Development & Community Engagement Issues - Australian Pre-Aspiring UNESCO Global Geoparks
Two exciting and UNESCO Global Geopark projects embracing large areas have now emerged within two different Australian regions under the auspices of supporting local government agencies.
The Pre-Aspiring Etheridge UNESCO Global Geopark is embraced by the Shire of Etheridge in Far North Queensland located west of the international tourist destination of Cairns. Forming part of a geological heritage spanning 1.7 billion years, two relatively recent geological events now feature as iconic geotourism attractions in the region, the most significant of which is the Undara Lava Tube System, truly unique in the world based on consideration of age, preservation and lineal extent. This landform, as well as other landforms in the area proposed for the Global Geopark, have resulted in a diverse range of bioregions including a rich assemblage of wildlife. Committed input from the Ewamian Aboriginal community is sure to identify sites exhibiting rich indigenous culture.
The Pre-Aspiring Warrumbungle UNESCO Global Geopark, features as its core the ragged volcanic peaks and spires of the Warrumbungle National Park located within three local government areas in northwest New South Wales.
Both projects are engaging with the state National Parks and Wildlife Services and local townships and farming communities, subject to State Government approval and the resolution of a range of issues that are concerning local communities. The keynote address will focus on the genesis of these issues and what steps are being undertaken to maximise community engagement and support.
Development & Community Engagement Issues - Australian Pre-Aspiring UNESCO Global Geoparks
““Development & Community Engagement Issues -Development & Community Engagement Issues -
Australian Pre-Aspiring UNESCO Global Geoparks”Australian Pre-Aspiring UNESCO Global Geoparks”
Taiwan International Geopark Symposium, 2017Taiwan International Geopark Symposium, 2017
Angus M RobinsonAngus M Robinson
Chair, Geotourism Standing CommitteeChair, Geotourism Standing Committee
Geological Society of AustraliaGeological Society of Australia
Source: Savannah GuidesSource: Savannah Guides
Today’s AgendaToday’s Agenda
The Kanawinka Impasse and Progress ofThe Kanawinka Impasse and Progress of
Geotourism Development, 2008 to 2017Geotourism Development, 2008 to 2017
Australian National LandscapesAustralian National Landscapes
Pre-Aspiring Geopark Development in AustraliaPre-Aspiring Geopark Development in Australia
Etheridge ‘Defacto Geopark’ and WarrumbungleEtheridge ‘Defacto Geopark’ and Warrumbungle
Pre-Aspiring UNESCO Global GeoparkPre-Aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark
Community Issues and ConcernsCommunity Issues and Concerns
Sustainability and Community EngagmentSustainability and Community Engagment
Take AwaysTake Aways
Governance Model and Tourism in AustraliaGovernance Model and Tourism in Australia
1.1. Australian GovernmentAustralian Government – markets tourism globally– markets tourism globally
and is principal point of contact with UNESCO.and is principal point of contact with UNESCO.
2. Eight2. Eight State and Territory GovernmentsState and Territory Governments – responsible– responsible
for all land use management (including mineralfor all land use management (including mineral
resources) and planning, including tourismresources) and planning, including tourism
development and marketing.development and marketing.
33.. Local Government (Shire Councils)Local Government (Shire Councils) – controlled by– controlled by
State Governments – provide most communityState Governments – provide most community
services and tourism information.services and tourism information.
The Geopark ‘Problem’ in Australia – 2008The Geopark ‘Problem’ in Australia – 2008
1.1. The conceptThe concept of global geoparksof global geoparks not supported bynot supported by governmentgovernment
planning and tourism agencies; the conceptplanning and tourism agencies; the concept did not fit welldid not fit well
into the prevailing public land management arrangements,into the prevailing public land management arrangements,
underpinned by a two tier federation.underpinned by a two tier federation.
2.2. ConceptConcept not embraced or understood by the geologicalnot embraced or understood by the geological
professionsprofessions – no constituency support.– no constituency support.
3.3. Government Geological Surveys were not supportive ofGovernment Geological Surveys were not supportive of
geopark developmentgeopark development and geotourism generally, with concernand geotourism generally, with concern
aboutabout impact on access to lands for exploration and miningimpact on access to lands for exploration and mining..
4.4. Kanawinka UNESCO Global GeoparkKanawinka UNESCO Global Geopark withdrawn through lackwithdrawn through lack
of government support and approvalsof government support and approvals..
