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  1. 1. PHILIPPINE TERMINOLOGY 1) NATIONAL TERRITORY Comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains. EXAMPLES: Its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. 2) POLITICAL PRISONER is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible. The term is used by persons or groups challenging the legitimacy of the detention of a prisoner. Supporters of the term define a political prisoner as someone who is imprisoned for his or her participation in political activity. If a political offense was not the official reason for detention, the term would imply that the detention was motivated by the prisoner's politics. Examples: A person accused or convicted of an ordinary crime carried out for political motives, such as murder or robbery carried out to support the objectives of an opposition group; 3) EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT is the largest component of the national executive branch of the government of the Philippines. There are a total of nineteen executive departments. The departments comprise the largest part of the country's bureaucracy. The heads of these departments are referred to as the Cabinet of the Philippines. EXAMPLE: During the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, upon the mandate of the then 1973 Constitution, he changed the departments into ministries from 1978 to the end of his government. Thus, the Department of Education became Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. 4) COUP D'ÉTAT (/ˌkuˌdeɪ ˌtɑ ˌ/; plural: coups d'état), also known as a coup, a putsch, or an overthrow, is the sudden deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to depose the extant government and replace it with another body, civil or military. A coup d'état is considered successful when the usurpers establish their dominance. When the coup neither fails completely nor succeeds, a civil war is a likely consequence. 5) PEOPLE POWER REVOLUTION (also known as the EDSA Revolution, the Philippine Revolution of 1986, and the Yellow Revolution) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines that began in 1983 and culminated in 1986. It was widely seen as a victory of the people against the 20-year running authoritarian, repressive regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world"
  2. 2. Example: The Filipino people get united to aim the victory to change President. Filipinos understand and approve of people power as their spontaneous collective action to take matters into their own hands to force the resignation or ouster of a president whom they judge to be grossly corrupt and abusive of his powers, a traitor to his high office and his country. "Tama na, sobrana, palitanna!" Through people power, Filipinos are making a moral judgment and meting out a political sentence. However, they also realize that removing a president through people power is an extraordinary act that should not be abused or perverted. The military and the police should not feel that they are the ultimate arbiter between the people and the regime as to the latter's moral legitimacy and political capacity to govern. 6) LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT - the Legislative Branch of government in the PhilippinesPurpose, functions and structure of CongressConstitutional mandates with respect to Congress 7) STATE commonly refers to either the present condition of a system or entity, or to a governed entity (such as a country) or sub-entity (such as an autonomous territory of a country). 8) PATRIARCHY (rule by fathers) is a social system in which the male is the primary authority figure central to social organization and the central roles of political leadership, moral authority, and control of property, and where fathers hold authority over women and children. It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege, and entails female subordination. Many patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male lineage. The female equivalent is matriarchy. 9) ARISTOCRACY (Greekaristokratía, from aristos "excellent," and kratos "power") is a form of government in which power is in the hands of a small, privileged, ruling class. The term derives from the Greekaristokratia, meaning "rule of the best. it was conceived as rule by the best qualified citizens and was often contrasted favorably with monarchy, the rule of a single individual. In later times, aristocracy was usually seen as rule by a privileged group, the aristocratic class, and was contrasted with democracy. 10) GOVERNMENT is the system by which a state or community is governed.agovernment more narrowly refers to the particular executive in control of a state at a given time. EXAMPLE: They are the one who manage the country and to handle the money of people to use it for improvements and other needs of the country. 11) SOVEREIGNTY is the quality of having independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory. It can be found in a power to rule and make laws that rests on a political fact for which no pure legal definition can be provided. In theoretical terms, the idea of "sovereignty", historically, has always necessitated a moral imperative on the entity exercising it.
  3. 3. EXAMPLE: domestic sovereignty – actual control over a state exercised by an authority organized within this state interdependence sovereignty – actual control of movement across state's borders, assuming the borders exist international legal sovereignty – formal recognition by other sovereign states, 12) MONARCHY of the Philippines (constitutionally referred to as the King/Queen of the Royal Family of the Philippine Islands (English) or Lakan/LakambiningKadatoanngMga Isla ngPilipinas (Filipino), and is also commonly known as the ePhilippine Monarchy) is a constitutional institution, and a symbolic and ceremonial office of the Philippines. The monarchy comprises a reigning King or Queen of the Philippines, their family, and the royal household organization which supports and facilitates the monarch in the exercise of his royal duties and prerogatives. The monarchy is currently represented by Queen Kadayao, and the members of the Royal Houses of Luzon, Visayas, Palawan, and Mindanao. 13) NATURALIZATION(or naturalisation) is the acquisition of citizenship and nationality by somebody who was not a citizen of that country (foreign). 14) CITIZENSHIP denotes the link between a person and a state or an association of states. It is normally synonymous with the term nationality although the latter term may also refer to ethnic connotations. Possession of citizenship is normally associated with the right to work and live in a country and to participate in political life. A person who does not have citizenship in any state is said to be stateless. EXAMPLE: Parents are citizens. If a person has one or both parents who are citizens of a given state, then the person may be a citizen of that state as well. 15) DICTATORSHIP is defined as an autocratic or authoritarianform of government in which a government is ruled by either an individual: a dictator, or an authoritarian party, as in an oligarchy. 16) POLITICAL RIGHTSare a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from unwarranted infringement by governments and private organizations, and ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the state without discrimination or repression,includenatural justice (procedural fairness) in law. EXAMPLE: such as the rights of the accused, including the right to a fair trial; due process; the right to seek redress or a legal remedy; and rights of participation in civil society and politics such as freedom of association, the right to assemble, the right to petition, the right of self-defense, and the right to vote. 17) SUFFRAGE is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies equally to initiatives and referenda.
