Chesapeake colonization


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Chesapeake colonization

  1. 1. Mr. LeightonMr. Leighton
  2. 2. VirginiaVirginia
  3. 3. The Charter of the Virginia Company:The Charter of the Virginia Company:  Guaranteed toGuaranteed to colonists the samecolonists the same rights as Englishmenrights as Englishmen as if they had stayedas if they had stayed in England.  This provision wasThis provision was incorporated intoincorporated into future colonists’future colonists’ documents.documents.  Colonists felt that, even in the Americas,Colonists felt that, even in the Americas, they had the rights of Englishmen!they had the rights of Englishmen! English ColonizationEnglish Colonization
  4. 4. Late 1606Late 1606  VA Co. sends out 3 shipsVA Co. sends out 3 ships Spring 1607Spring 1607  land at mouth ofland at mouth of Chesapeake Bay.Chesapeake Bay.  Attacked by Indians and move on.Attacked by Indians and move on. May 24, 1607May 24, 1607  about 100 colonists [allabout 100 colonists [all men] land at Jamestown, along banks ofmen] land at Jamestown, along banks of James RiverJames River  Easily defended, but swarming withEasily defended, but swarming with disease-causing mosquitoes.disease-causing mosquitoes. England Plants theEngland Plants the Jamestown “Seedling”Jamestown “Seedling”
  5. 5. JamestownJamestown Settlement, 1609Settlement, 1609
  6. 6. Chesapeake BayChesapeake Bay Geographic/environmental problems??Geographic/environmental problems??
  7. 7. Jamestown Fort &Jamestown Fort & SettlementSettlement MapMap
  8. 8. Jamestown Fort &Jamestown Fort & SettlementSettlement (Computer Generated)(Computer Generated)
  9. 9. JamestownJamestown HousingHousing
  10. 10. JamestownJamestown SettlementSettlement
  11. 11. Jamestown Chapel,Jamestown Chapel, 16111611
  12. 12. 1606-16071606-1607  40 people died on the40 people died on the voyage to the New to the New World. 16091609  another ship from England lostanother ship from England lost its leaders and supplies in a shipwreckits leaders and supplies in a shipwreck off Bermuda. Settlers died by the dozens!Settlers died by the dozens! ““Gentlemen” colonists would not workGentlemen” colonists would not work themselves.themselves.  Game in forests & fish in river uncaught.Game in forests & fish in river uncaught. Settlers wasted time looking for goldSettlers wasted time looking for gold instead of hunting or farming.instead of hunting or farming. The JamestownThe Jamestown NightmareNightmare
  13. 13. Captain John Smith:Captain John Smith: The Right Man for the Job??The Right Man for the Job?? There was no talk…but digThere was no talk…but dig goldgold, wash, wash goldgold, refine, refine goldgold, load, load goldgold……
  14. 14. PocahontasPocahontas A 1616A 1616 engravingengraving Pocahontas “saves”Pocahontas “saves” Captain John SmithCaptain John Smith
  15. 15. English Migration: 1610-English Migration: 1610- 16601660
  16. 16. River SettlementRiver Settlement PatternPattern Large plantations [>100 acres].Large plantations [>100 acres]. Widely spread apart [>5 miles].Widely spread apart [>5 miles]. Social/EconomicSocial/Economic PROBLEMS???PROBLEMS???
  17. 17. Jamestown ColonizationJamestown Colonization Pattern:Pattern: 1620-16601620-1660
  18. 18. High Mortality RatesHigh Mortality Rates The “Starving Time”:The “Starving Time”: 1607: 104 colonists1607: 104 colonists By spring, 1608: 38 survivedBy spring, 1608: 38 survived 1609: 300 more immigrants1609: 300 more immigrants By spring, 1610: 60 survivedBy spring, 1610: 60 survived 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants 1624 population: 1,2001624 population: 1,200 Adult life expectancy: 40 yearsAdult life expectancy: 40 years Death of children before age 5: 80%Death of children before age 5: 80%
  19. 19. ““WidowarchyWidowarchy ”” High mortalityHigh mortality among husbandsamong husbands and fathers leftand fathers left many womenmany women in the Chesapeakein the Chesapeake colonies withcolonies with unusual autonomyunusual autonomy and wealth!and wealth!
  20. 20. Chief PowhatanChief Powhatan Powhatan ConfederacyPowhatan Confederacy  Powhatan dominated aPowhatan dominated a few dozen small tribesfew dozen small tribes in the James Riverin the James River area when the Englisharea when the English arrived.arrived.  The English called allThe English called all Indians in the areaIndians in the area Powhatans.Powhatans.  Powhatan probably sawPowhatan probably saw the English as allies in his struggles tothe English as allies in his struggles to control other Indian tribes in the region.control other Indian tribes in the region.
