Meaning of prncples


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Meaning of prncples

  2. 2. Meaning of Principle  Latin: ‘princeps”, which means the beginning or the end of all things  Early Greeks: fundamental laws Principle of Teaching refers to the psychological laws of learning, educational concepts, and the rules of practice upon which all educational procedures are formed.
  3. 3. Principles are the chief guides to make teaching and learning effective and productive. Key Idea
  4. 4. How Principles of Teaching are Derived  Principles of teaching are formulated from carefully observe facts or objectively measured results which are common to a series of similar experiences.  1. through the pooling of the opinions of experts  2. Through comparative studies of the teaching performance of capable or inferior teachers  T3. hrough experimental studies of teaching &
  5. 5. Function & Scope of Principles  Basis of intelligent and profitable practice  Serve not only to stimulate, direct, and guide, but also to interpret school practice  In order to better adopt the instruction to the children’s individual capabilities.
  6. 6. Types of Teaching Principles  1. Starting Principles: these involve the nature of the child, his psychological and physiological endowments which make education possible.  2. Guiding Principles: these refer to the procedure, methods of instruction, or agglomerations of techniques by which the student and the teacher may work together toward the accomplishment of the goals or objectives of education.  Ending Principles: these refer to the educational aims; goals, objectives, outcomes, purposes, or results of the whole educational scheme to which teaching and learning are directed.
  7. 7. Techniques and Principles  Both techniques and principles are necessary, but principles are more fundamental.  The teacher should be free to use techniques by the intelligent use of educational principles.
  8. 8. General Statements Concerning Principles  1. refer to general laws, doctrines, rules of actions, fundamental truths, general statement, educational concepts, accepted tenets, and the conditions that affect the teaching and learning processes.  2. considered sound when they are formulated from carefully observed facts or objectively measured results which are common to a series of similar experiences
  9. 9. General Statements Concerning Principles  3. serve important ways to guide the individual’s reflective thinking and his choice of activities.  4. principles or techniques effectively by themselves  5. criteria for evaluation of the teacher’s teaching and student’s learning  6. Guide techniques in teaching  7. Dynamic due to the discovery of new facts, with new educational philosophy, & with changes in social and moral values
  10. 10. General Statements Concerning Principles  8. principles are workable only under normal conditions.  9. Principles are of great value if they are basically true and applied into the learning situations.  10. Principles oftentimes overlap or even at times conflict with each other.
  12. 12. The Nature of the Child  If teaching is to be interpreted as a process of stimulating, directing and guiding the learner, the teacher must have an intensive knowledge and understanding of the physical, mental, social, and emotional potentialities of those educational activities he hopes to direct and guide.  Rousseau believed that the process of education should gravitate around the child. The nature of the child rather than the logical order of the subject-matter should determine the nature of teaching.
  13. 13. The Nature of the Child  Pestalozzi: importance of the nature of the child and propounded that in the educative process, the child must bethought of in relation to the subject- matter.  Dewey (John): education should center on the individual child.
  14. 14. The innate tendencies of the child become available as a drive to teaching or stimulus to learning. Inborn Tendencies – the Basis of Teaching & Learning
  15. 15. Innate Tendencies that are Useful in Education  Intelligence and its use in teaching and learning  Emotions and their uses in teaching and in learning  Imitation and its uses in teaching and in learning  Curiosity, interest and attention and their uses in teaching and learning.  Gregariousness and its uses in teaching and in learning  Play its uses in teaching and in learning  Collecting and hoarding and their uses in teaching and learning  Competition and rivalry and their uses in teaching and learning  Manipulation and its uses in teaching and learning
  16. 16. Personality Traits of Filipinos that Condition Teaching and Learning  1. Shyness or bashfulness- mental set or partial inhibition of social responses  2. Sensitiveness- sensation of such a nature as to be easily impressed, affected or hurt  3. Lack of perseverance – lack of persistence in an activity for a long time due to difficulty, disappointment or interference  4. Lack of resourcefulness- lack of ability to meet new situations  5. lack of industry-lack of steady attention or diligence in any pursuit
  17. 17. The Task of the Teacher in developing the Nature of the Child  To make teaching effective and learning productive, the teacher must know the nature of the child to be motivated, directed, guided and evaluated. To understand the child the teacher must: 1. Know him as a biological organisms with needs, abilities and goals 2. Know the social and the psychological environment 3. Know the cultural forces
  18. 18. Guiding Principles Concerning the Nature of the Learner  Learner is not passive but rather an active that needs to be stimulated  Make the nature of the learner the basis of the science teaching ad principles of learning  The growth and development of the child is orderly and unified  Keep in mind the mental growth and development do not follow a similar pattern for all learners.  Understand the distinctive growth patterns and developmental characteristics of each learner and their effect upon his behavior.
  19. 19. Guiding Principles Concerning the Nature of the Learner  There is a close relationship between mental and physical growth as measured on the basis of chronological age.  The learner as a member of the group.  Utilize the innate tendencies as drives or powers for schoolwork and as stimuli to learning  Utilize and direct the useful innate tendencies in such a way that they will produce activities that will lead to further activities
  20. 20. Guiding Principles Concerning the Nature of the Learner  Utilize the natural tendencies of the learner in developing new habits  Consider the nature of the students in the formulation of ultimate and immediate aims of education  Bear I mind that the nature of the learner rather that the nature of subject matter should determine the nature of teaching  Consider that students differ greatly within himself in his potentiality to learn  The learner is endowed with the tendency to create ; hence capable of creativeness in his expression