Kanawinka Global Geopark (27,000 sq km)
established in 2008, designation withdrawn in 2012
The Kanawinka Geopark - Rejected by Australian Government Agencies asThe Kanawinka Geopark - Rejected by Australian Government Agencies as
formal approvals not obtained prior to the nomination process.formal approvals not obtained prior to the nomination process.
Volcanics landscapes, with 60 key geositesVolcanics landscapes, with 60 key geosites
located within intensive farming areaslocated within intensive farming areas
Addressing The Geopark ‘Impasse’ in AustraliaAddressing The Geopark ‘Impasse’ in Australia
2011 to Present2011 to Present
1.1. Establishment by the GSA of theEstablishment by the GSA of the GeotourismGeotourism
Standing CommitteeStanding Committee,, defining geotourism.defining geotourism.
2.2. We gained the support ofWe gained the support of key geosciencekey geoscience
professional communitiesprofessional communities andand consulted widely withconsulted widely with
state government geological surveysstate government geological surveys..
3. We commencedWe commenced dialogue with various keydialogue with various key
government agencies.government agencies.
4.4. WeWe organised geotourism workshopsorganised geotourism workshops at variousat various
regional development and ecotourism conferences.regional development and ecotourism conferences.
5.5. WeWe championed Australian National Landscapeschampioned Australian National Landscapes..
Geotourism Definition adopted byGeotourism Definition adopted by
the Geological Society of Australiathe Geological Society of Australia
Recognising thatRecognising that interpretation outcomes in Australian nationalinterpretation outcomes in Australian national
parks had largely ignored geoheritage elementsparks had largely ignored geoheritage elements of nationalof national
heritage, the GSA set about addressing this deficiency with theheritage, the GSA set about addressing this deficiency with the
following definition.following definition.
‘Geotourism is tourism which focuses on an area'sGeotourism is tourism which focuses on an area's
geology and landscapegeology and landscape as the basis for providing visitoras the basis for providing visitor
engagement, learning and enjoyment’.engagement, learning and enjoyment’.
Environment, Natural & Cultural HeritageEnvironment, Natural & Cultural Heritage
comprises the following:comprises the following:
1.1. AAbioticbiotic – non-living aspects such as the climate & geology– non-living aspects such as the climate & geology
e.g. landscape and landforms:e.g. landscape and landforms: GEODIVERSITYGEODIVERSITY
2.2. BBioticiotic – the living parts eg. fauna (animals) and flora– the living parts eg. fauna (animals) and flora
3.3. CCulturalultural – past & present, non-living & built– past & present, non-living & built
PartsParts B+CB+C are well interpreted within tourism, especially throughare well interpreted within tourism, especially through
ecotourism and cultural tourism,ecotourism and cultural tourism, butbut AA has typically not been wellhas typically not been well
addressed in Australia.addressed in Australia.
Source: Dowling, 2013
Australia’s Major Scenic Areas –Australia’s Major Scenic Areas –
National LandscapesNational Landscapes
Australia’s National Landscapes ProgrammeAustralia’s National Landscapes Programme
Partnership between tourism and conservation that aims to:Partnership between tourism and conservation that aims to:
PromotePromote world class, high qualityworld class, high quality visitor experiencesvisitor experiences
Increase theIncrease the value of tourism to regional economiesvalue of tourism to regional economies
Enhance theEnhance the role of protected areasrole of protected areas in those economiesin those economies
Build support for protecting our natural and cultural assetsBuild support for protecting our natural and cultural assets
EngageEngage local communitieslocal communities
A long termA long term strategicstrategic approachapproach
‘‘To differentiateTo differentiate Australia’sAustralia’s
iconic natural and culturaliconic natural and cultural
destinationsdestinations from anything elsefrom anything else
available in the worldavailable in the world’
Key FactorsKey Factors
Geopark Development In Australia - 2017Geopark Development In Australia - 2017
Pre-Aspiring Geopark development needs to bePre-Aspiring Geopark development needs to be state/localstate/local
government agencygovernment agency initiatedinitiated and supportedand supported..
AA high level of community (including other land-user)high level of community (including other land-user)
engagementengagement is essential to meet UNESCO requirements.is essential to meet UNESCO requirements.
The key driver of geopark development must be focused on
regional developmentregional development – i.e.– i.e. jobs and growth andjobs and growth and demonstratedemonstrate
economic benefit to offset perceived political riskeconomic benefit to offset perceived political risk..