  21. 21. PowhatanPowhatan ConfederacyConfederacy
  22. 22. PowhatanPowhatan Indian VillageIndian Village
  23. 23. Indian FoodsIndian Foods
  24. 24. Relations between Indians & settlersRelations between Indians & settlers grew worse.grew worse.  General mistrust because of differentGeneral mistrust because of different cultures & languages.cultures & languages.  English raided Indian food suppliesEnglish raided Indian food supplies during the starving times.during the starving times. 1610-16141610-1614  First Anglo-Powhatan WarFirst Anglo-Powhatan War  De La Warr had orders to make war onDe La Warr had orders to make war on the Indians.the Indians.  Raided villages, burned houses, tookRaided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned, burned cornfields. Culture Clash in theCulture Clash in the ChesapeakeChesapeake
  25. 25. Smith’sSmith’s PortrayalPortrayal ofof NativeNative AmericansAmericans
  26. 26. 1614-16221614-1622 peace between Powhatanspeace between Powhatans and the English.and the English.  1614 peace sealed by the marriage of1614 peace sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to Englishman John Rolfe.Pocahontas to Englishman John Rolfe. 1622-16441622-1644  periodic attacks betweenperiodic attacks between Indians and settlers.Indians and settlers.  16221622  Indians attacked the English,Indians attacked the English, killing 347 [including John Rolfe].killing 347 [including John Rolfe].  Virginia Co. called for a “perpetual war”Virginia Co. called for a “perpetual war” against the Native Americans.against the Native Americans.  Raids reduced native population and droveRaids reduced native population and drove them further westward.them further westward. Culture Clash in theCulture Clash in the ChesapeakeChesapeake
  27. 27. Powhatan UprisingPowhatan Uprising of 1622of 1622
  28. 28. 1644-16461644-1646  Second Anglo-PowhatanSecond Anglo-Powhatan WarWar  Last effort of natives to defeat English.Last effort of natives to defeat English.  Indians defeated again.Indians defeated again. Peace Treaty of 1646Peace Treaty of 1646  Removed the Powhatans from theirRemoved the Powhatans from their original land.original land.  Formally separated Indian and EnglishFormally separated Indian and English settlement areas!settlement areas! Culture Clash in theCulture Clash in the ChesapeakeChesapeake
  29. 29. John RolfeJohn Rolfe What finally made the colony prosperous??What finally made the colony prosperous??
  30. 30. Tobacco PlantTobacco Plant Virginia’sVirginia’s goldgold andand silversilver.. -- John Rolfe, 1612-- John Rolfe, 1612
  31. 31. Early ColonialEarly Colonial TobaccoTobacco16181618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco. 16221622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco. 16271627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco. 16291629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.
  32. 32. Tobacco Prices: 1618-Tobacco Prices: 1618- 17101710 Why did tobacco prices decline so precipitously?Why did tobacco prices decline so precipitously?
  33. 33. IndentureIndenture dd ServitudeServitude HeadrightHeadright SystemSystem
  34. 34. Indentured ServitudeIndentured Servitude Headright System:Headright System:  Each Virginian got 50 acres forEach Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage theyeach person whose passage they paid.paid. Indenture Contract:Indenture Contract:  5-7 years.5-7 years.  Promised “freedom dues” [land, £]Promised “freedom dues” [land, £]  Forbidden to marry.Forbidden to marry.  1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!indentured contracts!
  35. 35. RichardRichard Frethorne’sFrethorne’s 1623 Letter1623 LetterIn-Class ActivityIn-Class Activity::  Identify the FACTS presented in yourIdentify the FACTS presented in your section of the document.section of the document.  Be skepticalBe skepticalIs there any obviousIs there any obvious bias/POV?bias/POV?  What conclusions can you draw from theWhat conclusions can you draw from the facts presented?facts presented? • Anticipate a problem/future issue?Anticipate a problem/future issue? • See any historical relationshipsSee any historical relationships between past events or future ones?between past events or future ones?
  36. 36. Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’sTobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy:economy:  Vital role in putting VA on a firmVital role in putting VA on a firm economic footing.economic footing.  Ruinous to soil when continuouslyRuinous to soil when continuously planted.planted.  Chained VA’s economy to a single crop.Chained VA’s economy to a single crop. Tobacco promoted the use of theTobacco promoted the use of the plantation system.plantation system.  Need for cheap, abundant labor.Need for cheap, abundant labor. Virginia: “Child ofVirginia: “Child of Tobacco”Tobacco”
  37. 37. Why wasWhy was 16191619 a pivotal yeara pivotal year for thefor the ChesapeakeChesapeake settlement?settlement?