  4. 4. EXAMPLE: Legal right to vote, but also the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. 18) HUMAN RIGHTS are "commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being." Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone). These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in local, regional, national, and international law. EXAMPLE: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. 19) SOCIAL RIGHTS are those rights arising from the social contract, in contrast to natural rights which arise from the natural law, but before the establishment of legal rights by positive law. EXAMPLE: James Madison advocated that a right such as trial by jury arose neither from nature nor from a constitution of government, but from reified implications of the social contract. 20) BILL OF ATTAINDER (also known as an act of attainder or writ of attainder) is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them without privilege of a judicial trial. As with attainder resulting from the normal judicial process, the effect of such a bill is to nullify the targeted person’s civil rights, most notably the right to own property (and thus pass it on to heirs), the right to a title of nobility, and, in at least the original usage, the right to life itself. 21) ELECTION is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.[1] Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century.[1] Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is also used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations. EXAMPLE: The people will choose who among the candidates who are trustworthy and have the well to serve the people. This is a privilege to choose who your best candidates. 22.) POLITICAL PARTY is a political organization that typically seeks to influence, or entirely control, government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office. EXAMPLE: Group people who share the same ideas about the way the country should be governed. They work together to introduce new laws, the alter old laws. 23.) RECALL - The right or procedure by which a public official, commonly a legislative or executive official, may be removed from office, before the end of his term of office, by a vote
  5. 5. of the people to be taken on the filing of a petition signed by a required number or percentage of qualified voters. 24.) REFERENDUM (also known as a plebiscite or a vote on a ballot question) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of direct democracy. EXAMPLE: If they want to have some amendments that are urgently wants to implement it right away is called referendum to choose who the new leaders to make a new policy. 25.) EXECUTIVE POWER Authority to enforceorders and to ensure they are carried out as intended. 26.) COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS (Filipino: KomisyonsaHalalan, abbreviated as COMELEC) is one of the three constitutional commissions of the Philippines. Its principal role is to enforce all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of elections, initiatives, referendums, and recall elections. 27.) INITIATIVE (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote (plebiscite). EXAMPLE: You are one of the candidates for the elections and you are not satisfied with the results on counting, you have to initiate one thing that would satisfy your curiousness. 28.) PARDON is the forgiveness of a crime and the cancellation of the relevant penalty; it is usually granted by a head of state (such as a monarch or president) or by acts of a parliament or a religious authority. Clemency means the forgiveness of a crime or the cancellation (in whole or in part) of the penalty associated with it. It is a general concept that encompasses several related procedures: pardoning, commutation, remission and reprieves. EXAMPLE: Persons who are wrongfully convicted or claim they have been wrongfully convicted. 29.) AMNESTY(from the Greekamnestia, is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of persons, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of persons who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted" It includes more than pardon, in as much as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense. The word has the same root as amnesia. Amnesty is more and more used to express 'freedom' and the time when prisoners can go free.
  6. 6. EXAMPLE: Raising the road speed limit from 55 to 70 is not 'amnesty', even though those who have always driven at 65 may now do so innocently; this is simply changing the law, which is the job of lawmakers. Genuine amnesty is where a particular group of lawbreakers are pardoned for past violations which would otherwise be subject to prosecution. 30.) REPRIEVE - In criminal proceedings, the act of postponing the enforcement of a sentence, particularly a death sentence, to allow an appeal. 31.) PLEBISCITE - a vote by which the people of an entire country or district express an opinion for or against a proposal especially on a choice of government or ruler. 32.) REPATRIATION is the process of returning a person back to one's place of origin or citizenship. This includes the process of returning refugees or soldiers to their place of origin following a war. The term may also refer to the process of converting a foreign currency into the currency of one's own country. The forced return of a person to a country where he faces persecution is more specifically known as refoulement. 33.) REMISSION, also known as remand, the proceedings by which a case is sent back to a lower court from which it was appealed, with instructions as to what further proceedings. 34.) EXPATRIATE (sometimes shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing. 35.) LOCAL GOVERNMENT is a form of public administration which in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or (where appropriate) federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government generally comprises the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions. PROJECT OF MISS: LEIZEL T. MALACAY BSBA-FIN. MGT. UNIVERSITY OF MINDANAO