.O 4 dall sao .,****" tren scrcen mcnu. Running Object Snap . Select Settings Assist" Qraw ~onstruct Drg~:~.p:QI~:~! 0 In~ertion o Midpoint 0 Eerpendicular ~enter o ~enter 0 langent Endpoint o Node D Ne1l.rest In.§.ert o Quadrant 0 Oyick: intersection o !ntersection Midpoinl Aperture Size Ne~rest No~e Ii! Min Max 13 o EerpendiculllT .Quadrant langent OK I Cancel I_Help ... I None Hinh 2-14 Hinh 2-15 • Con tr6 trong I~nh OSNAP la 6 vuong (Tagct box) d~ chon d6i lttqng e de dang. B<:tnco tht ditu chinh to nhc, bang I~nh APERTURE, ho~c chinh phim Min-Max Iren h~p tho~ihinh 2-14; ho~c go: Command: aperture Ojecl SIl<lP tagel size: <I -50 pixels>: • Sau day Iii mQt VI dl,l di:1Il1? I~nh OSNAP/CEN d~. viS mQt clLrOng th~ng III tam 0 duemgtron vii vuong goc v&i duong thrlllg III di:l cho (hlnh 2-16): Command: line From point: CEN <bilt tfun 0 clh dUOng tron> Of: <chi vao dUCmg tron> To point: PER <b&t chan dlfong vuong g6c tn~n m> To: <chi vao dtCOng thAng m> o m Hinh 2-1626
  25. 25. CHUONG3 cAc L~NH BIEN T~P vA TRA c(tu Trong khi t~o l~p ban ve b~ thuOng xuy~n phai bien t~p: dy xoa, ph~c h6i d6i tuqngbi xoa, dich chuyen, quay, thu ph6ng, !tty d6i xUng. sao chep, hi¢u chloh ... cae d6i tUq£1g ve,va d.c l¢nh tra cUu (Inquiry) ve d.c dG li¢u (mAD, lOp, dQ ri?ng net. .. ), khoang each, di¢n tich,vv... nhtrng muon HUn dieu do vi¢c d~u tien AutoCAD doi hoi h<.m phai Iva chQn d6i tuqng(Select Object).3.1. CHON DOl TlfONG (SELECT) . . * each g<?i l¢nh SELECr tll Menu: ,-------~~~-, Screen Menu> EDIT> Select Menu Bar> EDIT> Select * GO l¢nh tir b~m phim: Command : select .J Select object: B;;m co the ch(;m d6i tuqng de bien t~p hay tfa cUn bang cae each sao : + Chi di~m: b~n dung con chuQt chi vao d6i tUqTlg cAn chQn reli ohlin phim trAi chuQt,c(i.ng co the: vao tQa dQ ella diem thUi)C d6i tm;mg do. + ALL: chQn tilt ca nhiing hloh co trong ban ve. + Last: chQn d6i nrqng vila ve xong . + Previous: chQn cac d6i nrqng vita chQn tnt6c do. + Window: chQn cac d6i tuqng n~m IQt trong clla sO chu nh;}t .ma b~ xAc dinh. + Crossing: ch<;>;n d.c d6i tUgng rna m¢t ciIa 56 ehlia ho~c cit ngang qua chung. + WPolygon: chuc nang nay gi6ng window chi khAc la elra 56 do b~ .4-0 ra la hlnhda giAc. + Cpolygom gi6ng nhu Crossing, chi khAc l3. eua sO ~ t<;10 ra la mQt da giac. + Undo: di! b6 di d6i tuQllg vira ch90. + Remove: khi chQn nhieu d6i tuqng rna muon 10<;li bo mQt d6i tuqng nao do ta ehQn R·sau dong nhac "Select object:" va ACAD nhile b<;ln chQn d6i tl1qng dn gO- 00: "Removeobjects:". + Add: tat che dQ "Remove", co the tiep tl,le chQn them d6i tl1qng. + Frece (hang rao): chinh ta t<;1o m¢t dl1Cmg Polygon hO, rna rtlQi d6i tl1qng rna n6 ca.t qua se dUQc ehQn. cae d6i tl1qng dl1qc ehQn se rna di. B<;1n mu6n ket thoe vi~c chQn d6i tuqng hay linENTER, hay nba y phim phiii ehuQt, ho~e go NULL.3.2.TAYXOA " ERASE: dy xoa mQt hay nhieu d6i tl1qng ve. 27