  38. 38. VirginiaVirginia House of BurgessesHouse of Burgesses
  39. 39. The House of Burgesses establishedThe House of Burgesses established inin 16191619 & began to assume the role of& began to assume the role of the House of Commons in Englandthe House of Commons in England  Control over finances, militia, etc.Control over finances, militia, etc. By the end of the 17By the end of the 17cc , H of B was able, H of B was able to initiate initiate legislation. A Council appointed by royal governorA Council appointed by royal governor  Mainly leading planters.Mainly leading planters.  Functions like House of Lords.Functions like House of Lords.  High death rates ensured rapidHigh death rates ensured rapid turnover of members.turnover of members. Growing Political PowerGrowing Political Power
  40. 40. James I grew hostile to VirginiaJames I grew hostile to Virginia  He hated tobacco.He hated tobacco.  He distrusted the House ofHe distrusted the House of Burgesses which he called aBurgesses which he called a seminaryseminary of seditionof sedition.. 16241624  he revoked the charter ofhe revoked the charter of the bankrupt VA Company.the bankrupt VA Company.  Thus, VA became a royal colony,Thus, VA became a royal colony, under the king’s direct control!under the king’s direct control! Virginia Becomes aVirginia Becomes a Royal ColonyRoyal Colony
  41. 41. English TobaccoEnglish Tobacco LabelLabel First Africans arrived in Jamestown inFirst Africans arrived in Jamestown in 16191619..  Their status was not clearTheir status was not clear  perhapsperhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants.slaves, perhaps indentured servants.  Slavery not that important until the end ofSlavery not that important until the end of the 17the 17cc ..
  42. 42. 1717cc PopulationPopulation in the Chesapeakein the Chesapeake 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 1607 1630 1650 1670 1690 White Black WHY this large increase in black popul.??WHY this large increase in black popul.??
  43. 43. The Atlantic SlaveThe Atlantic Slave TradeTrade
  44. 44. The “Middle Passage”The “Middle Passage”
  45. 45. As the number of slaves increased,As the number of slaves increased, white colonists reacted to put downwhite colonists reacted to put down perceived racial threat.perceived racial threat.  Slavery transformed from economicSlavery transformed from economic to economic and racial economic and racial institution.  Early 1600sEarly 1600s  differences betweendifferences between slave and servant were unclear.slave and servant were unclear. By the mid-1680s, black slavesBy the mid-1680s, black slaves outnumbered white indenturedoutnumbered white indentured servants.servants. Colonial SlaveryColonial Slavery
  46. 46. Beginning in 1662Beginning in 1662  “Slave Codes”“Slave Codes”  Made blacks [and their children]Made blacks [and their children] property, orproperty, or chattelchattel for life of whitefor life of white masters.masters.  In some colonies, it was a crime to teachIn some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write.a slave to read or write.  Conversion toConversion to Christianity didChristianity did not qualify thenot qualify the slave forslave for freedom.freedom. Colonial SlaveryColonial Slavery
  47. 47. Late 1600sLate 1600s  large numbers oflarge numbers of young, poor, discontented men in theyoung, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area.Chesapeake area.  Little access to land or women forLittle access to land or women for marriage.marriage. 16701670  The Virginia AssemblyThe Virginia Assembly disenfranchised most landless men!disenfranchised most landless men! Frustrated FreemenFrustrated Freemen
  48. 48. Led 1,000 Virginians inLed 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion againsta rebellion against Governor BerkeleyGovernor Berkeley  Rebels resentedRebels resented Berkeley’s closeBerkeley’s close relations with Indians.relations with Indians.  Berkeley monopolizedBerkeley monopolized the fur trade withthe fur trade with the Indians in thethe Indians in the area.area.  Berkley refused toBerkley refused to retaliate for Indianretaliate for Indian attacks on frontierattacks on frontier settlements.settlements. Nathaniel Bacon’sNathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676Rebellion: 1676 NathanielNathaniel BaconBacon GovernorGovernor WilliamWilliam BerkeleyBerkeley
  49. 49. Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676
  50. 50. Rebels attacked Indians, whetherRebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly or not to whites.they were friendly or not to whites. Governor Berkeley driven fromGovernor Berkeley driven from Jamestown.Jamestown. They burned the capital.They burned the capital.  Rebels went on a rampage ofRebels went on a rampage of plundering.plundering. Bacon suddenly died of fever.Bacon suddenly died of fever. Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellionBerkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels.and hanged 20 rebels. Bacon’s RebellionBacon’s Rebellion
  51. 51. Governor Berkeley’sGovernor Berkeley’s “Fault Line”“Fault Line”