TheThe approval of Government Geological Surveysapproval of Government Geological Surveys for individualfor individual
projects is an absolute necessity.projects is an absolute necessity.
Australian Government approval for UNESCO nomination mayAustralian Government approval for UNESCO nomination may
well be achieved ifwell be achieved if state/territory government endorsementstate/territory government endorsement
and funding is clearly establishedand funding is clearly established..
Australia’s Pre-Aspiring UNESCO GlobalAustralia’s Pre-Aspiring UNESCO Global
Geopark Development Efforts in 2017Geopark Development Efforts in 2017
Geological Society Assumes Role of VettingGeological Society Assumes Role of Vetting
UNESCO Global Geopark ProposalsUNESCO Global Geopark Proposals
In May 2017, the Governing Council of the Geological Society ofIn May 2017, the Governing Council of the Geological Society of
Australia decided to assign the Geotourism StandingAustralia decided to assign the Geotourism Standing
Committee the role ofCommittee the role of assessing the international geologicalassessing the international geological
merit of the current (and any future) pre-aspiring UNESCOmerit of the current (and any future) pre-aspiring UNESCO
global geopark proposalsglobal geopark proposals, based on the advice provided by, based on the advice provided by
the appointed geoscience/mining heritage reference groups.the appointed geoscience/mining heritage reference groups.
It was also decided that that any assessments are to be endorsedIt was also decided that that any assessments are to be endorsed
by the Governing Council before they are made knownby the Governing Council before they are made known
Status of Pre-Aspiring UNESCO Global GeoparksStatus of Pre-Aspiring UNESCO Global Geoparks
Pre-Aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark proposals arePre-Aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark proposals are
those undergoing assessment to obtain community &those undergoing assessment to obtain community &
government supportgovernment support PRIOR to any applicationPRIOR to any application..
EtheridgeEtheridge Scenic Area is a ‘defacto geopark’ and isScenic Area is a ‘defacto geopark’ and is
nownow NOTNOT subject to any assessment process.subject to any assessment process.
WarrumbungleWarrumbungle Pre-Aspiring UNESCO Global GeoparkPre-Aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark
is currently subject to discussions with the Stateis currently subject to discussions with the State
Government as to the scope and size of the project;Government as to the scope and size of the project;
the application is not being lodged this year and isthe application is not being lodged this year and is
on HOLDon HOLD..
Etheridge ‘Defacto’ Geopark, QueenslandEtheridge ‘Defacto’ Geopark, Queensland
Comprising theComprising the entire Shire ofentire Shire of
EtheridgeEtheridge, and including areas, and including areas
of outstanding volcanic andof outstanding volcanic and
mining heritage - some 40,000mining heritage - some 40,000
sq km in area.sq km in area.
Embracing 1.7 billion years ofEmbracing 1.7 billion years of
geological history.geological history.
Only 950 people, mainly cattleOnly 950 people, mainly cattle
Etheridge Scenic Area – A ‘Defacto’ GeoparkEtheridge Scenic Area – A ‘Defacto’ Geopark
GeositesGeosites –– In abundance, with Undara as a global icon.In abundance, with Undara as a global icon.
Geo villagesGeo villages –– Four small townships, all with communityFour small townships, all with community
engaged geosites (including agate, sapphire and gold fields);engaged geosites (including agate, sapphire and gold fields);
key establishedkey established ecotourism resortsecotourism resorts of Undara & Cobboldof Undara & Cobbold
GeotrailsGeotrails –– The Savannah Way (Lava tubes, Gems and GorgesThe Savannah Way (Lava tubes, Gems and Gorges
Trail) with connections to nearby mining heritage locations.Trail) with connections to nearby mining heritage locations.
National ParksNational Parks –– Undara Volcanic Park & six other park areas.Undara Volcanic Park & six other park areas.
TerrEstrial Mineral/Fossil MuseumTerrEstrial Mineral/Fossil Museum– Most significant mineral– Most significant mineral
museum in Qldmuseum in Qld..
ManyMany heritage mining sitesheritage mining sites & small gold mining operations& small gold mining operations
underscores Etheridge’s status of one Australia’s mostunderscores Etheridge’s status of one Australia’s most
diversified mineralised areas.diversified mineralised areas.
