Politics
Federalists v Democratic Republicans
•Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson played a
valuable role in the beginning of our nation.
•Both were visionaries and...
political

Federalist Beliefs
Leader
Appealed
to
Ideas of
Government

Domestic
Policy

Foreign
Policy

Alexander Hamilton
...
Foreign Policy

Neutral?
precedents

•President
Washington
faced several
Indian
problems.
•British were
supplying the
tribes with arms
and ammuniti...
War in the Old
Nor thwest Ter ritor y
Several tribes, led by Little
Turtle of the Miamis, scored
early victories (1790–91)...
War in the Old
Nor thwest Ter ritor y

Treaty of Greenville
• (1795) gave USA right to settle most
of Ohio
• First formal ...
Map 13 of 45
British forts on
U.S. soil. Still
haven’t
removed
troops and
supplying
Indians with
weapons
Disputed land
claims with
Spai...
Jay’s Treaty with England….. British made neutrality difficult:
England
maintained trading posts on US soil, sold firearms...
Jay’s Treaty
• British remove forts from
US soil
• British agreed but
required US to pay old
debts on pre-Revolution
accou...
Conflicts with Britain
•British made
neutrality difficult:
maintained trading
posts on US soil,
sold firearms to
Indians.
...
Conflicts with Britain
• British expected Americans to defend
French West Indies, so attacked US
merchant ships, seizing a...
Jay’s Treaty
• To avoid war, Washington sent Chief
Justice John Jay to London (1794).
• Jeffersonian’s concerned about Jay...
Jay’s Treaty
• British agree to pay some
damages, but required US
to pay old debts on preRevolution accounts.

John Jay is...
Jay’s Treaty
• Jay’s Treaty gave life to new
Democratic-Republican party, tarnished
Wash.’s popularity.
• Spain, fearing U...
Spain cut off our
farmers right to use the
Mississippi River and
deposit their crops in
New Orleans.

Picnkneys

Pinckney’...
French Rev

•Began in 1790’s, unfair taxation and inequality---worldwide crisis
•Overthrow King Louis 16th and Marie Anton...
French Rev

•Executions of King
Louis the 16th and Marie
Antoniette in 1793.
•Begins “Reign of
Terror” during French
Revol...
farewell

Whereas it appears that a state of
war exists between Austria,
Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain
and the United N...
farewell

neutrality

I have therefore thought fit by these
presents to declare the disposition of the
U.S. to observe the...
•Most Americans (Jefferson and Paine)
were upset with Washington’s Neutrality.
•Washington’s Neutrality decision was
based...
 Washington is convinced that Americans
must stay neutral and avoid foreign affairs
associated with all the British and f...
impressment

Impressment : an act of kidnapping a ship, its
contents, men and forcing them into your navy----the
British a...
farewell

•Washington warned of the
dangers of political parties and
permanent alliances with other
nations.
•Washington’s...
President Adams
1797-1801
The Campaign
Election of 1796
• Parties…
• Negative campaign ads (Adams is called “His
Rotundity”, Jefferson labeled a coward and athei...
War with France?

• French upset about the Jay Treaty
• French navy begins seizing American
ships bound for Britain
War with France?

•
•
•
•
•

Impact of Jay’s Treaty
Impressment – 300 vessels/yr
XYZ Affair - $250,000
Party Politics?
Qua...
XYZ Affair and undeclared war
• Pinckney, Marshall and Elbridge Gerry to France on
secret peace mission
• “X, Y, and Z”; t...
Alien and Sedition Acts
• Idea emerged out of anti-French sentiment
• In 1798, Federalists pushed through Congress four me...
Alien & Sedition Acts - 1798

•
•
•
•
•

National Security vs. Individual rights
Party influence?
4 Acts
Virginia & Kentuc...
Election of 1800
Issues: France, taxes, voter turn out, Religion
Role of NY?
Jefferson – Burr (Hamilton)
Economics

• Home vs market
–
–
–
–

Northeast – urban customers
90% on farm
Cottage industries – shoes, nails, banks, etc...
Women in the New Republic

•
•
•
•

NJ – voting
Marriage – choice / pregnant
Rebellion? Pen names?
Judith Sargent Murray “...
Natives in the New Republic
• Population, land
• The Seneca - 1799
• 1790’s
Race
• Progress – murder in NC, move &
property,
• Setbacks – naturalization, armed
forces, 1793 – fugitive slave...
Washington day two
Washington day two
Washington day two
Washington day two
Washington day two
Washington day two
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Washington day two