  52. 52. It exposed resentments betweenIt exposed resentments between inland frontiersmen and landlessinland frontiersmen and landless former servants against gentry onformer servants against gentry on coastal plantations.coastal plantations.  Socio-economic classSocio-economic class differences/clashes between rural anddifferences/clashes between rural and urban communities would continueurban communities would continue throughout American history.throughout American history. Upper class planters searched forUpper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebellaborers less likely to rebel  BLACKBLACK SLAVES!!SLAVES!! Results of Bacon’sResults of Bacon’s RebellionRebellion
  53. 53. MarylandMaryland
  54. 54. A royal charter wasA royal charter was granted to Georgegranted to George Calvert, LordCalvert, Lord Baltimore,Baltimore, in 1632. AA proprietaryproprietary colonycolony created in 1634.created in 1634. A healthier locationA healthier location than Jamestown.than Jamestown.  Tobacco would be theTobacco would be the main crop.main crop. His plan was to govern as an absenteeHis plan was to govern as an absentee proprietor in a feudal relationship.proprietor in a feudal relationship.  Huge tracts of land granted to his CatholicHuge tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives.relatives. The Settlement ofThe Settlement of MarylandMaryland
  55. 55. Colonization ofColonization of MarylandMaryland
  56. 56. St Mary’s CitySt Mary’s City (1634)(1634)
  57. 57. Currency in EarlyCurrency in Early MarylandMaryland
  58. 58. Colonists only willing to come to MD if theyColonists only willing to come to MD if they received land.received land. Colonists who did come received modestColonists who did come received modest farms dispersed around the Chesapeakefarms dispersed around the Chesapeake area.area.  Catholic land barons surrounded by mostlyCatholic land barons surrounded by mostly Protestant small farmers.Protestant small farmers.  Conflict between barons and farmers led toConflict between barons and farmers led to Baltimore losing proprietary rights at theBaltimore losing proprietary rights at the end of the 17end of the 17cc .. In the late 1600s, black slaves began to beIn the late 1600s, black slaves began to be imported.imported. A Haven for CatholicsA Haven for Catholics
  59. 59. Baltimore permitted high degree ofBaltimore permitted high degree of freedom of worship in order to preventfreedom of worship in order to prevent repeat of persecution of Catholics byrepeat of persecution of Catholics by Protestants.Protestants.  High number of Protestants threatenedHigh number of Protestants threatened because of overwhelming rights given tobecause of overwhelming rights given to Catholics.Catholics. Toleration Act of 1649Toleration Act of 1649  Supported by the Catholics in MD.Supported by the Catholics in MD.  Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS.Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS.  Decreed death to those who denied theDecreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.].divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.].  In one way, it was less tolerant than beforeIn one way, it was less tolerant than before the law was passed!!the law was passed!! A Haven for CatholicsA Haven for Catholics
  60. 60. MD Toleration Act,MD Toleration Act, 16491649
  61. 61. The Toleration Act ofThe Toleration Act of 16491649...whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth...whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth upon any occasion of offence otherwise in aupon any occasion of offence otherwise in a reproachfull manner or way declare call or denominatereproachfull manner or way declare call or denominate any person or persons whatsoever inhabiting, residing,any person or persons whatsoever inhabiting, residing, traficking, trading or comercing within this province ortraficking, trading or comercing within this province or within any ports, harbours, creeks or havens to thewithin any ports, harbours, creeks or havens to the same belonging, an Heretick, Schismatick, Idolator,same belonging, an Heretick, Schismatick, Idolator, Puritan, Independent Presbyterian, Antenomian,Puritan, Independent Presbyterian, Antenomian, Barrowist, Roundhead, Separatist, Popish Priest,Barrowist, Roundhead, Separatist, Popish Priest, Jesuit, Jesuited Papist, Lutheran, Calvenist,Jesuit, Jesuited Papist, Lutheran, Calvenist, Anabaptist, Brownist or any other name or term in aAnabaptist, Brownist or any other name or term in a reproachful manner relating to matters of Religionreproachful manner relating to matters of Religion shall for every such offence foreit and lose the sum ofshall for every such offence foreit and lose the sum of ten shillings Sterling or the value thereof to be leviedten shillings Sterling or the value thereof to be levied on the goods and chattels of every such offender andon the goods and chattels of every such offender and offenders...offenders... and if they could not pay, they were to be "publicklyand if they could not pay, they were to be "publickly whipt and imprisoned without bail" until "he, she, orwhipt and imprisoned without bail" until "he, she, or they shall satisfy the party so offended or grieved bythey shall satisfy the party so offended or grieved by such reproachful language...."such reproachful language...."