  26. 26. * each gc;>i l~nh ERASE til Menu: ,------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Erase Menu Bar > MODIFY > Erase * Go l~nh- tu ban phim: Command: erase Select object: <chqn d6i tuqng cAn tay x6a> ChB y: L¢nh OOPS dung d~ khOi phl,l-c l{li d6i tuqng dti bj x6a bi1i J¢nh ERASE (m(lc du c6 dung dcl¢nh vi! kMc,sau khi era.o;e). Ngoru m l¢nh OOPS oon &: lam hi¢n l~j de d6i tU(}Ilg bi mA:t di sau khi ~oBLOCK. Command: oops . BREAK: ngM b6 di I philn d6i tlTgng ve. * Oich gqi l¢nh BREAK tu Menu: ,-~---------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Break Menu Bar > MODIFY > Break >1= Go l¢nh tit ban phim: Command: break Select object: <chi vao diem dau do~n dn x6a> Enter second point (or F for first point): <chi vao diem thu 2 cua do~ncan xoa, ho~c go F de chqn l~i diem dtu sau d6ACAD nhac b~n chc;>n diem cuoi>. Vi d1,lduai day m6 ta qua tdnh thl!C hi~n l¢nh BREAK: • L":::;.. . . J -...../ Hinh g6e - ctH;m d6i trn;mg Da-nh dlfu 2 diem X6a doI!fi PIP2 Hiob 3·1 Chu y: Khi dung J¢nh BREAK dt x6a I cung tren dubrlg trim. bl:Ul c4:n cM y pMn cung hi x6a thee chi~JngU~ chi~u quay kim d6ng h6. Do v~y ~ ph<ii chu YChQR dian dJiu va diem cu6i cho do~ c&I x6a. vi dl,!-dum dQy, tren dmg m¢t dubrlg tron, ntu chc;m dibn dliu PI va diim cu6i Pl nhu hlnh 3-2a thl cung PIPl phfatren bj x6a; 010 chc;m Pl, Pl nhu hlnh "3-2b Ihl. coog PIPl phia dum hi x6a. P2 PI + PI + P2 HiDh 3-228
  27. 27. TRIM Ch~t tia do~n thua ella d6i tuqng ve bdi cae c~nh dao dt (edge). :I: each gQi l¢nh lRIM til Menu: r-----------------~ Screen Menu> EDIT> Trim Menu Bar > MODIFY > T-rim * Go l¢nh tu ban phim: Command: trim Select cutting edge(s) ... Select objects: <chQn cae dUOng Hlm qmh cAt> <Select object to trim>/Undo: <chQn do~n thua d.n di> cat Vf du duUi day m6 til qua trlnh dung l~nh TRIM (hlnh 3-3). -t lfinh g6c. ell9n duimg a.i vao d~n Ket qua. qmh cat(PI) thtra cdn dit(Pl,P2) Hloh 3-3 ~ co the chQn chinh duemg c<;tnh dt la d6i tUl;1I1g d.o cAt bo, nhu VI dl;l sau da.y: P PO P3 J L P4 Hinb g6c Oll;m qnb eM elli vao dOl.ln Kl!t qua. b~ng Crossing thtta cAn cit Hlnb 3-43.3. DItN HINH MOVE L¢nh MOVE de eli chuyen cac d6i tuQllg tUi vi trf loMc m~ loh6ng thay dOi huang vakfch thu6c ella chung . • Qich gQi l~nh MOVE tu Menu: ,------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Move Menu Bar > MODIFY > Move * Go l~nh tir b~m phfm: Command: move Select object: <chQn d6i tuqng d.o di chuyen> Base poi,Dt or displacement: <cho diem co so, ho~c kho3.ng c3.ch dichuyen> Second point of displacement: <cho diem dich t6i> 29