State of New South Wales:State of New South Wales: GeoTreat supported ‘GeoJourney’ in theGeoTreat supported ‘GeoJourney’ in the
Australian Coastal Wilderness National Landscape.Australian Coastal Wilderness National Landscape.
State of Victoria:State of Victoria: Volcano Discovery Trail (Kanawinka related).Volcano Discovery Trail (Kanawinka related).
State of Western Australia:State of Western Australia: Various geotrail project proposals (e.g.Various geotrail project proposals (e.g.
Murchison, Coolgardie) and potential ‘geopark concept’ opportunitiesMurchison, Coolgardie) and potential ‘geopark concept’ opportunities
State of SouthAustralia:State of SouthAustralia: is not actively progressing any geopark potentialis not actively progressing any geopark potential
projects, but is very keen to support the development of geotrails andprojects, but is very keen to support the development of geotrails and
geotourism through exceptional geological heritage, especially throughgeotourism through exceptional geological heritage, especially through
Kangaroo Island and the Flinders Ranges National Landscapes.Kangaroo Island and the Flinders Ranges National Landscapes.
State of Tasmania:State of Tasmania: West Coast ‘Living Earth’ – CradleCoast GeoTrail.West Coast ‘Living Earth’ – CradleCoast GeoTrail.
Northern Territory:Northern Territory: Potential Geotrails (Red Centre, Savannah Way).Potential Geotrails (Red Centre, Savannah Way).
Tallaroo Hot Springs – Ewamian Aboriginal CorporationTallaroo Hot Springs – Ewamian Aboriginal Corporation
TerrEstrial Museum and Global Peace MonumentTerrEstrial Museum and Global Peace Monument
Assessment Process – Etheridge ProjectAssessment Process – Etheridge Project
1.1. Appointment of Steering Committee andAppointment of Steering Committee and GeoscienceGeoscience
& Mineral Heritage Reference Group& Mineral Heritage Reference Group..
2.2. Consultation with all key stakeholders (e.g.Consultation with all key stakeholders (e.g.
indigenous communitiesindigenous communities, national parks, tourism, national parks, tourism
resorts) undertaking individual self- assessments.resorts) undertaking individual self- assessments.
3.3. Consultation with key State Government agencies.Consultation with key State Government agencies.
4.4. Community consultationCommunity consultation – information bulletins,– information bulletins,
public meetings involving Shire Councillors.public meetings involving Shire Councillors.
A relatively short 12 month period allowed for theA relatively short 12 month period allowed for the
assessment and application completion process.assessment and application completion process.
Community Raised Issues – Etheridge ProjectCommunity Raised Issues – Etheridge Project
1.1. National Parks, indigenous groups, and residents of townshipsNational Parks, indigenous groups, and residents of townships
are very supportiveare very supportive, because they understand the economic, because they understand the economic
benefits of tourism.benefits of tourism.
2.2. However,However, agricultural, small scale mining groups & gemstoneagricultural, small scale mining groups & gemstone
fossickers not supportivefossickers not supportive with a vigorous programwith a vigorous program
implemented to dissuade Council from finalising theimplemented to dissuade Council from finalising the
applicationapplication because a Global Geopark upsets the status quo!because a Global Geopark upsets the status quo!
3.3. Issues raised were essentially fears of UNESCO control, moreIssues raised were essentially fears of UNESCO control, more
environmental regulation and increased levels of tourism.environmental regulation and increased levels of tourism.
4.4. The labels ofThe labels of UNESCO, GEOPARK, EcotourismUNESCO, GEOPARK, Ecotourism etc raised aetc raised a
range of concerns and fears.range of concerns and fears.
Basis of Landowner Resistance to the then Pre-Basis of Landowner Resistance to the then Pre-
Aspiring Etheridge Global GeoparkAspiring Etheridge Global Geopark
1. The proposed UNESCO affiliation promoted a1. The proposed UNESCO affiliation promoted a fear of
further regulation and restrictions curbing currentcurbing current
and future activities and potentially leading to aand future activities and potentially leading to a
World Heritage Listing.World Heritage Listing.
2.The large area of the application across the whole2.The large area of the application across the whole
Shire which included large land tracts which wereShire which included large land tracts which were
considered unlikely to be of interest for tourism.considered unlikely to be of interest for tourism.
33.The use of the term ‘geopark’.The use of the term ‘geopark’ which was interpretedwhich was interpreted
by many to imply some form of existing or potentialby many to imply some form of existing or potential
environmental protection (aligned to an expandedenvironmental protection (aligned to an expanded
national parks network).national parks network).
