Goals and objectives are derived from standards.Goals specify what must be accomplished and whomust accomplish these tasks in order to meet theidentified standard.Objectives convey to your learners the specificbehaviors to be attained, the conditions underwhich the behavior must be demonstrated, and theproficiency level at which the behaviors are to beperformed.
A behavioral objective requires that the learner’sbehavior is both observable and measurable.There are three steps or three components in everyobjective:1. Observable learning outcome (i.e., behavior to be attained, skill, target performance)2. Conditions3. Criterion level (i.e., performance level, proficiency level)
Learning objectives must be direct, concrete and observable.Wording is important!One suggestion is to choose behavior from a list of actionverbs.Keep in mind that there is a distinction between learningoutcome and learning activities.What do you expect your students to know and be able to doat the end of the lesson?Example:The learner will add two-digit numbers.
Identify the learning conditions under which thelearning will take place.If the learning outcome can be achieved onlythrough particular materials, equipment, tools, orother resources, state these conditions.Are there any conditions under which the learningmust take place?Example:The learner will add two-digit numbers using a calculator.
State the level of performance required to meet the objective. This isthe criterion level.It is the degree of performance desired or the level of proficiency thatwill satisfy you that the objective has been met.Criterion levels are set to establish a benchmark for testing whetheran objective has been met.What is the minimum level of performance to be obtained foracademic success?Example:The learner will add two-digit numbers using a calculator with 70% accuracy. orUsing a calculator, the learner will add two-digit numbers with 70% proficiency.
The learner will be able to add two-digit numbers using a calculator with 70% proficiency. Stem Learning Outcome Condition CriterionPerformance objectives tell what the learner will be able to do at the conclusionof the lesson. These objectives include a stem and three parts: learningoutcome (i.e., behavior to be attained, skill, target performance) condition andcriterion (i.e., proficiency level, performance level).
• Cognitive – Intellectual abilities and skills• Affective – attitudes, beliefs and values• Psychomotor – physical movements andperformance
Bloom, Englehart, Hill, Furst and Krathwohl (1984)devised a method for categorizing objectives accordingto cognition.Higher-level objectives are more authentic than lower-level objectives. Bloom’s Taxonomy
Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia Affective Behavior(1999) provides five levels of Levelsaffective behavior.This levels range from the • Characterizationlowest being less authentic to • Organizationthe highest being most • Valuingauthentic. • Responding • Receiving
Harrow (1972) and moore Psychomotor(1992) delineates five levels Behavior Levelsof psychomotor behavior.This levels range from the •Naturalizationlowest being less authentic to •Articulationthe highest being most •Precisionauthentic. •Manipulation •Imitation
Standards tell what students should know and be able to do.Teachers• Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium(INTASC)• Louisiana Components of Effective Teaching (LCET)Students• Louisiana Content Standards, Benchmarks and Grade LevelExpectations (including Early Childhood)• Louisiana K-12 Educational Technology Standards• COE Conceptual FrameworkThere are national content standards for each subject area.Most of these were developed by the subject areaorganization.
Interstate New Teacher Assessment and SupportConsortium (INTASC)Complete document:http://www.ccsso.org/content/pdfs/corestrd.pdf
Louisiana Components of Effective Teaching (LCET)http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/5564.pdfDomains:PlanningManagementInstructionProfessional DevelopmentSchool Improvement
Louisiana Content Standards and BenchmarksMaking Connectionshttp://mconn.doe.state.la.usLouisiana Eaglehttp://www.louisianaeagle.orgComprehensive Curriculumhttp://www.doe.state.la.us/lde/saa/2108.html
Louisiana K-12 Educational Technology Standardshttp://www.doe.state.la.us/lde/lcet/324.html1. Creativity and Innovation2. Communication and Collaboration3. Research and Information Fluency4. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making5. Technology Operations and Concepts
There are national content standards for eachsubject area. Most of these were developed by thesubject area organization.