  28. 28. COpy 4nh nay de sao chep cae d6i tuqrtg Wi vi trl maio No gi6ng l~nh MOVE, chi ~hac Iild6i tugng ell vAn gift nguy~n . • Glcb gQi I~nb COpy Ilr Menu: ,---------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT > Copy Menu Bar > CONSIRUcr > Copy * GO l¢nh llr ban phim: Command: copy Select object: <chqn d6i tuqng ciin sao chep> < Base point or displacement>/Multiple: <cho diem cd sa, ho~c khoang each di chuy~n, n~u b~n chQn M HI. sao chep thanh ohieu ban> Second point of displacement: <cho diim dich Wi ho~c an Enter> ROTATE L¢nh ROTA1E dung de quay d6i tm;mg vi! quanh m~t diem Cd sil. * Glcb gQi I~nb ROTATE Ilr Menu: ,------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Rotate Menu Bar ; MODIFY > Rotate * Go l¢nh tiI ban phim: Command: rotate Select object: <ChQfl d6i tuqng can xoay> Base.point: <cho diem tam xoay> . <Rotation Angle>/Reference: <cho g6c xoay, hay ch(;m R de cho gOc tham khao sau do cho gOc m6i> Chti y goc xoay duang Hi ngu«;JC chieu quay kim d6ng h6 va nguqc l~i. V( d~ dum daycbo g6c xoay I. 45 d¢ (blnb 3-5). Hinh g6c Olqn d6i tttqng xoay b~g W. Chqn diim co sO. Kt"t qua. mnh 3~5 SCALE L¢nh SCALE dung d~ ph6ng to ho~c thu nho d6i hlqng vi! theo ca 2 chieu x,y v6i cungm¢t ty l¢. N~u d6i tlJqDg da: dlJqc ghi kfch thlJt1c thi sau khi SCALE. kich thlJac mai se Wd¢ng cilkp nhilkt v~o. * C8ch gQi l¢nh SCALE tu Menu: r--;Sc:-re-e-n-=M:-:-en-u->-=E=D=IT=-->-=Sc=-a"C}e-- Menu Bar > MODIFY > Scale >l< Go l¢nh tu ban phim: Command: scale30
  29. 29. Select object: <chQn doi tuqng de scale> Base point: <cho diem cO sCi> <Scale factor>/Reference: Di dap dong nba.c nay. b(~.n cho 1 so duang 100 han 1 di ph6ng to, n~u cho so duang behan 1 se thu nho d6i tuqng. N~u b~n d8.p R nghia la b~ dung ty l¢ tham khao sau do choty l¢ maio Hinh 3-6 mO ta qua tdnh thao l<lc l¢nh SCALE: Hinh g6c 0l9n d6i htqng scale 010 diem co so ; Klt qua. Hioh 3-6 STRETCH L¢nh STRETCH de keo dan 1 ph~n cua d6i hlnh ve fa rna vAn noi v6i hlnh cu . • each gQi l¢nh STRETCH til" Menu: r-------------~----, Screen Menu> EDIT> Stretch Menu Bar > MODIFY > Stretch • GO l¢nh tit ban phim: Command: stretch Select object to stretch by window or polygon: <chQn d6i tuqng di stretch bang cua s6 ho~c da giac> Base point or displasement: <cho diem cO sCi> Second point of displacement: <cho di~m dich tm, ho~c khoang each dOi> Du6i day la vi dl,) minh hQa cac buCJc dung l¢nh stretch dt keo phAn cung tron cllahlnh vo til diem PI tOi P2 (hlnh 3-7). +y.-~ ,ll Y-P2--l ffinh g6c Gllm d6i tuqng kio 010 diem PI va P2. K€t qua. bang Clm sO (C) .. .Hlnh 3- eh6 y: V6i I~nh STR.ETcH, khi chQn d6i tuqng iii kw phai dung each ch9n la Window, Crossing,Polygon. MIRROR L¢nh n~y giup b~ ~o nen hlnh d6i ).ling qua m()t duang thing v6i hlnh da: co, va c6th~ gift nguyen ho~c xoa hlnh co di . • Oich gQi I~nh MIRROR til Menu: r---------------------~ Screen Menu> EDIT> Mirror Menu Bar > CONSTRUCT > Mirror 31