An Alternative Strategy for the EtheridgeAn Alternative Strategy for the Etheridge
‘Defacto Geopark’‘Defacto Geopark’
Council has now approved the development of anCouncil has now approved the development of an
alternative major geotourism initiative whichalternative major geotourism initiative which
captures the aspirations of a pre-existing tourismcaptures the aspirations of a pre-existing tourism
strategy,strategy, providingproviding additional natural and culturaladditional natural and cultural
heritage contentheritage content..
Through collaboration with other local governmentThrough collaboration with other local government
areas,areas, the establishment of strong geotrail linkagesthe establishment of strong geotrail linkages
with geotourism attractions outside of the Shire.with geotourism attractions outside of the Shire.
Engaging graziersEngaging graziers in geotourism pilot projects.in geotourism pilot projects.
Etheridge Scenic Area – The Rationale forEtheridge Scenic Area – The Rationale for
A ‘Defacto’ GeoparkA ‘Defacto’ Geopark
Council recognises that a ‘geotourism’ project should takeCouncil recognises that a ‘geotourism’ project should take
account ofaccount of ‘georegional’ characteristics based on geological‘georegional’ characteristics based on geological
and mining heritageand mining heritage and embraced principles that could serveand embraced principles that could serve
toto pre-qualify the area for a UNESCO application at somepre-qualify the area for a UNESCO application at some
future timefuture time, in other words meeting the designated, in other words meeting the designated
requirements of a ‘defacto’ geopark.requirements of a ‘defacto’ geopark.
By raising awareness of the importance of the area’s geologicalBy raising awareness of the importance of the area’s geological
heritage in history & society today, Council believes that thisheritage in history & society today, Council believes that this
project must provide local communities with a sense of prideproject must provide local communities with a sense of pride
in their region and strengthen their identification with thein their region and strengthen their identification with the
Pre-AspiringPre-Aspiring Warrumbungles UNESCO Global GeoparkWarrumbungles UNESCO Global Geopark
New South WalesNew South Wales
CurrentlyCurrently comprising the Shires of Warrumbungle,comprising the Shires of Warrumbungle,
Gilgandra and Coonamble, 27,000 sq kmGilgandra and Coonamble, 27,000 sq km
Pre -AspiringPre -Aspiring WarrumbunglesWarrumbungles
UNESCO Global GeoparkUNESCO Global Geopark
New South WalesNew South Wales
Outstanding MioceneOutstanding Miocene
Shield Volcano remnantShield Volcano remnant
landforms close to alandforms close to a
major coal developmentmajor coal development
area located in thearea located in the
Warrumbungles NationalWarrumbungles National
ParkPark (236 square km area)(236 square km area)
at theat the intersection of theintersection of the
three local governmentthree local government
Who will be the partners in the Pre-AspiringWho will be the partners in the Pre-Aspiring
Warrumbungle UNESCO Global Geopark?Warrumbungle UNESCO Global Geopark?
Regional Development Australia (RDA) Orana,Regional Development Australia (RDA) Orana,
thethe NSW National Parks and Wildlife ServiceNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service,,
Siding Spring ObservatorySiding Spring Observatory, and local, and local
indigenous communities.indigenous communities.
As the Councils progress their application,As the Councils progress their application,
they expect that other partners will choose tothey expect that other partners will choose to
join them, including local and regionaljoin them, including local and regional
tourism organisations.tourism organisations.
The Warrumbungle Geopark ‘Stumbling Block’The Warrumbungle Geopark ‘Stumbling Block’
There is concern within the State Government Geological SurveyThere is concern within the State Government Geological Survey
that the establishment of any designation with some form ofthat the establishment of any designation with some form of
nominal ‘park’ status would result in land use conflicts withnominal ‘park’ status would result in land use conflicts with
interests which are anti-mining in nature.interests which are anti-mining in nature. The Survey wouldThe Survey would
prefer that the geopark be contained only within the Nationalprefer that the geopark be contained only within the National
One solution being considered isOne solution being considered is acceptance of the Survey’sacceptance of the Survey’s
preferred option and developing geotrailspreferred option and developing geotrails to include otherto include other
key landscapes (Mt Kaputar, Coolah Topskey landscapes (Mt Kaputar, Coolah Tops) in the regional) in the regional
volcanic ‘geoprovince’.volcanic ‘geoprovince’.