  1. 1. Politics Federalists v Democratic Republicans
  2. 2. •Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson played a valuable role in the beginning of our nation. •Both were visionaries and influenced the direction our country would go economically, politically and socially. •President Washington was stuck in the middle of these two men as they argued over our country’s beginnings.
  3. 3. political Federalist Beliefs Leader Appealed to Ideas of Government Domestic Policy Foreign Policy Alexander Hamilton John Adams Manufacturers, merchants, wealthy and educated…. Favored seaboard cities Strong government over states Loose Construction of Constitution •Implied powers Wealthy and educated involved Limit freedoms of speech & press Preferred govt. similar to a king Supported National Bank—BUS Supported excise tax National debt good for country National govt. assume state debts Tariffs should be high Opposed French Revolution Wanted war with French Favored the British (former Anti-Federalists) Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson James Madison Farmers and Planters common man Favored the South and West State’s rights over National Govt. Strict construction of Constitution •Expressed/Enumerated powers Common man but educated Bill of Rights is sacred Lesser government the better Against National Bank—BUS Against excise tax Against National debt States pay their own debts Tariffs should be low Supported French Revolution Opposed war with French Favored the French
  4. 4. Foreign Policy Neutral?
  5. 5. precedents •President Washington faced several Indian problems. •British were supplying the tribes with arms and ammunition to attack US settlers. •Washington sent General “Mad Anthony” Wayne to defeat the Indian tribes.
  6. 6. War in the Old Nor thwest Ter ritor y Several tribes, led by Little Turtle of the Miamis, scored early victories (1790–91) The Miamis were defeated at Fallen Timbers by General Mad Anthony Wayne (1794)
  7. 7. War in the Old Nor thwest Ter ritor y Treaty of Greenville • (1795) gave USA right to settle most of Ohio • First formal recognition of Indian sovereignty over land not ceded by treaty
  8. 8. Map 13 of 45
  9. 9. British forts on U.S. soil. Still haven’t removed troops and supplying Indians with weapons Disputed land claims with Spain..Cut off Mississippi River
  10. 10. Jay’s Treaty with England….. British made neutrality difficult: England maintained trading posts on US soil, sold firearms to Indians. •Collaborated with Indians to check US expansion to frontier. Jays
  11. 11. Jay’s Treaty • British remove forts from US soil • British agreed but required US to pay old debts on pre-Revolution accounts. John Jay is burnt in effigy because Americans believed he sold out to the British. • Allowed US to negotiate separate treaties with Indian tribes • Opened westward expansion for US settlers.
  12. 12. Conflicts with Britain •British made neutrality difficult: maintained trading posts on US soil, sold firearms to Indians. •Collaborated with Indians to check US expansion to frontier.
  13. 13. Conflicts with Britain • British expected Americans to defend French West Indies, so attacked US merchant ships, seizing about 300 – Impressed and imprisoned American sailors. • Jeffersonians called for war • Federalists resisted (financial system).
  14. 14. Jay’s Treaty • To avoid war, Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London (1794). • Jeffersonian’s concerned about Jay’s loyalty. • Hamilton feared war with England, secretly supplied British with US bargaining strategy.
  15. 15. Jay’s Treaty • British agree to pay some damages, but required US to pay old debts on preRevolution accounts. John Jay is burnt in effigy because Americans believed he sold out to the British. • Jeffersonian’s felt treaty was surrender to Britain, betrayal of South (who had debts). • Did not stop impressment.
  16. 16. Jay’s Treaty • Jay’s Treaty gave life to new Democratic-Republican party, tarnished Wash.’s popularity. • Spain, fearing US-British alliance, gives US free use of Mississippi, disputed territory north of FL.
  17. 17. Spain cut off our farmers right to use the Mississippi River and deposit their crops in New Orleans. Picnkneys Pinckney’s Treaty: Spain gave US the free use of the Mississippi River for 5 yrs. and the boundary was set at 31st parallel between Spanish Florida and US……
  18. 18. French Rev •Began in 1790’s, unfair taxation and inequality---worldwide crisis •Overthrow King Louis 16th and Marie Antoniete •similar to King George •Americans believed we should help the French----similar to ours
  19. 19. French Rev •Executions of King Louis the 16th and Marie Antoniette in 1793. •Begins “Reign of Terror” during French Revolution where 40,000 opponents of the new govt. were beheaded. •France goes to war against European kings •France requested US ships to block West Indies from the British •President Washington declared Neutrality and ordered Americans to avoid this war
  20. 20. farewell Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain and the United Netherlands, of the one part and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the U.S. require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers.