  30. 30. * G6 I~nh tu ban phim: Command: mirror Select object: <chQn d6i tlIqrtg can Hly d6i xUng> First point of mirIOr line: <cho diem thtl I cua tr~e d6i xUng> Second point: <eho diem thtl 2 clla t~c d6i xUng> Delete old objeet?<N>: <trii loi N la khong xoa hinh eu, Y la x6a hinh eu> Duoi day lit vi d~ mb ta cae buoc thuc hien I¢nh MIRROR (hinh 3-8). I I I I Hinh g6c P1 LV P2 Ou;m d6i tlJ<?Tlg Ch9n trl;lc doi xlmg(PIP2) Ket qua Hlnh 3·8 Chu y: Khi Uly d6i xililg bfing MIRROR cac dong Text tra nen ngu~ so vai hlnh gOc. ACAD dung bienh? thong MIRTEXT( I/O) de di~u khien dong Text c6 d~ng nguq"c. hay kh6ng. De ial!l di~u d6, hf;ln vao thietI~p bien h~ th6ng SETVAR: . . Screen Menu> SETTING> SETVAR > MirText (0/1) Nell di:it MirText",,1 thl Text se d6i xililg v6i hlnh eli; Mirlht""O dong Text se c6 d,!.ng thL!c nhu h"inh cu. EXTEND L~nh EXTEND de keo dai cae dI1Cmg t6i m~t dI10ng bien (Boundry edge) * each gQi I~nh EXTEND tir Menu: .----------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Extend Menu Bar > MODIFY > Extend * GO l~nh tU b~m phim: Command: ·extend Select bo~ndry eP&o(s)... Select object: <ch9n duimg bien> <Selecfobject t<> ex1md>/lJndo: <chi vlio eM c~n ke~ diti> <Select object to .extend>/Un<l0:;J Vi d:l sau day chi ra cac buac th!C hi~n t~ EXTEND, mnh 3-9. P2 PI Hinh goc Ch9n dUOng bien Chi ra mlit citn k.eo dai Kct qwi. Hlnh 3·932
  31. 31. ARRAY de B<:Ifl dung l¢nh nay sao chep d6i tUQIlg thanh I ming g6m nhieu d6i tuqng cung ml)tla.n. Mimg do co the sap xep thanh d~ng chu nh~t (Restangular), hay d~ng hloh tron (Polar). * Oich g4?i I¢nh ARRAY tir Menu: ,--------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Array Menu Bar> CONSIRUcr"> Array * Go l¢nh tir b~m phim: Command: array Select object: <Ch4?ll d6i tuQIlg t~o thanh mang> Restangular or Polar array(RlP)<R>: <b~n dap R hay P> + Nell d;ip R: sao mang chu nMt. ACAD hoi tiep sO hang, s6 cl)t, khoang ca.ch cae hang,cae c~t la bao nhieu. Ntfu b{lIl cho sO hang 13. sO ducmg, thi ACAD se sao cae hang len tn!n,nguQc I~i .cho sO am thl sao xu6ng dum. B.lll cho gia tfi ducmg cua d.c cQt thi ACAD se saocae c¢t sang phai, cho sO am sao sang tniL Vi d", hlnh 3-10 Restangular or Polar array(R!P)<R.>: R Number of raws< ... >: 2 <cho s6 hang HI. 2> Number of columns< ... >: 4 <cho s6 cQt la 4> Unit cell or distance betwen raws: 25 <cho khoang each cac hang la 25> Distance bet wen columns: 30 <cho kholmg each cac c¢t 111. 30> K~t qua sao mang nhu hinh sau: • o 000 mnh 3-10 IDnb 3-11 B~n c6 the ",0 mimg nghieng di m¢t g6c bADg cch sit dUlg -bien h¢ th6ng SNAPANGtrong lenh SETVAR, xem hlnh 3-11- + N€u b~ dap dong nhac P: d~ sao chep mang trOD, va ban th4n dOi ruqrig sao co thekh6ng quay ho~c quay di 1 gOc b<.m mu6n: Restangular or Polar array(R/P)<R>: P Center point of array: . <cho tam mang trbn> Number of itenns: <cho s6 d6i tuQllg se sao ra> Angle to fil1<360>:- <cho g6c dien cUy toan mang> Rotate object as they are copied?<Y>: <co quay d6i tUQIlg khi sao chep kh6ng YIN 1> DUm day 13. VI dl,l t~o mang tron co s6 d6i tUQIlg <W sao (itenns) 1ii 5, gOc dien day 33
