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MEANING OF PLANNING
Planning means deciding in advance
what is to be done
when is to be done
& by whom it is to be done.
DEFINITION OF PLANNING
Henry Fayol defines” Planning is deciding
the best alternative among others to
perform different managerial operations in
order to achieve the predetermined goals”
FEATURES OF PLANNING
Every organization have goals to be
fulfilled. Planning is a means towards the
accomplished of objective.
• Primacy of Planning
Planning is the basic function of
management. Without planning, there is
nothing to organize.
Planning is prepared for a specific
period. At the end of the period a new
plan is prepared.
Plans must be flexible so as to
accommodate future changes.
• Forward Looking
Planning involves looking ahead
&preparing for the future to accomplish
IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING
Uncertainty & changes are inevitable. Planning
cannot eliminate changes.
• HELPS IN EFFECTIVE COORDINATION
Planning determines the activities of each
departments and individuals.
• GUIDES DECISION MAKING
Planning helps in decision making by selecting the
best alternative among various alternatives.
Since planning is deciding in advance. We have to find
better & different methods to achieve the desired result.
TYPES OF PLANS
Every organisation have a goal. A goal is an end
towards which an organisation strives to achieve
Every organisation exists to achieve the objective.
Objectives are the end towards which activities are
It is a statement formulated to provide guidelines
in decision making to various managers.
It is a plan which states expected results of a given
It is a chronological sequence and the established way of
performing the work to be accomplished.
It is a decision made by the management regarding what
is to done and what is not to be done.
It provide detailed and specific guidance for day to day
It include all the activities necessary for achieving a
QUALITIES OF AN IDEAL PLAN
Plans must be simple & easy to understand.
It must be in clear terms.
INCREASE IN EFFICIENCY
Planning must aim at increase in efficiency of
individuals ,group etc
There must be a balance between physical& human
REGULAR FEED BACK
STEPS IN PLANNING
SETTING THE OBJECTIVES
Plans are formulated to achieve objectives. Objectives
must be specific & clear.
• DEVELOP PLANNING PREMISES
Planning is done for the future which is uncertain.
Certain assumptions are made about the future
environment. These assumptions are known as
DETERMINE ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION
There are alternative ways for achieving the same
goal. So alternative courses of action should be
• SELECTING THE BEST ALTERNATIVE
The most appropriate alternative should be selected.
FORMULATION OF DERIVATIVE PLANS
Inorder to support the main plan, several sub plans are
required.The detailed sub plans are known as
• IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANS
It means putting the plans into action so as to
achieve the desired objective.
Plans are evaluated regularly to check whether they
are proceeding into the right way.
SETTING THE OBJECTIVE
DEVELOP PLANNING PREMISES
DETERMINE ALTERNATIVE COURSE OF ACTION
SELECTING THE BEST ALTERNATIVE
FORMULATING DERIVATIVE PLANS
IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANS.
LIMITATIONS OF PLANNING
TIME AND COST
Planning is time consuming
RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
The required changes are made ,planning will be
LACK OF ACCURATE INFORMATION
The quality of planning depends upon accurate
Planning is said to be limited under changing
OBJECTIVE V/S POLICIES
• Determines what
is to be done
• It is determined
by the top
• Determine how
the work is to be
• It is formulated
at top, middle
and lower levels
are the end