  21. 21. farewell neutrality I have therefore thought fit by these presents to declare the disposition of the U.S. to observe the conduct aforesaid towards those Powers respectfully; and to exhort and warn the citizens of the U.S. carefully to avoid all acts and proceedings whatsoever, which may in any manner tend to contravene such disposition….April 1793 •President Washington’s response to the French was to warn Americans to stay out these European conflicts and remain neutral or avoid. •Why?
  22. 22. •Most Americans (Jefferson and Paine) were upset with Washington’s Neutrality. •Washington’s Neutrality decision was based on the long term U.S. self interest. •Preserve and protect the infant nation Thomas Paine On Washington’s Neutrality “And as to you, sir, treacherous in private friendship (for so you have been to me, and that in the day of danger) and a hypocrite in public life, the world will be puzzled to decide, whether you are an apostate or an importer; whether you have abandoned good principles, or whether you ever had any.” Response to frenchrev
  23. 23.  Washington is convinced that Americans must stay neutral and avoid foreign affairs associated with all the British and foreign continents--- ”GOOD HISTORIAN” Washington displayed this in 1793 by the Proclamation of Neutrality and his Farewell Address in 1796. No entangling alliances…….US should avoid ……. military alliances with Europe…….continue to trade with Europe Neutrality = Isolation
  24. 24. impressment Impressment : an act of kidnapping a ship, its contents, men and forcing them into your navy----the British and French were doing this to us.
  25. 25. farewell •Washington warned of the dangers of political parties and permanent alliances with other nations. •Washington’s warning against “entangling alliances” became a principle of U.S. foreign policy. “Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation….Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course…..It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world……Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies”…..1796
  26. 26. President Adams 1797-1801
  27. 27. The Campaign
  28. 28. Election of 1796 • Parties… • Negative campaign ads (Adams is called “His Rotundity”, Jefferson labeled a coward and atheist) • Adams (a Federalist) receives 71 electoral votes, Jefferson (a Democratic-Republican) receives 68 • A problem: Pres and VP from different parties • sectionalism • 16 states (incl. Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee)
  29. 29. War with France? • French upset about the Jay Treaty • French navy begins seizing American ships bound for Britain
  30. 30. War with France? • • • • • Impact of Jay’s Treaty Impressment – 300 vessels/yr XYZ Affair - $250,000 Party Politics? Quasi war – 1796 – Victor Collot
  31. 31. XYZ Affair and undeclared war • Pinckney, Marshall and Elbridge Gerry to France on secret peace mission • “X, Y, and Z”; they demand payment (bribe) of $250,000 to let the Americans meet with top French foreign minister • War seems imminent; in fact, it’s an undeclared war for 2 years as Congress creates navy and authorizes American ships to seize French vessels; Washington called out of retirement to lead army • Official war is averted – Adams considers it one of greatest accomplishments, in part because he denies Hamilton power to become an American “Bonaparte” (army is disbanded since there’s no one to fight)
  32. 32. Alien and Sedition Acts • Idea emerged out of anti-French sentiment • In 1798, Federalists pushed through Congress four measures that became known as the Alien and Sedition Acts (& Adams signed into law) • Alien acts gave president power to deport or jail any alien considered undesirable • Sedition Act prohibited any expression of “false, scandalous, and malicious statements” against the government • Still law when Adams ran for re-election in 1800 • 12 had been charged and convicted under the law (incl. NJ man who made fun of Adams posterior – arrested and fined $150) • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: states’ rights??? Madison and Jefferson (leading Democratic-Republicans) secretly wrote these resolutions proposing nullification • Sedition Act terminated in 1801
  33. 33. Alien & Sedition Acts - 1798 • • • • • National Security vs. Individual rights Party influence? 4 Acts Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions Politics?
  34. 34. Election of 1800 Issues: France, taxes, voter turn out, Religion Role of NY? Jefferson – Burr (Hamilton)
  35. 35. Economics • Home vs market – – – – Northeast – urban customers 90% on farm Cottage industries – shoes, nails, banks, etc Slater’s mill!
  36. 36. Women in the New Republic • • • • NJ – voting Marriage – choice / pregnant Rebellion? Pen names? Judith Sargent Murray “on the Equality of the Sexes” • “Republican Motherhood”
  37. 37. Natives in the New Republic • Population, land • The Seneca - 1799
  38. 38. • 1790’s Race • Progress – murder in NC, move & property, • Setbacks – naturalization, armed forces, 1793 – fugitive slave law • Self help – Richard Allen & Absalom Jones • Revolt – Saint Dominique – Gabriel • Invention – Eli Whitney -1793

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