  32. 32. toan mang la 1600 va trong khi sao khong quay d6i hlqng, va hlnh sau co quay doi lUqng(hlnh 3-12). Hlnh goc Sao mang kh6ng xoay - Sao m<mg :(Oay 1 goc Hinb 3-123.4. Hl~U CRiNR V ATRAY DOl FILLET 4nh nay de ve m9t cung tron noi tiep giua d.c do~n thfing hay cac duang tron. * each g9i l¢nh FILLET tll Menu: ,--------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Pillet Menu Bar> CONSTRUcr > Fillet * Go l¢nh tir b~ln phfm: Command: fillet Polyline/Radius/<Select first object>: Tnilai dOng nhiic nay co 3 truang h<JP: . + OlQn R: nghia la b<;ln se cho ban kinh cung tron noi tiep cfin ve, ACAD se nhiic tiep: Enter fillet radius: <cho gia tri ban kinh cung noi titp> Gia tr, ban kfnh cung noi titp do se du<JC giu mai cho toi khi b~n cho gia tr! moi. B<;tnco the cho ban kfnh cung noi tiep bang vi¢c cho 2 diem. + ChQn P: nghia la b<;ln muon ve noi tiep dc phan do<:,n clla Polyline bili cae cung tronco cung oo.n kfnh. Neu pha.n dO<;ln nao la cung tron thl se duQc thay bang mQt cung tron- cooo.n kinh bang ban kinh cung noi tiep, xem hlnh 3-13. . I 1- I I I I I I -- • ) a.Hinh,g6c b. Sau Fillet-P Hioh 3-11 + N6i ti€p 2 duimg: B~n dap dong nhk tren bang vi¢c chi vao 2 duang can noi tiep, ho~c 2 phAn dO<;ln eua1 polyline, thi ACAD se ve 1 cung tron noi tiep v6i ehling. Chli y rang cae diem b<;ln chi raa tren cae duang se la cac tiep di~m.34
  33. 33. IDnh 3-14 minh hQa di~u do: • • • .,. • .J • ..J" " Jl ,0 .,. E " II E E U U U .,. ~. .,. Hinh 3-14.CHAMFERL~nh nay de ve duemg vat nghi~ng giila 2 dllOng th~ng da cho." each gQi l~nh CHAMFER tir Menu: Screen Menu> EDIT> Cbamfer Menu Bar > CONSIRUCf > Chamfer" Go l¢nh tir ban phim: Command: chamfer PolylineiDistance/<Select tiest line>:+ Trlt. lai D: Djnh nghia do.l" vat cho 2 dllemg tha.ng, vi dl:l nhu sau (hloh 3-15): Enter first chamfer distance< ...>: 6 <cho khoang vat tha 1> Enter second chamfer distance<... >: 10 <cho khoang vat thu 2> Command: chamfer Polyline/Distance/<Select fiest object>: PI <chi vao dUOng 1> Select second object: P2 <chi vao duemg 2>Ke"t qua chamfer trong vi d1,l chi ra tren hlnh 3-15. P2 P P Pl Hlnh glk Chi v!lo cae e~h di V<it K!t qua. Hinh 3-15. 35