There are national content standards for each subject area. Most of these were developed by thesubject area organization.Area: Early ChildhoodNational Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)Area: Elementary EducationAssociation for Childhood Education International (ACEI)Area: English Language Arts/ReadingNational Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)International Reading Association (IRA)Area: Health EducationAmerican Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD)American Association for Health Education (AAHE)Area: Mathematics EducationNational Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)Area: Music EducationNational Association for Music Education (MENC)Area: Physical EducationAmerican Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD)/National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)Area: Science EducationNational Science Teachers Association (NSTA)Area: Social Studies EducationNational Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)Area: Foreign Languages American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
1. Gaining attention (Anticipatory Set) – Begin each lesson with an instructional event to engage student interest, curiosity and attention.2. Informing the learner of the objective – Inform the learner of the behavioral outcome that is expected. This sets the purpose and expectations.3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning – Some previously acquired facts, concepts and skills are relevant to this new task.4. Presenting the stimulus material: 1. Authenticity 2. Selectivity 3. Variety5. Eliciting the desired behavior (Check for understanding, Guided Practice)– Provide the learners with an opportunity to display knowledge and understanding.6. Providing feedback7. Assessing the behavior
Understand and value learning goals (Page 228-229) Understand the learning process (Page 229-232) Be actively involved in the learning process (Page 232-234) Having learning goals relate to their own interests and choices (Page 234-246) Receive instruction matched to their learning styles and strengths (Page 246-254; Learning Styles, Gardner, Bloom) See learning modeled by adults as an exciting and rewarding process (Page 254) Experience success (Page 254-259) Have time to integrate learning (Page 259) Receive realistic and immediate feedback (Page 259-264) Be involved in self-evaluating their learning and effort (Page 264-267) Receive appropriate rewards for performance gains (Page 267) Experience a supportive, safe, well-organized learning environment (Page 268)
Visual - If you use the visual style, you prefer using images, pictures, colors, and maps to organize information and communicate with others. Aural - If you use the aural style, you like to work with sound and music. You have a good sense of pitch and rhythm. Verbal - The verbal style involves both the written and spoken word. Physical - If the physical style is more like you, it’s likely that you use your body and sense of touch to learn about the world around you. Logical - If you use the logical style, you like using your brain for logical and mathematical reasoning. Social - If you have a strong social style, you communicate well with people, both verbally and non-verbally. Solitary - If you have a solitary style, you are more private, introspective and independent.
This area has to do with words, spoken orwritten. People with high verbal-linguisticintelligence display a facility with words andlanguages. They are typically good at reading,writing, telling stories and memorizing wordsalong with dates.
This area has to do with logic, abstractions,reasoning, and numbers. Individuals with thisintelligence place emphasis on traditionalmathematical ability and more reasoningcapabilities, abstract patterns of recognition,scientific thinking and investigation, and theability to perform complex calculations.
This area has to do with rhythm, music, andhearing. Those who have a high level ofmusical-rhythmic intelligence display greatersensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, andmusic. In addition, they will often use songsor rhythms to learn and memorizeinformation, and may work best with musicplaying in the background.
This area has to do with vision and spatialjudgment. People with strong visual-spatialintelligence are typically very good atvisualizing and mentally manipulating objects.Those with strong spatial intelligence areoften proficient at solving puzzles. They havea strong visual memory and are oftenartistically inclined.
This area has to do with bodily movement andpsychology. They often learn best by doingsomething physically, rather than reading orhearing about it.
This area has to do with interaction with others. Intheory, people who have a high interpersonalintelligence tend to be extroverts, characterized bytheir sensitivity to others moods, feelings,temperaments and motivations, and their ability tocooperate in order to work as part of a group.They communicate effectively and empathize easilywith others, and may be either leaders or followers.
This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. Those who are strongest in thisintelligence are typically introverts and prefer to workalone. They are usually highly self-aware and capableof understanding their own emotions, goals andmotivations.They learn best when allowed to concentrate on thesubject by themselves. There is often a high level ofperfectionism associated with this intelligence.
This area has to do with nature, nurturing and relatinginformation to ones natural surroundings. This type ofintelligence was not part of Gardners original theory of MultipleIntelligences, but was added to the theory in 1997.Those with it are said to have greater sensitivity to nature andtheir place within it, the ability to nurture and grow things, andgreater ease in caring for, taming and interacting with animals.They must connect a new experience with prior knowledge totruly learn something new.
Jones, V. and Jones, L. (2010). Comprehensive Classroom Management (Ninth Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (ISBN:9780205625482).