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Reforming american society 1830s


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Reforming american society 1830s

  1. 1. Reforming American Society The Perfectibility of Man
  2. 2. Second Great Awakening • Calvinism & Predestination = obsolete • New movement – “You can go to Heaven” Most Likely to Sell Religion Charles Grandison Finney Class of
  3. 3. African American Church • Slaves heard of this democratic god • In North camp meetings were open to all
  4. 4. Richard Allen Bethel African Church African Methodist Episcopal Church Developed into community center
  5. 5. Transcendentalism Transcendentalism Philosophical and literary movement I The rounded world is fair to see, was on: Focusas much affected by the faint hum of a Ninemosquito making mystery: and times folded on living • Emphasis in its invisible a Though baffled through my apartment Simple Life unimaginable tourseers cannot impart at Thesimple life, secret when I was sitting with earliest dawn, of its laboring heart, door and Nature Throb thine with could be by any trumpet windows open, as INature's throbbing celebrating truth breast, Personal imagination that ever sang of fame. It was Homer's Andfound in from east to west. all is clear nature & requiem; itself an Iliad and Odyssey in the air, “Perfectibility of Man” form within Spirit its own wrath and singing that lurks each wanderings. There personal of Beckons to spiritemotion and was Waldo Emerson its kin; Ralphsomething cosmical about it; a standing Self-kindled till forbidden, of the advertisement, every atom glows everlasting imagination And hints the future which it owes. vigor and fertility of the world. Henry David Thoreau – Walden – Civil Disobedience
  6. 6. Unitarianism • William Ellery Channing – “Christianity was the perfection of human nature” • Focus on reason – not emotion like revivalists –support form educated & wealthy
  7. 7. • George Ripley – Brook Farm Utopia! This is Hyde Park, MA
  8. 8. Shakers • Followers of Ann Lee • Shared goods • men & women equal?!? • Refused to fight • Do not marry • No kids…
  9. 9. Prisons & the Mentally Ill • Dorothea Dix • Focus on rehabilitation • MA & 9 southern states • Moved mentally ill out of prison
  10. 10. Education • Before: mostly private academies or private tutor • Shift – Education is needed for democracy. • Perfectibility of Man • Changing world needs smarter people
  11. 11. 1821 – Emma Willard opens Troy Female Seminary “They will be educating cows next” 1831 – Prudence Crandall – opened a school & soon allowed black girls 1834 - Crandall was forced to close down 1837 – Mary Lyon – Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (Holyoke College) 1837 – Oberlin College (Ohio) became coed Franklin High School Girls Basketball Team 1834-35
  12. 12. Horace Mann • What do you know? Ohio gave him a statue….. We gave him Shaw’s !
  13. 13. Abolition • 1820’s – Recolonization – good idea? over 100 antislavery societies Most Northern states had abolished slavery
  14. 14. William Lloyd Garrison do not wish to think, or speak, Newspaper (MA) • 1831 I– The Liberator – or write, with moderation. . . . I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- will excuse -immediate singleI inchnotAND I WILL emancipationI will not retreat a -no $$ for BE HEARD." slave owners
  15. 15. David Walker • Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World • Advised blacks to fight for their freedom
  16. 16. Frederick Douglass struggle, “If there is no there is no progress. Those who profess to favor freedom, and deprecate agitation, are men who want crops without plowing up the ground, they want rain without thunder and lightning.” • Run away slave – became famous abolitionist – worked with Garrison • North Star Newspaper
  17. 17. Nat Turner Perspective? • 1831 – Led slave revolt • Eclipse? • 60 whites killed • 200 blacks killed • Good or bad?
  18. 18. Women in Reform Early 1800’s – cult of domesticity
  19. 19. Abolition • Angelina Grimke An Appeal to the Christian Women of the South          “The doctrine of blind obedience and  1836 unqualified submission to any human  power, whether civil or ecclesiastical, is the  doctrine of despotism, and ought to have  no place among Republicans and  Christians.” 
  20. 20. Education • Sarah Grimke I ask no favors for my sex, I surrender not our  1838 – Letters on the claim to equality.  All I ask of our brethren is  that they will take their feet from off our necks,  Equality of the Sexes and and permit us to stand upright on the ground  which God has designed us to occupy.  the Condition of Women
  21. 21. New use of the Cult of Domesticity? Temperance Movement Effective?
  22. 22. Labor Movement • 1834 – Lowell Mills – 15% wage cut – 800 women went on strike “Union is power!”
  23. 23. Results? • Newspapers & local  churches  supported… The Mills Why?  What do you  think happened?