  34. 34. Tni loi P: de vat cho m~t da tuy~n Polyline.Truimg hqp nay gi6ng nhu l¢nh FILLET. Chu y: Neu bl,m Ilfy cll) dai vat bflng 0 (mij.C djnh), thll¢nhnay co laC dl,1ng keo doli cae duemg th&ng cho g~p nhau Wi I diemcoo, xem hinh 3-16. OFFSET 4nh nay dung d~ t.l-O ra m~t duemg moi song songvoi duemg th~ng da co, hay vi "11,1 v6i m¢t dUOng cong, Hinh3-16mQt Polyline cho truOe va each duemg cO mOt dO<;lntuy y. * Cach g<;>i l~nh OFFSET til Menu: ,--------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Offset Menu Bar > CONSTIWcr > Offset * G6 l~nh til ban phim: Command: offset Offset distance or through< ... >: <cho khoang each, hay cho 1 dil!m offset toi: through> + Neu cho khoang cach b<;ln tiep tl,lc tra loi: Select object to offset: <ch<;>n d6i tuqng offset bang chi diim> Side to offset: <ch<;>n diem beft ky ve phfa hlnh thanh duemg m6i> + Neu ch<;>n Through: Through point: <cho diem rna duemg m6i di qua> Vi d1,l sau day mo tii qua tdnh offset mOt duemg Polyline, hlnh 3-17.* DIVIDE - e- X P2 P2 Pl Pl . . . Hinh g6c 0l9n cl6i tuqng Offset Clio .diim rnA K€t qua dutmg rnm di q~ Hinh 3-17 DIVIDE L¢nh nay chia dO:1n duemg thanh cac phfin bang nhau. * Cach g<;>i l¢nh DIVIDE-til Menu: .---------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Divide , Menu Bar > CONSlRUcr > Divide * G6 l¢nh tir ban phim: Command: divide Select object to divide: <ch<;>n d6i tuqng bang chi diim> <Number of segments>/Block: <cho sQ do<:tn chia> 36
  35. 35. + Nt!u b<.1.fi tni Uri B: Truang hqp nay b<:tn da d~nh nghia cac kh6i (BLOCK) vi d~ nhll:DIEM, DOAN, VUONG, v.v... rna muOn chen block vao cac diem chia;khi d6ACAD nhacnha tiep: Block name to insert: <go ten Block vao> Align block with object <V>: <sap Block g6m cac diem chia tren d6i tuqng YIN> Number of segments: <cho s6 do~ chia> Ch6 y: Sau khi dung I¢nh DIVIDE rna bl.lH kMng nhin th!lY cae Jh;m chia, tlic a bI~ rt>ng diem ehia dernl}e d!nh (0), n6 bang hay nho hoIl ~ r(lng dutmg net viS. B:ln dn x;k dinh I~i hlnh d~ng. kich thuOc diemboi I?nh POINT. CHANGE DUng l¢nh CHANGE b~ co the thay d6i cac Hnh cha:t sau day clla d6i t:Jqng ve: - Mall sac - Kieuduang - D¢ nang len clla Polyline, hay d¢ day net Polyline 3D - Ldp ve vv... • each g9i I~nh CHANGE til Menu: Screen Menu> EDIT> Change Menu Bar > MODIFY > Change * Go l¢nh til ban phim: Command: change Select Object: <eh<;m d6i tlll;mg dn thay d6i> Properties/<Change point>: <dap P, ho~c cho diem> + ChQn P: B<:tn se thay d6i dllqt: d~ tinh vI! ma.u sac, d¢ cao, lap ve, lo;~i dllang net...ella d6i tllqng ve, ACAD se nhac nh6 ti€p de b<.m chQn: OJ.ange what property(ColorlElev/Layer/LIypefThicness)7: Chli y: N~u bl!Jl deli ki~u dutmg rna ehua thllY hi?n ra, hiiy g9i I?nh LTSCALE de tiing hay giam tY I? Neu b~n vao diem (] dong nh~e tren kia: ACAD eoi ditm d6 la diem de thay d6i vi tri cAe d6i tm;mgve nhu: line, circle, text, block, attribute. TOe dl,mg Lhay d6i vOi timg d6i tuqng ve sau khi cho diem CP 18nhu~: - Line; thi. dAu ml1t eua dltialg .thing: g4n 4i~CP siS chuyin ten CP. ., . a a - Circle: blin k{n!l ",brig trondii c,hqn Setlulyd6i sao cho wng tron m6i di qua dibn CP Yia sift·nguyen lAm eu. - lext: diem CP se I~ vi tn mOi, ~u ban ADEnter thl ACAD eho bl,Ul thay ·dOi duqc kifucht, dQeao, g6c xoay, n(li dung Text. - Attribute: b~n eling c6 the thay d6i duqcAttribute gi6ng nhu Text. - Block: ditm CP trd thanh vi tn mm cua bBlock, ~n Enter tiep thl b~n c6 tM thay d6i duqt:g6e xoay ella Block. , Chli thkh: CO th~ thay d6i nhi~u durmg. Vidl;l khi eho CP thl cae dUCmg thang khac nhau se W ffinh g6c Sau Qlangc-CPIl.Ii t~i diem CPd6, xem hlnh 3-18. Hinh 3-18 37
  36. 36. Chu thleh: ACADl2 con e6 l~nh DDCH-PROP de bi.1n lhay d6i de d~e tinh ella d6i luqng qUHhQp tho,!-i nhl1 hlnh 3- 19 . DDEDIT (Dynamic Dialogue Edit) ~.""""V<A"" u;-....=t. . L¢nh nay de thay d6i n(:li dung dong ky I ,~ •... I BYU""~ <"""000," "< "" [,_... " . ")H,t (Text) va thu(>c tfnh (Attribute) da co. ~ r-",.", I iJJ!!W * Crich gQi l~nh DDEDIT Itt Menu: I Screen Menu> EDIT> DDedit I * Go J¢nh tir ban phim: Hlnh 3-19: HO Iho<l.i l¢nh DDCHPROP eua p Command: ddedil ACAD 12. <SeJect a TEXT or ATIDEF object >/Undo: B<.ln Ira Jbi TEXT hay ATTDEF thl I troug 2 h(>p thof.l.i sau day hi¢n ra, hinh 3-20a,b: Edit AtllilJule Dehn~lan CI Edit Text T." 1m Prompt ~~H~U~O:;:CT"N::7H;=========~ Text lB. Defnult: Lit9,,-., =:;:;==,---:;---,,_ _ __-- IJD Icencell OK Cllncel I Hlnh 3-20a: H{)p tho,!-i "Edil Text". H"lnh 3-20h: H{)p Ihm.li "Edit Alllibutc Ddinition". PEDIT (Polyline Edit) L¢nh nay co the hi¢u chinh da luyen (Polyline). * each gQi I~nh PEDIT ttT Menu: ,-------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Pedit Menu Bar > MODTFY > Pedit * Go I¢nh tit b~m phim: Command: pedit Select polyline: <ChQIl Polyline dn hi¢u chinh> C loselJ oi n/Wid Ih/Ed iIVerlex/Fi liS plin el Deell vel LtypeGen/Undo/eXik. .. >: Tr~n dong nhac nay Close duqc thay bang Open neu Polyline dang dong kin. cac chuc nang do co y nghla nhu sau: + C: dong kin da tuyen dang ha; + 0: xoa phein do~n cu6i clmg cua Polyline d~ rna da tuyen; + J : dlta cae cung tron, dO<;ln lhang ho~c m(>t Polyline khac nh~p van vai Polyline co InJoC; + W: de lhay deli be r(lng net ve coa Polyline; + F: sua dtremg Polyline da co thanh dUOng cong tran dtiu di qua cae dinh cua Polyline do. B,,11 co the d~t taroc huong tiep tuy6n t<;ti 1 dlnh, thl dLTOng cong t<;to thanh se tiep nh~n IUiong tiep tuyen d6. .. 38
  37. 37. . + S: stta Polyline thanh duemg cong trem c6 the dieu khitn dugc til cac dinh clla Polylinenhl1 la cac di~m khung. B"lO chi ra cang nhieu di~m dinh v~ thi. dUCmg cong cang nhanhem. ffinh dl16i dAy chi fa S,! khac nhau clla dUCmg cong hi.nh thanh do Fit va do Spline,hlnh 3-21: CO thi t<;to thanh dl1emg eong Spline b~c 2 hay b~e 3. cae bien h¢ th6ng dung d~ dieukhien hlnh d~ng duimg Spline la SPLINETYPE. N€u d~! bien SplineType nay b~ng 5 thlSpline t<;to thanh la b~e 2; eon d~t bien gia tri 6 thi Spline sf: e6 b~c 3. Bien h¢ th6ngSPLINESEGS xac dinh so dO<;tn tMng dung d~ ve thanh duemg Spline, s6 cang Urn thl Splinecang m~n (gia tr. m~ dinh la 8). Bien SPLFRAME d~t gia tri m~e dinh 0 thi. kh6ng xuathi¢n dUCmg khung Polyline; neu la:y gia tri 1 thi khung sf: hi~n ra eung v6i duemg Spline,xem hinh 3-21. ffinh g6c Fit Spline b~c 2 Spline b~c 3 Blnh 3·21· + D: de dua cae duemg cong sau khi Fit hay Spline tn1 ve d<;tng ban d~u, d6ng thai lamth~g tat d. d.e phAn dO<;tn c~a Polyline. + L: v6il,!a chQn nay d~t la ON(1) thi lo~i duemg net hi¢n thai se eh<;ty deu d~n trenphAn do<;tn cua Polyline; con neu d~t OFF(O) thi net g~ch dai se du<;1C bat da.u va ket thue t~itUng dinh cae phan do~n. sau dAy la s,! khac nhau clla m¢t Polyline ve b~ng net ehilmg~ch(Dashdot) trong 2 trltimg hqp do, hlnh 3-22. .I ,. - { t ,. - ,, r· J . L.-,. 1",_.1 . 1._ . ., . l._._ . ._._.J 1 ._.-.-.1 --- Blnb 3-22 _...... + U: huy b6 thao tAc I~nh vila thiC hi~n. + X: k€t thuc l~nh PEDIT. + E: hi¢u ehinh tren cac dinh eua Polyline. Khi chQn "E" ACAD danh dau "x" qi dinhdau tien eua Polyline. Neu b<;tn xac dinh them huang ti~p tuyen eho dinh nay thi se xuat hi¢n1 miIi ten theo hudng d6. B<;t.n can tra lai dong nh~c sau khi ehQn "E": 39
  38. 38. NextiPreviouslBreaklinsertiMove/RegenlSlraighlenl TangentIWilh/eXil<N>: Ok h!a chQn d6 co y nghia nhu sau: - N va P: de di chuyen di~m danh da:u "x" tm dinh k€ sau (Next) hay t6i dinh truac d6(Previous). - B(break): de x6a do~ giila 2 dinh danh dau "x". ACAD ghi nha dinh danh dfu "x"thu 1 va nhac nha tiep: NextlPrevious/Go/eXit<N>: <chQn N hay P de chuyen dau "x" tdi dlnh thll 2> Tiep theo b~ go "0" de x6a do~ gifra 2 dinh danh dAu "x". Con neu b~n chQn "X" seket thue Break de trb ve chuc nang Edit Vertex. - reinsert): dtS chen them dinh m6i vao Polyline, ACAD nhac nha tiep: Enter new location of new vertex: <cho diem> Sau khi cho diem vao, ACAD ve Polyline co th~m dinh nua, hinh3-23. I Diem moi X .2 I . Diem CU I I I I J J , Hlnh3-23 - M(move): dOl dinh da danh dau t6i ehb khac. - S(straighten): de thay the cae ph1n dO.ln nam giiia 2 dinh da danh dau bang m¢t dO.lnthing, hinh 3-24. Hinh g6c Danh d!u 2 dinh PI, P2 Ktt qua Hinb 3·24 - T(tanggent); chi ra hl1<mg tiep tuy~n 4.i dinh dang danh d5u de thl!C hi¢n chuc nangFit, sau do dap dong nh~c: Direction of tangent: <cho g6c xac d!nh hl100g ti~p tuyen> a - W(width): thay be r(mg pha.n dOi,ln Clla Polyline ngay sau dinh danh d5u "x" - R(regent): thiet l~p li,li Polyline va c~p nh~t cac thay d6i, thl1Cmg dung sau Width. - X(eXit): thoat khoi chuc nang Edityertex d~ tro ve PEDIT.40

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