Sustainability & Community EngagementSustainability & Community Engagement
Etheridge ‘Defacto Geopark’Etheridge ‘Defacto Geopark’
Emulating a program being undertaken in the United Kingdom, itEmulating a program being undertaken in the United Kingdom, it
is proposed that ais proposed that a ‘geovillage’ approach be adopted for the‘geovillage’ approach be adopted for the
Shire of EtheridgeShire of Etheridge; thus enabling individual townships to take; thus enabling individual townships to take
unique ownership of any activity e.g. community operatedunique ownership of any activity e.g. community operated
museum which has a natural or cultural heritagemuseum which has a natural or cultural heritage
Two of the small townships have strong associations with agatesTwo of the small townships have strong associations with agates
and gems, and another has strong mining industry heritage.and gems, and another has strong mining industry heritage.
The main township ,Georgetown, already has theThe main township ,Georgetown, already has the TerrEstrialTerrEstrial
Centre mineral and fossil museumCentre mineral and fossil museum which might benefit fromwhich might benefit from
even a higher level of community involvement and theeven a higher level of community involvement and the
recently establishedrecently established Peace MonumentPeace Monument has already made itshas already made its
UNESCO Global Geopark and SustainabilityUNESCO Global Geopark and Sustainability
‘‘Even if an area has outstanding, world-famous geologicalEven if an area has outstanding, world-famous geological
heritage of outstanding universal valueheritage of outstanding universal value it cannot be ait cannot be a
UNESCO Global Geopark unless the area also has a plan forUNESCO Global Geopark unless the area also has a plan for
the sustainable development of the people who live there.’the sustainable development of the people who live there.’
‘‘Unless a UNESCO Global Geopark has the support of local peopleUnless a UNESCO Global Geopark has the support of local people
it will not succeedit will not succeed. UNESCO Global Geopark status does not. UNESCO Global Geopark status does not
imply restrictions on any economic activity inside a UNESCOimply restrictions on any economic activity inside a UNESCO
Global Geopark where that activity complies with indigenous,Global Geopark where that activity complies with indigenous,
local, regional and/or national legislation.’local, regional and/or national legislation.’
Source: UNESCO Global Geopark Brochure
Take-Aways - Sustainable Community EngagementTake-Aways - Sustainable Community Engagement
More focusMore focus needs to be appliedneeds to be applied to communicatingto communicating
the ‘georegionalthe ‘georegional’ nature of geoparks; the’ nature of geoparks; the
application of the UNESCO brand is a ‘two edgedapplication of the UNESCO brand is a ‘two edged
More work is needed to overcomeMore work is needed to overcome perceived fearsperceived fears
about the detrimental impact of geoparksabout the detrimental impact of geoparks on otheron other
existing land users such as miners and farmers.existing land users such as miners and farmers.
Geopark proposalsGeopark proposals must be supported by Geologicalmust be supported by Geological
Survey communitiesSurvey communities..
More time must be allowedMore time must be allowed to gain communityto gain community
engagement/support to ensure geoparkengagement/support to ensure geopark
UNESCO/Global Geopark Network Can Help Too!UNESCO/Global Geopark Network Can Help Too!
The Etheridge ExperienceThe Etheridge Experience
1.1. By enabling pre-existing fossicking activitiesBy enabling pre-existing fossicking activities and ‘rock shop’and ‘rock shop’
salessales. If mining is permitted, why not the collection of. If mining is permitted, why not the collection of
2.2. By amending the guidelines to provide thatBy amending the guidelines to provide that UNESCO will notUNESCO will not
require governments to impose new environmentalrequire governments to impose new environmental
regulationsregulations should a global geopark nomination be approvedshould a global geopark nomination be approved..
3.3. By clarifying the need to define a specific geopark boundaryBy clarifying the need to define a specific geopark boundary
andand making it clear that landowners have the right to opt outmaking it clear that landowners have the right to opt out
of geopark activities if they so choose to do so.of geopark activities if they so choose to do so.
4.4. By simplifying the Code of Ethics to be aBy simplifying the Code of Ethics to be a less prescriptiveless prescriptive
Contact DetailsContact Details
Tel: + 61 418 488 340Tel: + 61 418 488 340
Information about Australian Geotourism and Geopark Development Activities:Information about Australian Geotourism and Geopark Development Activities: