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lesson plan

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  2. 2. MEANING OF PLANNING Planning means deciding in advance what is to be done when is to be done & by whom it is to be done.
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF PLANNING Henry Fayol defines” Planning is deciding the best alternative among others to perform different managerial operations in order to achieve the predetermined goals”
  4. 4. FEATURES OF PLANNING Goal Oriented Every organization have goals to be fulfilled. Planning is a means towards the accomplished of objective. • Primacy of Planning Planning is the basic function of management. Without planning, there is nothing to organize.
  5. 5. Continuous Process Planning is prepared for a specific period. At the end of the period a new plan is prepared. • Flexibility Plans must be flexible so as to accommodate future changes. • Forward Looking Planning involves looking ahead &preparing for the future to accomplish objective.
  6. 6. IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING REDUCES UNCERTAINTY Uncertainty & changes are inevitable. Planning cannot eliminate changes. • HELPS IN EFFECTIVE COORDINATION Planning determines the activities of each departments and individuals. • GUIDES DECISION MAKING Planning helps in decision making by selecting the best alternative among various alternatives.
  7. 7. ENCOURAGES INNOVATION Since planning is deciding in advance. We have to find better & different methods to achieve the desired result.
  8. 8. TYPES OF PLANS GOAL Every organisation have a goal. A goal is an end towards which an organisation strives to achieve the objectives. • OBJECTIVES Every organisation exists to achieve the objective. Objectives are the end towards which activities are directed. • POLICIES It is a statement formulated to provide guidelines in decision making to various managers.
  9. 9. BUDGET It is a plan which states expected results of a given future period
  10. 10. PROCEDURE It is a chronological sequence and the established way of performing the work to be accomplished. • RULE It is a decision made by the management regarding what is to done and what is not to be done. • METHOD It provide detailed and specific guidance for day to day actions. • PROGRAMMES It include all the activities necessary for achieving a given objective.
  11. 11. QUALITIES OF AN IDEAL PLAN SIMPLICITY Plans must be simple & easy to understand. CLARITY It must be in clear terms. INCREASE IN EFFICIENCY Planning must aim at increase in efficiency of individuals ,group etc BALANCE There must be a balance between physical& human resources. REGULAR FEED BACK
  12. 12. STEPS IN PLANNING SETTING THE OBJECTIVES Plans are formulated to achieve objectives. Objectives must be specific & clear. • DEVELOP PLANNING PREMISES Planning is done for the future which is uncertain. Certain assumptions are made about the future environment. These assumptions are known as Planning Premises
  13. 13. DETERMINE ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION There are alternative ways for achieving the same goal. So alternative courses of action should be determined. • SELECTING THE BEST ALTERNATIVE The most appropriate alternative should be selected. FORMULATION OF DERIVATIVE PLANS Inorder to support the main plan, several sub plans are required.The detailed sub plans are known as DERIVATIVE PLANS.
  14. 14. • IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANS It means putting the plans into action so as to achieve the desired objective. FOLLOW UP Plans are evaluated regularly to check whether they are proceeding into the right way.
  16. 16. LIMITATIONS OF PLANNING TIME AND COST Planning is time consuming RESISTANCE TO CHANGE The required changes are made ,planning will be ineffective. LACK OF ACCURATE INFORMATION The quality of planning depends upon accurate information. LIMITED SCOPE Planning is said to be limited under changing circumstances.
  17. 17. OBJECTIVE V/S POLICIES OBJECTIVE • Determines what is to be done • It is determined by the top management POLICIES • Determine how the work is to be done. • It is formulated at top, middle and lower levels
  18. 18. Objectives are the end points Policies are guidelines